Doing Philosophy: An Introduction Through Thought Experiments / Edition 5

Doing Philosophy: An Introduction Through Thought Experiments / Edition 5

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by Theodore Schick, Lewis Vaughn
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0078038251

ISBN-13: 9780078038259

Pub. Date: 09/04/2012

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Now in its fifth successful edition, Doing Philosophy helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. The book traces the historical development of philosophical thinking on a number of central problems and shows how

Overview

Now in its fifth successful edition, Doing Philosophy helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. The book traces the historical development of philosophical thinking on a number of central problems and shows how philosophical theories have evolved in response to criticism. By introducing students to philosophical theorizing and encouraging them to formulate their own views, Doing Philosophy inspires active learning and helps students become more accomplished critical thinkers.

Instructors and students can now access their course content through the Connect digital learning platform by purchasing either standalone Connect access or a bundle of print and Connect access. McGraw-Hill Connect® is a subscription-based learning service accessible online through your personal computer or tablet. Choose this option if your instructor will require Connect to be used in the course. Your subscription to Connect includes the following:

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780078038259
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
09/04/2012
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
672
Sales rank:
172,455
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Preface
CHAPTER 1 The Philosophical Enterprise

Section 1.1 Explaining the Possibility of the Impossible: Philosophical Problems and Theories
Philosophical Problems
The Stakes in Philosophical Inquiry
The Mind-Body Problem
The Problem of Free Will
The Problem of Personal Identity
The Problem of Moral Relativism
The Problem of Evil
The Problem of Skepticism
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Socrates and the Socratic Method
Science and the Scientific Method
Logical versus Causal Possibility

Section 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving Your Point
Deductive Arguments
Inductive Arguments
Informal Fallacies

Section 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments
Case Study: Explaining How Moral Abortions Are Possible
How Are Thought Experiments Possible?
Criticizing Thought Experiments
Conceivability and Possibility
Scientific Thought Experiments
Readings:
Bertrand Russell, "The Value of Philosophy"
Brand Blanshard, "The Philosophic Enterprise"
Robert Nozick, "Philosophy as an Art Form"
Max Schulman, "Love is a Fallacy"
CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body Problem

Section 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as Soul
Descartes's Doubt
I Think, Therefore I Am
The Conceivability Argument
The Divisibility Argument
The Problem of Interaction
The Causal Closure of the Physical
The Problem of Other Minds

Section 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as Body
Empiricism
Logical Positivism
Logical Behaviorism
The Identity Theory

Section 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as Software
Artificial Intelligence
The Turing Test
Functionalism and Feeling
Intentionality

Section 2.4 There Ain't No Such Things as Ghosts: Mind as Myth
Folk Psychology
Subjective Knowledge

Section 2.5 The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as Quality
Primitive Intentionality
Mental Dependence
The Causal Exclusion Problem

Emergentism
Panpsychism
Readings:
Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation II"
Hugh Elliot, "Modern Science and Materialism"
David Chalmers, "The Puzzle of Concious Experience"
Terry Bisson, "They're Made of Meat"
CHAPTER 3 Free Will and Determinism

Section 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as Chance
Hard Determinism
Indeterminism

Section 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as Necessity
Traditional Compatibilism
Hierarchical Compatibilism

Section 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-Determination
The Case for Freedom
Agent Causation
Readings:
Robert Blatchford, "The Delusion of Free Will"
W. T. Stace, "The Problem of Free Will"
Corliss Lamont, "Freedom of Choice and Human Responsibility"
Thomas D. Davis, "Please Don't Tell Me How the Story Ends"
CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal Identity

Section 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On: Self as Substance
Persons
Animalism
The Soul Theory

Section 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as Psyche
The Memory Theory
Psychological Continuity Theory

Section 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as Process
The Brain Theory
Split Brains
Closest Continuer Theories
Identity and What Matters in Survival
Identity and What Matters in Responsibility
Explaining the Self
Moral Agents, Narratives, and Persons
Readings:
John Locke, "Of Identity and Diversity"
Thomas Reid, "On Mr. Locke's Account of Personal Identity"
Derek Parfit, "Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons"
Ray Kurzweil, "Live Forever"
CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and Morality

Section 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes Right
Descriptive vs. Normative Ethics
Subjectivism
Emotivism
Cultural Relativism
The Divine Command Theory
Are There Universal Moral Principles?

Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes Right
Ethical Egoism
Act-Utilitarianism
Rule-Utilitarianism
Preference Utilitarianism

Section 5.3 Much Obliged: Duty Makes Right
Kant's Categorical Imperative
Ross's Prima Facie Duties
Rawls's Contractarianism
Nozick's Libertarianism
The Social Contract
Capability Theory
The Ethics of Care
Making Ethical Decisions

Section 5.4 Character is Destiny: Virtue Makes Right
The Virtuous Utilitarian
The Virtuous Kantian
The Purpose of Morality
Aristotle on Virtue
MacIntyre on Virtue
Virtue Ethics
Readings:
W. T. Stace, "Are Ethical Values Relative?"
Jeremy Bentham, "Of the Principle of Utility"
Immanuel Kant, "Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative"
John Rawls, "The Original Position and Justification"

Alasdair MacIntyre, "The Virtues"
Ursula K. Leguin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"
CHAPTER 6 The Problem of Evil and the Existence of God

Section 6.1 The Mysterious Universe: God as Creator
The Traditional Cosmological Argument
The Kalam Cosmological Argument
The Teleological Argument
The Argument from Miracles
The Argument from Religious Experience
The Ontological Argument
Pascal's Wager

Section 6.2 When Bad Things Happen to Good People: God as Troublemaker
The Ontological Defense
The Knowledge Defense
The Free-Will Defense
The Ideal-Humanity Defense
The Soul-Building Defense
The Finite-God Defense
Manichaenism
Gnosticism
Pantheism
Atheism

Section 6.3 Faith and Meaning: Believing the Unbelievable

The Leap of Faith

Evidentialism

Existentialism
The Argument from Non-Belief

Religion without God
Readings:
St. Thomas Aquinas, "The Five Ways"

Richard Swinburne, "Natural Theology"
David Hume, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion"
B.C. Johnson, "God and the Problem of Evil"
Michael Martin, "The Miracle Sleuth"
CHAPTER 7 The Problem of Skepticism and Knowledge

Section 7.1 Things Aren't Always What They Seem: Skepticism about Skepticism

Greek Rationalism
Cartesian Skepticism
Reasonable Doubt

The Empiricist Alternative
The Problem of Induction

The Kantian Synthesis

Section 7.2 Facing Reality: Perception and the External World
Direct Realism
Representative Realism
Phenomenalism
Solipsism and the Problem of Other Minds

Section 7.3 What Do You Know? Knowing What Knowledge Is
The Defeasibility Theory
The Causal Theory
The Reliability Theory
The Explanationist Theory
Readings:
Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditations I and IV"
George Berkeley, "Of the Principles of Human Knowledge"
Bertrand Russell, "The Problem of Induction"
Edmund L. Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"

Thomas D. Davis, "Why Don't You Just Wake Up!"
Notes
Credits
Index

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