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In 1589 the Privy Council encouraged the Archbishop of Canterbury to take steps to control the theatres, which had offended authority by putting on plays which addressed 'certen matters of Divinytie and of State unfitt to be suffred'.
How had questions of divinity and state become entangled? The Reformation had invested the English Crown with supremacy over the Church, and religious belief had thus been transformed into a political statement. In the plentiful chronicle literature of the sixteenth-century, questions of monarchical legitimacy and religious orthodoxy became intertwined as a consequence of that demand for a usable national past created by the high political developments of the 1530s.
Divinity and State explores the consequences of these events in the English historiography and historical drama of the sixteenth century. It is divided into four parts. In the first, the impact of reformed religion on narratives of the national past is measured and described. Part II examines how the entanglement of the national past and reformed religion was reflected in historical drama from Bale to the early years of James I, and focuses on two paradigmatic characters: the sanctified monarch and the martyred subject. Part III considers Shakespeare's history plays in the light of the preceding discussion, and finds that Shakespeare's career as a historical dramatist shows him eventually re-shaping the history play with great audacity. Part IV corroborates this reading of Shakespeare's later history plays by reference to the dramatic ripostes they provoked.
List of Illustrations
I Chronicles of Reform
1 Fabyan's Chronicle: Reading and Religion Reformed 15
2 More's Richard III: Recension and Reformation 40
3 Cooper and Crowley: Continuation and Controversy 57
4 Grafton and Stow: Schism and Antagonism 71
5 Versions of Henry V: The Gravity of Foxe 95
II Divinity and State on Stage
6 Reformation and Riposte: Kynge Johan and Respublica 115
7 Sanctified Monarchs: The Massacre at Paris, Edward III, When Yon See Me You Know Me, and 1 and 2 If You Know Not Me 136
8 Martyred Subjects: Woodstock, The Booke of Sir Thomas Moore, 1 and 2 Edward IV, and The Life and Death of the Lord Cromwell 192
III Divinity, State, and Shakespeare
9 Shakespearean Apocalypse: 1-3 Henry VI 237
10 Three Experiments with the Shape of Time: Richard III, King John, and Richard II 261
11 The History Play Reformed: 1 and 2 Henry IV and Henry V 300
12 Riposte as Corroboration: 1 and 2 Robert Earle of Hvntington and 1 Sir John Oldcastle 359