Doing Philosophy: An Introduction Through Thought Experiments / Edition 5by Theodore Schick, Lewis Vaughn
Pub. Date: 09/04/2012
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Now in its fifth successful edition, Doing Philosophy helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. The book traces the historical development of philosophical thinking on a number of central problems and shows how philosophical theories have evolved in response to criticism. By introducing students to philosophical theorizing and encouraging them to formulate their own views, Doing Philosophy inspires active learning and helps students become more accomplished critical thinkers.
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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 The Philosophical Enterprise
The Stakes in Philosophical Inquiry
The Mind-Body Problem
The Problem of Free Will
The Problem of Personal Identity
The Problem of Moral Relativism
The Problem of Evil
The Problem of Skepticism
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Socrates and the Socratic Method
Science and the Scientific Method
Logical versus Causal PossibilitySection 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving Your Point
Informal FallaciesSection 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments
Case Study: Explaining How Moral Abortions Are Possible
How Are Thought Experiments Possible?
Criticizing Thought Experiments
Conceivability and Possibility
Scientific Thought Experiments
Bertrand Russell, "The Value of Philosophy"
Brand Blanshard, "The Philosophic Enterprise"
Robert Nozick, "Philosophy as an Art Form"
Max Schulman, "Love is a Fallacy"
CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body ProblemSection 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as Soul
I Think, Therefore I Am
The Conceivability Argument
The Divisibility Argument
The Problem of Interaction
The Causal Closure of the Physical
The Problem of Other MindsSection 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as Body
The Identity TheorySection 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as Software
The Turing Test
Functionalism and Feeling
IntentionalitySection 2.4 There Ain't No Such Things as Ghosts: Mind as Myth
Subjective KnowledgeSection 2.5 The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as Quality
The Causal Exclusion ProblemEmergentism
Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation II"
Hugh Elliot, "Modern Science and Materialism"
David Chalmers, "The Puzzle of Concious Experience"
Terry Bisson, "They're Made of Meat"
CHAPTER 3 Free Will and DeterminismSection 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as Chance
IndeterminismSection 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as Necessity
Hierarchical CompatibilismSection 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-Determination
The Case for Freedom
Robert Blatchford, "The Delusion of Free Will"
W. T. Stace, "The Problem of Free Will"
Corliss Lamont, "Freedom of Choice and Human Responsibility"
Thomas D. Davis, "Please Don't Tell Me How the Story Ends"
CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal IdentitySection 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On: Self as Substance
The Soul TheorySection 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as Psyche
The Memory Theory
Psychological Continuity TheorySection 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as Process
The Brain Theory
Closest Continuer Theories
Identity and What Matters in Survival
Identity and What Matters in Responsibility
Explaining the Self
Moral Agents, Narratives, and Persons
John Locke, "Of Identity and Diversity"
Thomas Reid, "On Mr. Locke's Account of Personal Identity"
Derek Parfit, "Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons"
Ray Kurzweil, "Live Forever"
CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and MoralitySection 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes Right
Descriptive vs. Normative Ethics
The Divine Command Theory
Are There Universal Moral Principles?Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes Right
Preference UtilitarianismSection 5.3 Much Obliged: Duty Makes Right
Kant's Categorical Imperative
Ross's Prima Facie Duties
The Social Contract
The Ethics of Care
Making Ethical DecisionsSection 5.4 Character is Destiny: Virtue Makes Right
The Virtuous Utilitarian
The Virtuous Kantian
The Purpose of Morality
Aristotle on Virtue
MacIntyre on Virtue
W. T. Stace, "Are Ethical Values Relative?"
Jeremy Bentham, "Of the Principle of Utility"
Immanuel Kant, "Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative"
John Rawls, "The Original Position and Justification"Alasdair MacIntyre, "The Virtues"
Ursula K. Leguin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"
CHAPTER 6 The Problem of Evil and the Existence of GodSection 6.1 The Mysterious Universe: God as Creator
The Traditional Cosmological Argument
The Kalam Cosmological Argument
The Teleological Argument
The Argument from Miracles
The Argument from Religious Experience
The Ontological Argument
Pascal's WagerSection 6.2 When Bad Things Happen to Good People: God as Troublemaker
The Ontological Defense
The Knowledge Defense
The Free-Will Defense
The Ideal-Humanity Defense
The Soul-Building Defense
The Finite-God Defense
AtheismSection 6.3 Faith and Meaning: Believing the UnbelievableThe Leap of FaithEvidentialismExistentialism
The Argument from Non-BeliefReligion without God
St. Thomas Aquinas, "The Five Ways"Richard Swinburne, "Natural Theology"
David Hume, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion"
B.C. Johnson, "God and the Problem of Evil"
Michael Martin, "The Miracle Sleuth"
CHAPTER 7 The Problem of Skepticism and KnowledgeSection 7.1 Things Aren't Always What They Seem: Skepticism about SkepticismGreek Rationalism
Reasonable DoubtThe Empiricist Alternative
The Problem of InductionThe Kantian SynthesisSection 7.2 Facing Reality: Perception and the External World
Solipsism and the Problem of Other MindsSection 7.3 What Do You Know? Knowing What Knowledge Is
The Defeasibility Theory
The Causal Theory
The Reliability Theory
The Explanationist Theory
Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditations I and IV"
George Berkeley, "Of the Principles of Human Knowledge"
Bertrand Russell, "The Problem of Induction"
Edmund L. Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"Thomas D. Davis, "Why Don't You Just Wake Up!"
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