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A. Fundamentals -
B. Theory - I. Units - II. Interrelation between vapor concentration and partial pressure of vapor in multicomponent mixtures - III. Equilibrium of boiling multicomponent mixtures - IV. Partial condensation of mixtures - V. Heat of evaporation of mixtures -
C. Separation of liquids by simple distillation; the simple pot still - I. Data for computation - II. Design of kettle stills - III. Separation by distillation and partial condensation -
D. The rectifying column - I. Effect of rectifying plates - II. Hookup of reflux condensers - III. Layout of a batch-type distillation unit - IV. Computation of the number of plates for a batch type distillation unit - V. Minimum reflux ratio and actual reflux ratio for batch-type rectifiers - VI. The rectification mechanism on interchanger plates - VII. Heat consumption and reboil heat for a pot still and rectifying column -
E. Continuous distilling equipment having rectifying and stripping sections - I. Determination of the number of plates - II. Minimum reflux ratio of a continuous rectifying unit for separating binary mixtures - III. The actual reflux ratio of a continuous rectifying unit - IV. Mass-concentration interrelations - V. Heat requirements - VI. Reduction of heat requirements - VII. Layout of continuous rectifying equipment for handling binary mixtures - VII I. Special cases - IX. Location of the feed point - X. Heat losses - XI. Variation of the molar heat of evaporation in the interchanger column -
F. Treatment of rectification using enthalpy-concentration diagrams - I. The rectifying column - II. The continuous rectifying unit -
G. Separating mixtures containing more than two components - I. Eliminating small amounts of certain components in a mixture - II. Separation of ideal ternary mixtures - III. Number of rectifying columns required to separate multicomponent mixtures and their hookup - IV. Rectifying ideal mixtures of more than three components -
H. Determining the dimensions of rectifying columns with interchanger plates; plate efficiency - I. Cap-type and tunnel-type plates - II. Sieve plates - III. Comparison of cap-type and sieve-type plates - IV. Influence of the direction of flow of the phases on the rectification effect of a plate; liquid mixing, vapor mixing, counterflow arid parallel flow - V. Rectifying plate design -
J. Rectification in packed columns - I. General remarks - II. Determining the column height by means of the corresponding theoretical plate number; different types of packings - III. Determination of column height from the heat transmission coefficient between phases; liquid distribution within the column - IV. Pressure loss in packed columns -
K. Details - I. Heat exchangers - II. Control equipment -
L. Molecular distillation -
M. Appendix - I. Equilibrium data for binary mixtures - II. Heats of evaporation of various materials at • 760 mm Hg - III. Specific heats and specific weights of liquids - IV. Molecular weights - V. Conversion tables -
N. Review by the translator of progress made since the original publication - Index -
equipment have been presented as a whole in the literature, in
accordance with their increasing importance, the individual
branches of equipment design have not as yet been treated
with the, thoroughness they deserve. One reason for this has
been that because of certain necessities in the manufacturing of
many commodities, industrial practice was well ahead of theory.
In Germany this condition was somewhat alleviated more
than a decade ago, when chemical engineering was adopted
as a branch of advanced technical study and much research
work was devoted to distillation and rectification. The significance
of this can be readily appreciated since the liquid
fuels which are so essential to the life and economy of a nation
are always obtained by distilling and rectifying. The same
situation exists in the case of other products, and there can be
no doubt that recent developments will make distilling and
rectifying apparatus even more essential.
The purpose of this book is to close one of the gaps in the
literature and to present results of research together with engineering
data. This book is meant to aid the student as well
as the practicing engineer. The fundamentals are presented
in a strictly scientific way, and design and other factors, important
to an engineer, have also been considered.
To prevent excessive bulk, it was not thought expedient to
describe the specific industries such as alcohol or petroleum
distillation, gas liquefaction, solvent recovery, Buna processing,
etc. Instead, principles and generally suitable designs have
been stressed and numerical and descriptive examples referred
to specialized industries. Certain processes have been demonstrated
for the case of binary mixtures only, although they
may involve liquid mixtures of more than two individual substances.
The fundamentals thus gained will also enable an
engineer to handle special problems referring to the separation
of liquid mixtures.
In technical thermodynamics, it has become the custom to
use (in the treatment of binary mixtures by graphical methods)
the entha py-concentration diagram method exclusively. In
distilling and rectifying, methods which rest on the assumption
of constancy of molar heat of evaporation have been adopted.
Each of these methods has its advantages and drawbacks.
Therefore both have been considered although the second
method has been used more extensively because of its importance
in dealing with mixtures of several components.
As far as possible, graphical methods have been used in
preference to methods requiring involved calculations. At
the same time, an attempt has been made to give, along with
the fundamental theoretical data, information useful in actual
engineering work. Therefore, tables and curves have been