The Dose Makes the Poison: A Plain-Language Guide to Toxicology / Edition 3

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Overview

This new edition of a widely-read and highly-acclaimed book broadens the scope of its predecessors from a heavy focus on industrial chemicals as toxicants to include drugs, food additives, cosmetics and other types of compounds that people are exposed to daily. Also new to the 3rd edition are newer issues-of-the-day such as nanoparticulate toxicants, second hand smoke, food contamination, lead in toys, and others. As such, the book provides the basics of toxicology in easy-to-understand language as well as a fuller understanding of the daily insults to which our bodies are subjected.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This is a refreshing, invigorating as well as eye-opening text, which is reading like an exciting novel - even to a seasoned toxicologist ... An appendix to clarify quantities of pollutants plus an index concludes this most valuable introduction into the science of toxicology for a broad readership." (Toxicology, 2011)

"I recommend this book to anyone who has ever listened to the evening news and wondered how much of the "chemical scare du jour" is hype and how much of it is fact - and to those who might want to understand basic concepts in toxicology and the related areas of study without having to trudge through a gaggle of 1000-page textbooks." (International Journal of Toxicology, 2011)

"Overall, this is a well-written work with wisely chosen and relevant topics. It will be a perfect addition to any science enthusiast's library. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates through professionals/practitioners; general readers." (Choice, 1 September 2011)

"The Dose Makes the Poison is more than just an introduction to toxicology. It is an enjoyable read with lots of interesting stories and one I can thoroughly recommend." (Chemistry & Industry, 25 July 2011)

"There is much to be applauded in this book from its straightforward layout and honesty to its accessibility . . . Many good, and contemporary, examples are provided to deliver greater context for the reader." (The British Toxicology Society Journal, 1 May 2011)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470381120
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/1/2011
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 284
  • Sales rank: 948,364
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Patricia Frank is President of Patricia Frank & Associates, Inc., a consulting firm founded in 1993 that assists companies in the development and registration of human and veterinary pharmaceutical agents. She is a past president of both the American College of Toxicology and the Roundtable of Toxicology Consultants.

M. Alice Ottoboni lectures, writes, and consults in the field of toxicology. As Staff Toxicologist with the California State Department of Public Health for over twenty years, she originated, designed, and performed numerous toxicological studies of environmental factors of importance to public health. She is the author of the previous editions of The Dose Makes the Poison.

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Table of Contents

Introduction to the Third Edition.

Preface to the Second Edition.

1 WHAT ARE CHEMICALS?

Atoms and Molecules.

Natural Chemicals.

Synthetic Chemicals.

Chemical Categories.

Chemicals: "Good" and "Bad".

Why the "Good-Bad" Dichotomy?

Man-made Chemicals Are Made by Humans.

Man-made Chemicals May Not Be Biodegradable.

Man-made Chemicals May Be Very Complex.

2 WHAT HARM DO CHEMICALS CAUSE?

Harmful Properties of Chemicals.

Explosiveness and Reactivity.

Flammability and Combustibility.

Radioactivity.

Corrosiveness.

Irritation.

Sensitization and Photosensitization.

Toxicity.

Multiple Harmful Properties.

Definition of Poison.

Definition of Hazard.

3 WHAT IS TOXICOLOGY?

Empirical Toxicology.

Paracelsus and Ramazzini.

A Brief History of Toxicology.

Toxicology Today.

What Do Toxicologists Do?

4 WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICALS?

Acute versus Chronic Toxicity.

Significance of Divided Doses.

Routes of Exposure.

Dermal Exposure.

Inhalation Exposure.

Oral Exposure.

Other Routes of Exposure.

Combinations.

Influence of Route on Toxicity.

Metabolism.

Routes of Elimination (Excretion).

Other Factors that Influence Toxicity.

Species.

Sex.

Age.

Nutrition.

State of Health.

Biochemical Individuality (Genetic Diversity).

Presence of Other Chemicals.

Adaptation.

Light.

5 HOW IS TOXICOLOGY STUDIED?

Experimental Methods.

Acute Toxicity.

Irritant and Corrosive Effects.

Sensitization and Photosensitization.

Chronic Toxicity.

Mutagenesis.

Carcinogenesis.

Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity.

Units of Trace Quantities.

Analytical Methods.

Animal Rights.

6 GENERAL TOXICOLOGY.

Acute Toxicity.

LD50 and LC50 Values.

Significance of LDs for Humans.

Poison Prevention.

Antidotes.

Chronic Toxicity.

No-Effect Levels and Thresholds.

Margins of Safety.

Sufficient Challenge.

Bioaccumulation.

7 MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS.

Mutagenesis.

Genetic Code.

Mutations.

Significance of Mutations.

Mutation and Cancer.

Carcinogenesis.

What Is Cancer?

Causes of Cancer.

Role of Mutation.

Incidence of Cancer.

Categories and Characteristics of Carcinogens.

Induction Periods.

Thresholds.

Practical Thresholds.

The Real World.

Benzo[a]pyrene.

Cancerophobia.

8 DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY.

Male and Female Reproductive Systems.

Prepuberty Systems.

Adult Systems.

The Developing Individual.

9 CASE STUDIES IN TOXICOLOGY.

Environmental Contaminations.

Dioxins: Seveso, Italy.

PCBs and Dibenzofurans: Yusho Disease.

Bophal, India.

Minamata Disease.

DDT.

Consumer Products.

Metals.

Lead and Cadmium.

Zinc.

Plastics.

Bisphenyl A.

Indoor Air Pollution.

Water Pollution.

Pharmaceuticals.

Fen-Phen.

Vioxx.

Thalidomide.

10 EPIDEMIOLOGY.

Origins of Modern Epidemiology.

Epidemiology of Noninfectious Diseases.

Koch’s Postulates.

Study Design: Precepts and Pitfalls.

Unreasonable Expectations.

Proximate Event Approach in Assigning Cause.

Distrust of Science and Scientists.

11 THE STUDY OF RISK.

Public Health Statistics.

Inherent Risk.

Risk Assessment.

Perceived Risk.

Acceptable Risk.

Risk Benefit and Cost Benefit.

Risk Communication.

Risk Management.

Bibliography.

Abbreviations.

Glossary.

Appendix A.

Index.

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