Distillation And Rectification

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Overview

Contents -
A. Fundamentals -
B. Theory - I. Units - II. Interrelation between vapor concentration and partial pressure of vapor in multicomponent mixtures - III. Equilibrium of boiling multicomponent mixtures - IV. Partial condensation of mixtures - V. Heat of evaporation of mixtures -
C. Separation of liquids by simple distillation; the simple pot still - I. Data for computation - II. Design of kettle stills - III. Separation by distillation and partial condensation -
D. The rectifying column - I. Effect of rectifying plates - II. Hookup of reflux condensers - III. Layout of a batch-type distillation unit - IV. Computation of the number of plates for a batch type distillation unit - V. Minimum reflux ratio and actual reflux ratio for batch-type rectifiers - VI. The rectification mechanism on interchanger plates - VII. Heat consumption and reboil heat for a pot still and rectifying column -
E. Continuous distilling equipment having rectifying and stripping sections - I. Determination of the number of plates - II. Minimum reflux ratio of a continuous rectifying unit for separating binary mixtures - III. The actual reflux ratio of a continuous rectifying unit - IV. Mass-concentration interrelations - V. Heat requirements - VI. Reduction of heat requirements - VII. Layout of continuous rectifying equipment for handling binary mixtures - VII I. Special cases - IX. Location of the feed point - X. Heat losses - XI. Variation of the molar heat of evaporation in the interchanger column -
F. Treatment of rectification using enthalpy-concentration diagrams - I. The rectifying column - II. The continuous rectifying unit -
G. Separating mixtures containing more than two components - I. Eliminating small amounts of certain components in a mixture - II. Separation of ideal ternary mixtures - III. Number of rectifying columns required to separate multicomponent mixtures and their hookup - IV. Rectifying ideal mixtures of more than three components -
H. Determining the dimensions of rectifying columns with interchanger plates; plate efficiency - I. Cap-type and tunnel-type plates - II. Sieve plates - III. Comparison of cap-type and sieve-type plates - IV. Influence of the direction of flow of the phases on the rectification effect of a plate; liquid mixing, vapor mixing, counterflow arid parallel flow - V. Rectifying plate design -
J. Rectification in packed columns - I. General remarks - II. Determining the column height by means of the corresponding theoretical plate number; different types of packings - III. Determination of column height from the heat transmission coefficient between phases; liquid distribution within the column - IV. Pressure loss in packed columns -
K. Details - I. Heat exchangers - II. Control equipment -
L. Molecular distillation -
M. Appendix - I. Equilibrium data for binary mixtures - II. Heats of evaporation of various materials at • 760 mm Hg - III. Specific heats and specific weights of liquids - IV. Molecular weights - V. Conversion tables -
N. Review by the translator of progress made since the original publication - Index -

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780820600185
  • Publisher: Chemical Publishing
  • Publication date: 2/9/1948
  • Pages: 444
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.13 (d)

Read an Excerpt


Although chemical engineering and the design of chemical

equipment have been presented as a whole in the literature, in

accordance with their increasing importance, the individual

branches of equipment design have not as yet been treated

with the, thoroughness they deserve. One reason for this has

been that because of certain necessities in the manufacturing of

many commodities, industrial practice was well ahead of theory.

In Germany this condition was somewhat alleviated more

than a decade ago, when chemical engineering was adopted

as a branch of advanced technical study and much research

work was devoted to distillation and rectification. The significance

of this can be readily appreciated since the liquid

fuels which are so essential to the life and economy of a nation

are always obtained by distilling and rectifying. The same

situation exists in the case of other products, and there can be

no doubt that recent developments will make distilling and

rectifying apparatus even more essential.

The purpose of this book is to close one of the gaps in the

literature and to present results of research together with engineering

data. This book is meant to aid the student as well

as the practicing engineer. The fundamentals are presented

in a strictly scientific way, and design and other factors, important

to an engineer, have also been considered.

To prevent excessive bulk, it was not thought expedient to

describe the specific industries such as alcohol or petroleum

distillation, gas liquefaction, solvent recovery, Buna processing,

etc. Instead, principles and generally suitable designs have

been stressed and numerical and descriptive examples referred

to specialized industries. Certain processes have been demonstrated

for the case of binary mixtures only, although they

may involve liquid mixtures of more than two individual substances.

The fundamentals thus gained will also enable an

engineer to handle special problems referring to the separation

of liquid mixtures.

In technical thermodynamics, it has become the custom to

use (in the treatment of binary mixtures by graphical methods)

the entha py-concentration diagram method exclusively. In

distilling and rectifying, methods which rest on the assumption

of constancy of molar heat of evaporation have been adopted.

Each of these methods has its advantages and drawbacks.

Therefore both have been considered although the second

method has been used more extensively because of its importance

in dealing with mixtures of several components.

As far as possible, graphical methods have been used in

preference to methods requiring involved calculations. At

the same time, an attempt has been made to give, along with

the fundamental theoretical data, information useful in actual

engineering work. Therefore, tables and curves have been

included.

EMIL KIRSCHBAUM

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