Dolphin Biological Investigations Lab Manual specific t/a Brooker Biology / Edition 1

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Developed to accompany the Brooker et al.: Biology text; this lab manual focuses on labs that are investigative and ask students to use more critical thinking and hands-on learning. The author emphasizes investigative, quantitative, and comparative approaches to studying the life sciences.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073323992
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 1/16/2007
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 512
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.71 (d)

Meet the Author

Warren Dolphin is Emeritus Professor of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology at Iowa State University. He earned his B.S. at West Chester State University and Ph.D. at the Ohio State University in Zoology (Cell Biology). He served as Coordinator of the Biology Program for 30 years and the Program in Biological Illustration for 10 years. For his service to undergraduate education at the Iowa State, he was awarded the honorary title University Professor. He has taught introductory biology for 37 years, including supervising the offering of labs to thousands of students each year. This lab manual, first published in 1980, is a result of his desire to have students do biological science, distilling the principles that provide the foundation for further studies and productive careers. For this edition, he asked former colleagues at Iowa State to help him achieve that goal.

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Table of Contents

Preface     ix
Correlation Table     xii
Science: A Way of Gathering Knowledge     1
Using the Scientific Method     3
Description of the Problem     3
Summarizing Observations     3
Asking Questions     3
Forming Hypotheses     3
Designing an Experiment     4
Procedure     4
Data Recording     4
Data Summarization     4
Data Interpretation     4
Conclusion     5
Discussion     5
Scientific Method Assignment     5
Evaluating Published Information     5
Evaluate Format     5
Evaluate the Source     6
Evaluate Writing Style     6
Evaluate the Arguments     6
Evaluate the Evidence     6
Check the Data     7
Evaluate the Conclusions     7
Evaluating Scientific Literature Assignment     7
Evaluating WWW pages     8
Techniques in Microscopy     11
The Compound Microscope     13
Parts of a Microscope     13
Making Slides and Using a Microscope     14
The CompoundMicroscope Image     15
Image Orientation     15
Magnification     15
Field of View and Brightness     16
Focal Plane and Optical Sectioning     16
Image Contrast     16
Measuring with a Microscope (Optional)     16
Using an Oil Immersion Lens (optional)     17
Stereoscopic Dissecting Microscopes     18
Electron Microscopes     18
Transmission Electron Microscope     19
Interpreting TEMs     20
Cellular Structure Reflects Function     23
Prokaryotic Cells     24
Bacteria     24
Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)     24
Eukaryotic Cells     25
Protists     25
Fungal Cells     26
Plant Cells     26
Animal Cells     28
Using your knowledge     31
Determining How Materials Enter Cells     33
Simultaneous Osmosis and Diffusion     35
Test for Chloride Ion     36
Test for Protein     36
Test for Starch     36
Osmosis     36
Diffusion in Gases (Optional Demonstration)     37
Diffusion in Gels      37
Osmosis in Living Cehs     38
Elodea Plasmolysis     38
Osmoregulation in Paramecium     38
Using Quantitative Techniques and Statistics     41
Measuring Volumes     42
Practice Pipetting     43
Verifying Techniques Using a Balance     43
Calculating Simple Statistics     44
Statistical Analysis of Class Data     45
Using Histograms to Summarize     46
Spectrophotometry     46
Creating an Absorbance Curve     47
Constructing a Standard Curve     49
Modeling Biological Molecules     53
Getting Started     56
Carbohydrates     57
Polysaccharides     59
Lipids     60
Amino Acids     64
Polypeptides and Proteins     66
Advanced Analysis of Peroxidase Structure     68
Nucleotides/Nucleic Acids     69
Determining the Properties of an Enzyme     73
Peroxidase     75
Preparing an Extract Containing Peroxidase     75
Standardizing the Amount of Enzyme     76
Analysis of Amount of Enzyme Data     77
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity      78
Temperature Effects     78
Analysis of Temperature Data     78
pH Effects     79
Analysis of pH Data     79
Demonstrating Effects of Boiling on Peroxidase Activity     80
Optional: The Effects of Inhibitors     81
Analysis     82
Advanced Molecular Analysis     82
Measuring Cellular Respiration     87
Ethanolic Fermentation in Yeast     89
Aerobic Respiration in Peas     90
Forming a Hypothesis     90
Experimental Setup     91
Measurement     91
Analysis     92
Determining Chromosome Number in Mitotic Cells     95
Mitosis in Animal Cells     97
Mitosis in Plant Cells     98
Measuring Duration     98
Staining Chromosomes in Dividing Cells     99
Tissue Preparation Steps     99
Testing a Hypothesis     101
Collecting Data     101
Analysis     101
Observing Meiosis and Determining Cross-Over Frequency     105
Meiosis in Ascaris     107
Experimental Organism     107
Procedure     108
Measuring the Frequency of Crossing-Over     110
Background about Experimental Organism     110
Procedure     111
Analysis     111
Advanced Statistical Analysis     113
Determining Genotypes of Fruit Flies     117
Life Cycle of the Fruit Fly     119
Fruit Fly Anatomy     119
Giant Chromosomes in Drosophila (Optional)     120
Theoretical Background for Crosses     121
Autosome Model     121
Sex Chromosome Model     122
Applying Chromosomal Models to Crosses     123
Setting Test Crosses to Determine Genotypes     124
Tending the Flies     124
Predicting Alternative Results     124
Investigating Wing Locus     124
Investigating Eye Color Locus     125
Counting the Offspring     126
Analysis     127
Isolating DNA and Working with Plasmids     133
Isolation of Genomic DNA     135
Rupturing Onion Cells     135
DNA Precipitation     135
Determining the Amount of DNA in Solution     136
Transformation by Plasmids     137
Making Competent Cells     137
Transformation Procedure      138
Selective Growth     139
Analysis     139
Testing Assumptions in Microevolution and Inducing Mutations     143
Mating Game     146
Random Mating     147
Natural Selection     147
Migration and Bottlenecking     147
Mutation     148
Computer Simulation of Microevolution     148
Effect of No Natural Selection in a Large Population     149
Effect of Natural Selection     149
Genetic Drift     149
Genetic Drift and Natural Selection Together     150
Experimental Induction of Mutations     150
Procedure     150
Analysis     152
Working with Bacterial Diversity     155
Where Do Bacteria Live?     157
Bacterial Cell Shapes     157
Gram's Staining     158
Determinative Microbiology     160
Differential Growth     160
Differential Growth Analysis     161
Bacterial Population Counts     162
Analyzing Milk Samples     163
Application of Results     163
Applied Microbiology     163
Cyanobacteria     164
Diversity Among Protists     167
Clade Parabasala     170
Clade Euglenozoa     171
Phylum Euglenophyta     171
Phylum Kinetoplastida     172
Clade Alveolata     173
Phylum Ciliophora     173
Clade Stramenopila     174
Phylum Bacillariophyta     174
Phylum Oomycota: Water Molds     175
Clade Rhodophyta     176
Clade Chlorophyta     177
Phylum Chlorophyta     177
Amoeba Group     180
Phylum Myxogastridia     181
Investigating Plant Phylogeny: Seedless Plants     185
Plant Adaptations to Land     187
Algal Preadaptations to Land     188
Anatomy and Life Cycle of a Stonewort     188
Bryophytes     189
Phylum Hepatophyta (Liverworts)     189
Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses)     191
Vascular Plants     193
Phylum Pterophyta (Ferns and Horsetails)     194
Investigating Plant Phylogeny: Seed Plants     199
Gymnosperms     201
Phylum Coniferophyta (Conifers)     201
Angiosperms     207
Phylum Anthophyta (Flowering Plants)      207
Observing Fungal Diversity and Symbiotic Relationships     213
Observation of Field Samples     216
Phylum Chytridiomycota     216
Phylum Zygomycota     217
Phylum Ascomycota: The Sac Fungi     220
Mildews     220
Cup Fungi     221
Phylum Basidiomycota: The Club Fungi     222
Fungal Associations     223
Lichens     223
Mycorrhizae     225
Fun with Fungi (optional)     226
Killer Fungi     226
Fungus Amon-gus     227
Summary     227
Investigating Early Events in Animal Development     229
Sea Star Development     230
Cleavage Patterns in Invertebrate Animals     232
Experimental Embryology with Sea Urchins (Alternative Activity)     233
Obtaining Gametes     234
Observing Fertilization     235
Separation of Blastomeres (Optional)     235
Frog Development     236
Chick Development (Alternative Activity)     238
Bird Gametes and Mating     238
Chick Cleavage and Gastulation     239
Later Developmental Stages     241
Animal Phylogeny: Investigating Animal Body Plans     243
Phylum Porifera     246
Phylum Cnidaria     248
A Polyp: Hydra     248
A Medusa: Gonionemus     250
A Colonial Form: Obelia     251
Phylum Platyhelminthes     252
Class Turbellaria     252
Class Trematoda     254
Class Cestoidea     255
Phylum Nematoda     256
Vinegar eels     259
Rogue's Gallery     259
Protostomes I: Lophotrochozoans and Development of Complexity     261
Clade Lophotrochozoa     263
Phylum Ectoprocta (Bryozoa)     263
Phylum Annelida     264
Annelid Diversity     265
Live Aquatic Oligochaete Worms     265
Earthworm Dissection     266
Phylum Mollusca     270
Molluscan Diversity     271
Class Bivalvia     271
Class Cephalopoda     274
Squid Dissection     274
Protostomes II: Ecdysozoa and Great Diversity     279
Subphylum Chelicerata     281
Horseshoe Crab     281
Spider     282
Subphylum Crustacea     283
Subphylum Uniramia      289
Class Insecta     289
Using Keys to Identify Insects (Optional)     291
Field Collecting Terrestrial Arthropods (Optional)     292
Deuterostomes and the Origins of Vertebrates     295
Phylum Echinodermata     296
Echinoderm Diversity     296
Phylum Chordata     300
Subphylum Urochordata     300
Larval Anatomy     300
Adult Anatomy     301
Subphylum Cephalochordata     302
Subphylum Vertebrata     304
Investigating Plant Cells, Tissues, and Primary Growth     309
Investigating the Unique Structures of Plant Cells     312
Investigating the Structure of Plant Tissues     314
Meristematic Tissue     314
Dermal Tissue     315
Ground Tissues     317
Vascular Tissue     319
Primary-Secondary Growth and Transport in Roots and Stems     323
Whole Roots     326
Root Histology     327
Longitudinal Section of a Young Dicot Root     327
Cross Sections of Primary Roots     328
Stem Structure     331
External Dicot Stem Structure     331
Microscopic Herbaceous Dicot Stem Structure     331
Internal Woody Dicot Stem Structure     332
Structure of Wood     334
Internal Monocot Stem Structure     334
Transpiration (Demonstration)     336
Demonstration: Testing the Water Tension Hypothesis     337
Investigating Leaf Structure and Photosynthesis     339
Types of Leaves     341
Internal Leaf Anatomy     342
Structure of a Dicot Leaf     342
Structure of a Monocot Leaf     344
Guard-Cell Response to Osmotic Stress     344
Photosynthetic Pigments     345
Extraction Procedure     345
Absorption Spectrum     346
Analysis     346
Light Intensity and Photosynthetic Rate     346
Procedure     347
Analysis     348
Testing a Prediction     348
Demonstration of Starch Accumulation in Leaves (Optional)     349
Angiosperm Reproduction, Germination, and Development     353
Sexual Reproduction     356
Flower Structure     356
Gametophytes in Flowering Plants     358
Pollination     361
Fertilization     362
Embryo Development      363
Seeds     363
Fruits     364
Investigating the Effects of Hormones on Plant Development     366
Effects of Hormones on Seedling Growth Patterns     366
Investigating Digestive and Gas Exchange Systems     371
Invertebrate Feeding Behavior in Hydra     372
Mammalian Digestive System Anatomy     373
Anatomy of the Mouth     373
Alimentary Canal Anatomy     374
Histology of Small Intestine     376
Invertebrate Respiratory Systems     376
Insect Tracheal System     376
Gills     377
Mammalian Respiratory System     378
Respiratory Tree Anatomy     378
Microscopic Examination of Maramalian Lung     379
Lung Ventilation Mechanism     379
Measuring Human Respiratory Volumes     379
Comparative Summary     382
Investigating Circulatory Systems     385
Invertebrate Circulatory System     387
Optional Demonstration of Open Circulation     387
Mammalian Circulatory System     388
The Heart and Its Vessels     388
Vessels Cranial to the Heart     389
Vessels Caudal to the Heart      391
Internal Heart Structure     391
Histology of Vessels     392
Blood     392
Circulation in Capillaries     395
Measuring Blood Pressure     396
Blood Pressures under Experimental Conditions     397
Investigating the Urogenital System     399
Invertebrate Excretory Systems     400
Nephridial Systems     400
Mammalian Excretory System     401
Anatomy of Fetal Pig Excretory System     401
Nephron Structure     402
Mammalian Reproductive System     403
Male System     403
Female System     404
Investigating the Properties of Muscle and Skeletal Systems     407
Microscopic Anatomy of Muscle     409
Cardiac Muscle     411
Fetal Pig Superficial Muscles (Optional)     411
Physiology of Muscle     413
Overview of Experiment     413
Determining Motor Point     413
Determining Threshold     413
Recruitment of Motor Units     414
Temporal Summation and Tetany     414
Skeletal Systems     414
Types of Skeletons     415
Hydrostatic Skeletons      415
Exoskeletons     415
Endoskeletons     416
Microanatomy of Bone     417
Comparative Vertebrate Endoskeletons     417
Skeletal Comparisons     417
Investigating Nervous and Sensory Systems     421
Microanatomy of the Nervous System     423
Mammalian Nervous System     425
Spinal Cord     425
Autonomic System     425
Brain     426
Sensory Systems     428
Eye Anatomy     428
Color Vision     429
Ear Anatomy     430
Estimating Population Size and Growth     433
Quadrat Sampling of Vegetation     434
Technique     434
Analysis     436
Mark and Recapture     437
Technique     438
Analysis     438
Exponential Population Growth     439
Computer-Generated Growth Curves     440
Significant Figures and Rounding     443
What Are Significant Figures?     443
Doing Arithmetic with Significant Figures     443
What Is Rounding?     443
Examples of Rounding     444
Making Graphs      445
Line Graphs     445
Derivative Graphs     446
Histograms     446
Simple Statistics     447
Dealing with Measurement Data     447
Comparing Count Data: Dealing with Variability     449
Scientific Hypothesis     450
Testing the Null Hypothesis     451
Making a Decision about the Null Hypothesis     451
A Hypothetical Alternative     452
Writing Lab Reports and Scientific Papers     453
Format     453
Title     453
Abstrac     453
Introduction     453
Materials and Methods     453
Results     454
Discussion     454
Literature Cited     454
General Comments on Style     454
Further Reading     455
Credits     457
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