Double Victory: How African American Women Broke Race and Gender Barriers to Help Win World War II

Double Victory: How African American Women Broke Race and Gender Barriers to Help Win World War II

by Cheryl Mullenbach
     
 

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“Allow all black nurses to enlist, and the draft won’t be necessary. . . . If nurses are needed so desperately, why isn’t the Army using colored nurses?”

 

“My arm gets a little sore slinging a shovel or a pick, but then I forget about it when I think about all those boys over in the Solomons.”

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Overview

“Allow all black nurses to enlist, and the draft won’t be necessary. . . . If nurses are needed so desperately, why isn’t the Army using colored nurses?”

 

“My arm gets a little sore slinging a shovel or a pick, but then I forget about it when I think about all those boys over in the Solomons.”

 

Double Victory tells the stories of African American women who did extraordinary things to help their country during World War II. In these pages young readers meet a range of remarkable women: war workers, political activists, military women, volunteers, and entertainers. Some, such as Mary McLeod Bethune and Lena Horne, were celebrated in their lifetimes and are well known today. But many others fought discrimination at home and abroad in order to contribute to the war effort yet were overlooked during those years and forgotten by later generations. Double Victory recovers the stories of these courageous women, such as Hazel Dixon Payne, the only woman to serve on the remote Alaska-Canadian Highway; Deverne Calloway, a Red Cross worker who led a protest at an army base in India; and Betty Murphy Phillips, the only black female overseas war correspondent. Offering a new and diverse perspective on the war and including source notes and a bibliography, Double Victory is an invaluable addition to any student’s or history buff’s bookshelf.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

Double Victory is a treasure trove of little-known African American history. Cheryl Mullenbach reveals the stories our parents and grandparents were too humble to tell. Read this book and, no matter how much you think you know, you will learn something new.”  —Sherri L. Smith, author, Flygirl

“Cheryl Mullenbach has done a great service in telling the stories of these determined black women who fought racial injustice two decades before the civil rights movement in order to win the right to fight fascism alongside their fellow Americans. Double Victory is at once heartbreaking and inspiring.” —Kathryn Atwood, author of Women Heroes of Word War II

Double Victory . . . spotlights the history of ordinary women who stepped up, spoke out, and defied the rules. These unforgettable African American women denied the America they had in favor of the America in which they hoped to live—and paved the way for the women who continue to create the America we have today.”  —Tanita S. Davis, author, Mare’s War

“In this important new book, Mullenbach demonstrates how black women experienced World War II as a watershed event that ultimately led to more freedoms and equality.”  —Maggi M. Morehouse, author, Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women Remember World War II

“This is an excellent title for expanding students’ view of the Civil Rights Movement.”—School Library Journal

“A valuable asset.”  —Kirkus Reviews

“Archival photographs throughout the entire book add to the value of this book, which is indeed, a Double Victory in many ways and a new and valuable addition to women’s history, especially African American women.”—Reading.org

“A must read for anyone interested in WWII, Women's History, or African American History…an excellent resource for teachers who are interested in showing a different side of the war or the early Civil Rights Movement.” —Reading Lark

VOYA - Lindsay Grattan
Double Victory documents the heroic efforts of African-American women in the 1940s to show support for their troops in World War II while struggling with and overcoming barriers of race and gender. The contributions of minorities were often overlooked during that time. Mullenbach exposes these efforts by a range of African-American women, from well-known singer and actress Lena Horne, who performed for the troops to raise morale during the war, to lesser-known women like Hazel Dixon Payne, an American Red Cross worker who served along the remote Alaska-Canadian Highway. Mullenbach divides the book into sections, each one exploring the different roles women played throughout the war and on into the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and ?60s. War workers, political activists, military women, volunteers, and entertainers all made courageous moves to support their country. An eye-opening read, Double Victory brings to light the amazing accomplishments of people who were inhibited not only by their race, but by their gender as well. African-American women had much to overcome and yet still went above and beyond to support a country that often went against them. Though well-written and simple to understand, the book would have benefited from a complete list of the women described as that would be useful to students doing reports or research. Overall, this is a very informative read and an important telling of an overlooked aspect of World War II; it will make a wonderful addition to school libraries and classrooms. Reviewer: Lindsay Grattan
School Library Journal
Gr 7 Up—This scholarly volume gives a comprehensive view of the efforts of African American women who integrated the workforce in both civilian and military positions during World War II. Providing personal accounts of women who worked on highways, as war correspondents, and as entertainers and political activists, five chapters, illustrated with black-and-white photographs and reproductions, look at advances in each of these areas. Though the personal stories help, the text is dense and detailed. Thus, it is a bit dry, making it most useful for research or as a report resource. That aside, this is an excellent title for expanding students' view of the Civil Rights Movement, showing just how many people it took to achieve even the legislative ends realized under President Lyndon Johnson. Additionally, by focusing on women, it gives background on an aspect of the Women's Movement that is often overlooked and on the course of the broader Civil Rights Movement.—Ann Welton, Grant Elementary School, Tacoma, WA
Kirkus Reviews
The role of African-American women in World War II, both at home and abroad, has not been explored as fully as other aspects of that war, and Mullenbach here addresses this deficit. The women who tried to participate struggled against multiple obstacles: prejudice against women, segregated institutions and deep-seated discrimination against blacks in the United States. Despite these realities, many African-American women were determined to have a role in the war effort and to use their struggles to push the country toward greater inclusion for all. This exploration makes clear how hard they fought on their own behalf and how resistant U.S. society was to change, even in wartime and even as its leaders sought to galvanize the country around "four essential human freedoms." Mullenbach effectively weaves this narrative by presenting a wide variety of individual stories of struggle, some victorious, others discouraging, many accompanied by period photographs. Whether she is describing a boycott of segregated Independence Day celebrations at an overseas Red Cross club or the indignities of Jim Crow travel for uniformed women, their dogged determination to fully engage is revealed. One of the many strengths of the book is the range of areas affected, including journalism, manufacturing, troop support, military nursing and many others. Ultimately, their unstinting efforts during World War II helped pave the way for the civil rights movement and major societal change. A valuable asset. (notes, bibliography, index) (Nonfiction 14 & up)

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781613745359
Publisher:
Chicago Review Press, Incorporated
Publication date:
01/01/2013
Series:
Women of Action Series
Sold by:
Barnes & Noble
Format:
NOOK Book
Pages:
272
Sales rank:
800,641
File size:
2 MB
Age Range:
12 - 17 Years

Read an Excerpt

Double Victory

How African American Women Broke Race and Gender Barriers to Help Win World War II


By Cheryl Mullenbach

Chicago Review Press Incorporated

Copyright © 2013 Cheryl Mullenbach
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-61374-535-9



CHAPTER 1

WAR WORKERS


"Negroes Cannot Be Accepted"


I stood in line with the others, but a guard came up and said it was no need to wait; that there was no hiring of colored women.

— Miss Ethel Bell


In August 1944, factories across the country were in dire need of workers to build guns, bombs, planes, and ships for the US military. The country had been at war for almost three years. The government contracted with factory owners to provide the military with critical supplies, but thousands of men had left their factory jobs to join the fighting overseas. With the urgent need for skilled workers, defense plants looked first to unmarried white women to fill the positions. As the war effort mounted and the need for defense workers increased, the plants began to recruit and hire married white women. Some plants hired black men. Last to be considered for employment were black women. But in some plants the hiring of "colored" women was never a consideration because racial discrimination was an accepted practice in the America of the 1940s.

When Ethel Bell responded to a newspaper advertisement seeking workers for jobs at a plant in St. Louis, Missouri, a guard made it clear to her that she wouldn't be considered for employment because she was black. In 1944 it wasn't against the law for a factory to refuse to hire someone because of race or gender. There was nothing Ethel could do to force the factory owner to look beyond the color of her skin and consider her skills and qualifications. Ethel went home without a job, and the factory owner continued with the profitable government contract.


The Negro Problem

Ethel was one of the many women who were eager to get jobs in the defense plants in the war years. The jobs paid well. Some of the jobs required special expertise and the workers were given opportunities to learn new skills. In addition, the women felt they were doing something to support the war effort at home while other family members were fighting the enemy overseas.

The idea of women of any color working in factories was new to Americans in the 1940s. It was a time when most married women stayed home and worked as housewives while their husbands went to work outside the home. Some women worked in professional positions — as doctors, lawyers, teachers, and writers, for example — but those professions were dominated by men. Women with high school educations or less who worked outside the home often worked in service jobs as store clerks, waitresses, or house cleaners. Many black women worked as maids or "domestics" for white families.

Life as a domestic included long hours and little pay. A typical workday was 12 hours, and most employers expected their domestics to be "on call" six days a week. The job duties included cooking, washing, ironing, cleaning, and serving meals. Sometimes domestics cared for the white families' young children, too. The typical wage for a domestic worker was $7 a week. Domestic workers in southern states made as little as $3 to $4 a week. So when black women who worked as domestics heard about war jobs in defense plants that paid as much as $35 per week, they were interested in applying for those positions.

The federal government created agencies to deal with issues related to war work. The War Manpower Commission was formed to deal with the labor shortage caused by the large number of men entering military service. The Office of War Information relayed news and information about the war to the public. The two agencies worked together to recruit women for the war industries.

A government official from the War Manpower Commission said in an interview with Time magazine that as the nation geared up for war it would need to look for workers in untapped sources. He predicted that over 7 million people outside the paid workforce in the United States — 92 percent of whom were women — could be convinced to "forsake kitchen or lounge for office and factory." He warned that such a move would "shake U.S. living habits." He explained, "More women in the war effort means fewer women in the home — as wives, daughters, or servants; it means eating more meals out, fewer socks darned, fewer guests entertained at home, and many another change in the American way of living." The same official cautioned that "the Negro problem" was "far from licked." With so many white men entering the military and creating vacancies in the workforce, he warned, "Employers had better get set for a big increase in pressure for jobs for Negroes." And some white people saw this as a problem. Many white business owners would not want to hire black workers, and they would resist pressure from anyone who tried to make them do so.


Wanted: Women Workers

Newspapers and magazines carried advertisements showing women working in defense plants. Radio ads also encouraged women to work in war jobs. The government printed posters and hung them in public places. They showed women happily working for the war effort. The posters carried slogans: THE MORE WOMEN AT WORK — THE SOONER WE WIN, DO THE JOB HE LEFT BEHIND, and WOMEN IN THE WAR — WE CAN'T WIN WITHOUT THEM.

However, the idea of women in nontraditional jobs was a new and very different idea for many Americans. The government published pamphlets that revealed the beliefs of the time — women were not equal to men in the workplace. The pamphlets — titled When You Hire Women, Safety Caps for Women in War Factories, Women's Effective War Work Requires Good Posture, and Washing and Toilet Facilities for Women in Industry — indicated that women required special handling. The pamphlets encouraged factory owners who were considering hiring women to first "sell" the idea to men. Although many women did work before the war, the pamphlets reminded those who were hiring that women were "without work experience of any kind." The pamphlets reinforced the sexist beliefs of the time by encouraging employers to hire women for "certain type of work that women do particularly well" — work that required "care and constant alertness," "good eyesight," and "use of light instruments."

The government also set up special divisions dedicated to black workers within the Labor Division of the War Production Board. The purpose of the division's Negro Employment and Training Branch was "to help qualified Negro workers participate in the employment and training opportunities of the national defense program." It helped place black workers in defense jobs by removing barriers put in place by some white employers or labor organizations. The duties of the Minority Groups Branch of the Labor Division of the War Production Board included making investigations into complaints involving minority groups that had been filed with the government.

Early in 1941, before the United States entered the war, black leaders had pressured President Franklin Roosevelt to do something about job discrimination against black people. The president issued a statement — Executive Order 8802 — that said, "It is the policy of the United States to encourage full participation in the national defense program by all citizens of the United States, regardless of race, creed, color, or national origin." To help enforce this order at businesses and manufacturing plants that had government contracts, the president formed the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC). Although the United States hadn't yet entered the war, fighting was in full force in Europe, and factories in the United States were already providing the warring countries with supplies. Many black people saw this gearing up of industries and the establishment of the FEPC as signs of hope for their employment opportunities.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United States entered the war. Leaders in black communities and women's organizations encouraged women to consider working in war-related jobs. They believed black women faced a brighter future with wartime employment. They urged women to enroll in free courses offered by the government to teach workers skills that would prepare them for work in defense plants. They could learn welding, drafting, riveting, drilling, radio construction, code receiving and sending, engine repair, and shipbuilding. Some factories offered on-the-job training, allowing women to learn skills while getting paid.

A government training center in Marcy, New York, offered a course to women in its Women Ordnance Workers (WOW) program. At the same center women trained in a program called Women in Ground Service (WINGS). The women could choose from among six areas in the aviation field: aviation engines; aircraft fabrication; welding; electrical equipment; repair and maintenance; or parachute repair, maintenance, and packing. After three to four months of training, the women were qualified to accept employment in any war industry related to aviation. While they were in training the women earned $49 a month and were provided a place to live. The training center offered a recreation facility, religious worship, hobby and hiking clubs, glee clubs, and theater groups. It was open to all races, and it all sounded very good to women who had been working as domestics.

A Baltimore employment agency reported that in 1941 over 23,000 individuals worked as domestics — cooks, maids, laundresses, gardeners, and chauffeurs — in the city. By October 1942 the number had dropped to 15,000. A spokesman for the agency said he had 500 openings for domestics and was unable to fill them. He blamed it on the war. A high school graduate working as a domestic earned $30 a month, while a high school graduate working in a war plant earned $35 a week with overtime. A cook/maid worked 70 hours a week for 20 cents an hour; women making gas masks at a war plant earned 42 cents an hour, while women assembling small machine parts earned 63 cents an hour. The situation was similar in New York. A private employment agency reported that it had 23 women on its list of domestic workers. Recently, 10 had left for night jobs washing airplanes for a defense plant. At their new jobs, they earned $18 for a 40-hour week and worked only five days a week. As domestics they earned $10 to $15 per week — and their "week" was six or seven days. A state-run employment agency reported it had 118 workers available to fill 667 unfilled orders. A Florida newspaper reported that housewives there were adjusting: "While agencies struggle toward a nationwide solution of the servant problem, the individual housewife turns mournfully toward her kitchen sink — and washes her own dishes."


Sweaty-Handed Women Need Not Apply

Many women — both black and white — answered the call to enter the workforce and help win the war through their work in the factories. But not all businesses were ready to hire black women, despite President Roosevelt's Executive Order 8802. All across the country black women met with open discrimination as they applied for work.

In Washington, DC, an employment agency ran an ad in a newspaper for women to apply as trainees for work in a war plant. The qualifications were: "Resident of D.C. Age: 21-40. Minimum height: 5 ft. 4 inches. 125 lbs. Must pass physical and rigid character investigation." Applicants were asked to report to the employment agency for an interview. When a black woman applied at the agency she was told that the company had "not yet started taking Negro women."

In June 1942 in Chicago, 40 women completed courses at a technology school that prepared them for work as ordnance inspectors, chemists, and draftsmen. The director of the program reported that the demand for workers was so urgent that all 40 women were placed in positions on the day they completed the course — "except for the five Negro women." They were three ordnance inspectors, one draftsman, and one chemist. The director boasted that since December 1940 close to 15,000 men and women had been trained for defense jobs at the institute — but he could remember only one black trainee, a female chemist, who had been placed in a job. Despite that, the director predicted that the five black women waiting for employment would eventually be placed "when the imperative need of utilizing all trained personnel is realized." In other words, when the situation got desperate enough — when no more white workers were available — the black women would be considered.

In 1943 an East Coast war plant explained its racist position on hiring black women. The statement represented a common belief that many white people had about black people at the time: black people are dirty. Representatives of the plant stated that black women who had applied for jobs could not be hired because the work required "handling of small mechanisms" and that the women were rejected because they "all had sweaty hands." And a Baltimore company reflected its racist reasoning — that blacks were less intelligent than whites — when it refused to hire black women even though they had completed a course through a government training center. A spokesperson at the company explained, "Colored women just do not have the native intelligence necessary to do highly skilled work."

In New Orleans, Louisiana, Hattie Combre and Burneda Coleman, two black women who had passed government tests as machine operators, received letters telling them to report to work at an army camp in a city 200 miles from New Orleans. When they arrived, however, they were told "Negroes cannot be accepted." The commanding officer of the camp told them that it was not known that they were black when officials sent the letters and that "Negroes could not be used in such a capacity to work." The two women had left their jobs in New Orleans for the defense jobs at the camp, and they asked for reimbursement for their travel expenses. Hattie and Burneda were told nothing could be done about their situation.

Two black women in Ohio in 1942 decided they would do something about their situations when they were faced with discrimination. Effie Mae Turner and Claretta Johnson brought lawsuits against the companies that refused to hire them. Turner had completed over 240 hours in a defense training center before she applied for a job with a plant that manufactured war munitions. She believed she had been denied a job based solely on her race, because the company had advertised for women war workers every day in the newspaper. Johnson sued one of the biggest aircraft plants in the country when she also was denied work for which she felt she was qualified. The plant owner had received money from the government to build the plant. The women's suits claimed the two companies did not believe in democracy and the principles for which the war was being fought and were therefore giving "comfort to the enemy."

A lower Ohio state court ruled against the two women. Although the lawyers for the two women had argued that the plants were required to hire the women under Executive Order 8802, the judge in the case said he didn't believe the order applied. He said that, during wartime, individual rights were outweighed by maximum production. In other words, the judge believed it was more important for the discriminating companies to keep producing products for the war effort than for Effie Mae and Claretta to enjoy their rights. The women appealed the decision to the Ohio Supreme Court. Their cases were dismissed because, the court said, "no debatable constitutional question" was involved. This confirmed what many believed at the time: Executive Order 8802 carried little legal weight — in the workplace or in the courts.


Toothless Government Programs

Gradually, as the war continued and fewer white workers were available for jobs, employers began to hire black women. Thousands found work in defense plants and other wartime industries. Sometimes it was only after intervention by the FEPC that jobs opened up for black women. A plant in Columbus, Ohio, agreed to hire black women only after months of negotiations with black community groups that had complained to the FEPC about the company's discrimination against black women. In February 1943 the Washington, DC, Navy Yard hired black women for the first time in its history. For the first time in its existence, the Brooklyn Navy Yard hired black women. In March 1945 a St. Louis plant that manufactured electrical equipment hired its first black women after the FEPC negotiated with the management at the plant.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Double Victory by Cheryl Mullenbach. Copyright © 2013 Cheryl Mullenbach. Excerpted by permission of Chicago Review Press Incorporated.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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What People are saying about this

From the Publisher

Double Victory is a treasure trove of little-known African American history. Cheryl Mullenbach reveals the stories our parents and grandparents were too humble to tell. Read this book and, no matter how much you think you know, you will learn something new.”  —Sherri L. Smith, author, Flygirl

“Cheryl Mullenbach has done a great service in telling the stories of these determined black women who fought racial injustice two decades before the civil rights movement in order to win the right to fight fascism alongside their fellow Americans. Double Victory is at once heartbreaking and inspiring.” —Kathryn Atwood, author of Women Heroes of Word War II

Double Victory . . . spotlights the history of ordinary women who stepped up, spoke out, and defied the rules. These unforgettable African American women denied the America they had in favor of the America in which they hoped to live—and paved the way for the women who continue to create the America we have today.”  —Tanita S. Davis, author, Mare’s War

“In this important new book, Mullenbach demonstrates how black women experienced World War II as a watershed event that ultimately led to more freedoms and equality.”  —Maggi M. Morehouse, author, Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women Remember World War II

“This is an excellent title for expanding students’ view of the Civil Rights Movement.”—School Library Journal

“A valuable asset.”  —Kirkus Reviews

“Although this book was written for young adults, there's so much fascinating information in it that individuals of any age will find it well worth reading.”—Bookloons

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Meet the Author

Cheryl Mullenbach is a former history teacher, librarian, and public television project manager and is currently a K–12 social studies consultant. She contributed several entries to Women in American Military History: An Encyclopedia.

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