Doing Justice, Doing Gender: Women in Legal and Criminal Justice Occupations / Edition 2

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Doing Justice, Doing Gender: Women in Legal and Criminal Justice Occupations is a highly readable, sociologically grounded analysis of women working in the traditionally male-dominated occupations of law, policing, and corrections. This Second Edition represents not only a thorough update of research on women in these fields but a careful consideration of changes in justice organizations and occupations over the past 40 years and their impact on women's work roles.

New to the Second Edition: Introduces a wider range of workplace diversity and experiences: An expanded sociological and theoretical framework highlights the interplay of gender, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation in shaping workplace identities and inequities. Provides a better understanding of the centrality of gender issues in the legal and criminal justice systems in general: This edition further connects women's work experiences to social trends and consequent changes in the legal system and in criminal justice agencies. Offers a broader international perspective: The authors include more material on women lawyers, police officers, and correctional officers in countries outside the United States.

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Editorial Reviews

Sue Carter Collins
"Martin and Jurik provide a clear body of evidence illuminating the gendered nature of criminal justice occupations. Of the multitude of feminist works on this topic, this is one of the best analyses available. "


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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412927215
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 10/28/2006
  • Series: Women in the Criminal Justice System Series
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 296
  • Product dimensions: 7.04 (w) x 9.88 (h) x 0.66 (d)

Meet the Author

Susan Ehrlich Martin recently retired from government after 15 years as a program director at the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Prior to that, she directed several research studies at the Police Foundation and the National Research Council. Her previous and continuing research interests focus on women's problems as workers, victims, and substance abusers. Her other books include Breaking and Entering: Police Women on Patrol (University of California Press, 1980) and On the Move: The Status of Women in Policing (Police Foundation, 1990).

Nancy Jurik is a sociologist and professor in the School of Justice & Social Inquiry at Arizona State University. She has published research articles in the areas of gender and work, professionalization, changing workplace organizations, self-employment, and economic development programs. She has also published Bootstrap Dreams: U.S. Microenterprise Development in an Era of Welfare Reform (Cornell University Press, 2005).

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Table of Contents

List of Tables     xi
Acknowledgments     xiii
Introduction: Changes in Criminal Justice, Occupations, and Women in the Workplace     1
The CJS: Mission, Processes, and Workforce     3
Historical Context of Women in Justice Occupations     4
Legal Changes     6
Equal Employment Opportunity Law     6
Sexual Harassment Law     9
Pregnancy and Family Leave     11
Systemic Reforms and Expanded Opportunities for Women     12
Women and Today's Justice Occupations     16
Contents of the Second Edition of This Book     18
A Note on Perspective and Terminology     19
Endnotes     21
Explanations for Gender Inequality in the Workplace     23
Categorical Approaches to Gender Inequality at Work     24
Women and Men as Essentially the Same: Gender Roles and Gender-Neutral Organizations     25
Equality as Sameness     26
Men and Women as Different: Equality as Difference     27
Calls for Radical Economic and Cultural Change     28
Challenging Gender Dichotomies: Gender as Process     29
Our Approach: The Social Construction of Gender in the Workplace     31
Doing Gender: Gender as a RoutineInteractional Accomplishment     32
Gender as Structured Interaction     33
Doing Gender in Work Organizations     36
Links Between the Family and the Workplace     37
The Gendered State     39
Gendered Labor Markets     40
Gendered Work Organizations     41
Division of Labor in Work Organizations     41
Culture and Sexuality in Work Organizations     42
Workplace Interactions and Identities     44
Gendered Organizational Logic     48
Summary     49
Endnotes     50
The Nature of Police Work and Women's Entry Into Law Enforcement     51
An Historical Overview: From Matron to Chief     52
Preliminary Phase: 1840-1910     52
The Specialist Phase: 1910-1972     52
From "Policewoman" to Chief: Changes Since 1972     54
Police Crisis of the 1960s     54
The Women's Movement     55
Legal Changes: Legislation and Judicial Interpretation     55
The Impact of Research     56
The Increasing Representation of Women in Police Work     57
The Nature of Policing: Scope of Work and Occupational Culture     61
Nature of the Work      61
The Police Officer's "Working Personality"     61
Occupational Culture     62
Recent Trends in Policing and Their Implications for Women and Persons of Color     63
Community-Oriented Policing     64
Terrorism and Other Disasters     65
Civilianization and Privatization     66
The Police Culture and Men's Opposition to Women Officers     67
The Logic of Sexism and Women's Threat to Police Work     68
Women's Threat to the Public Image and Citizen "Respect"     69
Women's Threat to Group Solidarity and Men's Identity     69
Barriers to Women Officers: Interaction, Ideology, and Images     70
Interactional Dilemmas     71
The Sexualized Workplace     72
The Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, and Gender     73
Summary     74
Endnotes     75
Women Officers Encountering the Gendered Police Organization     77
Gendered Organizational Logic: Policies and Practices     77
Gender and Selection     77
Gender and Training     78
The Training Academy     78
Field Training and Patrol: Cycles of Success and Failure     80
Gendered Assignment Patterns      81
Performance Evaluations     83
Gendered Organizational Logic and Women's Occupational Mobility     84
Moving Up: Women and Promotion     86
Family-Related Policies and Practices     87
Uniforms and Appearance: Formalizing Gendered Images     88
Doing Gender on the Street: Dilemmas of Police-Citizen Encounters     89
Gender and Police Work     89
Doing Gender in Patrol Work     91
Using Gender     93
Women's Response: Adaptations, Costs, and Survival Strategies     93
Attitudes Toward Police Work and On-the-Job Behavior     94
Police Work, Discrimination, and Stress     96
Turnover: Adapting by Leaving     98
Coping Strategies, Adaptations, and Work Styles     100
Meshing Personal and Occupational Lives     103
Summary     104
Endnotes     105
Women Entering the Legal Profession: Change and Resistance     107
Historical Overview: Barriers to Women in Law Before 1970     108
Changing Laws and Job Queues: Opening Legal Practice to Women     112
Changing Labor Queues and Demographics in the Legal Profession     112
Changes in the Type and Nature of Legal Employment     113
The Changing Legal Environment     114
Women Lawyers Using the New Laws     115
Challenging Discriminatory Practices: Gender Bias Task Forces     117
Lawyers' Jobs, Specialties, and the Division of Legal Labor     118
The Organization and Work Activities of Lawyers     119
Private Law Practice     121
In-House Counsel and Corporate Law     121
Women and Men in Government Work     122
The Judiciary     123
Law School Teaching     124
Gendered Legal Occupational Culture and Barriers to Women     125
Summary     129
Endnotes     130
The Organizational Logic of the Gendered Legal World and Women Lawyers' Response     133
Gender Bias in Law School and Its Impact on the Learning Environment     134
Gender Bias in the Firm, Office, and Agency     137
Partnership and Gender     137
Gender Differences in Income     138
Other Gender Differences in Practice     139
The Impact of Gender Bias on Women Attorneys in Court and Beyond     140
Sexual Harassment     140
Undermining Women Lawyers' Credibility in the Courtroom     143
Men's Perceptions of Gender Bias     144
Organizational Logic and Limiting Opportunity Structures     144
Organizational Logic, Gendered Job Recruitment, and the Hiring Process     146
Gender Barriers to a Judgeship     147
Barriers to Law School Tenure     151
Women's Responses to Gender Bias: Adaptation and Innovation     152
Women's Bar Associations and Gender Bias Task Force     153
Feminist Jurisprudence and Legal Action     153
The Time Crunch: Meshing Work and Family Life     154
Marriage and Children     155
Reshaping the Profession: Work-Family Balance and Quality of Life     157
Summary     158
Endnotes     159
Women in Corrections: Advancement and Resistance     161
History of Women in Corrections: 1860s to 1960s     162
Social Change and Changing Queues for Women COs in the 1970s     164
Socio-Legal Changes and Women COs     164
Inmate Suits and Pressures for Prison Reform     165
Prison Reform Ethos and Changing Labor and Job Queues for Women COs     166
Inmate Rights to Privacy and Equal Work Opportunities     167
Women's Movement Into CO Jobs in Men's Prisons: 1970s to Present     169
Characteristics of Women COs in Men's Prisons     172
CO Jobs as a Resource for Doing Gender     174
The Nature of Work in Corrections     175
CO Work Cultures and Masculinities     176
Sites of Struggle: Gendered Interactions, Gendered Identities     177
Men Inmates and Women COs     178
Men Coworker, Supervisor, and Subordinate Resistance     180
Sexual Harassment and Women COs     181
Resistance From Women Coworkers, Family, and Friends     182
Proponents of Women COs: Alternative Gendered Identities     183
Summary     184
Gendered Organizational Logic and Women CO Response     187
Gendered, Racialized, Sexualized, and Embodied Prison Organizations     188
Racialized Prisons     189
Prisons as Gendered     190
Prisons as Sexualized     190
Sexual Harassment Policies and the Gendered Organization     192
Corrections as Embodied Work and Women as Embodied Workers     193
Promoting Equality in Prison Organizations: A Case Example     195
Social Context and the Shifting Organizational Logic of Corrections     197
Conflicting Correctional Organizational Directives     199
Inadequate Implementation of Human Service and Affirmative Action Reforms     199
Prison Organizational Logic and Women's Careers      200
Preemployment Experience and Training     201
Work Assignments     202
Performance Evaluations and Promotions     203
Women's Performance: Adaptation and Innovation     204
Work-Related Attitudes     205
Job Performance     207
Work Styles: Adaptation and Innovations     207
The Costs: Stress and Turnover     211
Organizational Movements for Change     212
Summary     213
Doing Justice, Doing Gender Today and Tomorrow: Occupations, Organizations, and Change     215
Our Theoretical Approach: A Recap     216
Comparison of Opportunities, Barriers, and Women's Responses     216
Similarities in Women's Opportunities and Barriers     216
Differences in Opportunities, Barriers, and Responses     219
Do Women Make a Difference?     222
Women's Responses to Barriers     223
Gender, Job Perspectives, and Performance in Justice Occupations     224
Women's Collective Responses     226
Women's Contribution and the Future     228
Building Feminist Theory and Policy     230
References     233
List of Cases Cited     257
Index      259
About the Authors     281
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