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How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of our understanding of free will.
This book arises out of a workshop held in California in April of 2007, which was chaired by Dr. Christof Koch. It was unusual in terms of the breadth of people involved: they included physicists, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, philosophers, and theologians. This enabled the meeting, and hence the resulting book, to attain a rather broader perspective on the issue than is often attained at academic symposia. The book includes contributions by Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, George F. R. Ellis , Christopher D. Frith, Mark Hallett, David Hodgson, Owen D. Jones, Alicia Juarrero, J. A. Scott Kelso, Christof Koch, Hans Küng, Hakwan C. Lau, Dean Mobbs, Nancey Murphy, William Newsome, Timothy O’Connor, Sean A.. Spence, and Evan Thompson.
1 Introduction and Overview Nancey Murphy 1
Part I Physics, Emergence, and Complex Systems
2 Free Will, Physics, Biology, and the Brain Christof Koch 31
3 Human Freedom and "Emergence" William T. Newsome 53
4 Top-Down Causation and the Human Brain George F.R. Ellis 63
5 Top-Down Causation and Autonomy in Complex Systems Alicia Juarrero 83
6 Toward a Complementary Neuroscience: Metastable Coordination Dynamics of the Brain J.A. Scott Kelso Emmanuelle Tognoli 103
Part II Volition and Consciousness: Are They Illusions?
7 Physiology of Volition Mark Hallett 127
8 How We Recognize Our Own Actions Sarah-Jayne Blakemore 145
9 Volition and the Function of Consciousness Hakwan C. Lau 153
Part III Broader Understandings of Volition and Consciousness
10 Conscious Willing and the Emerging Sciences of Brain and Behavior Timothy O'Connor 173
11 Contemplative Neuroscience as an Approach to Volitional Consciousness Evan Thompson 187
12 Free Will and Top-Down Control in the Brain Chris D. Frith 199
13 Thinking beyond the Bereitschaftspotential: Consciousness of Self and Others as a Necessary Condition for Change Sean A. Spence 211
Part IV Human Implications of the Debate
14 Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience David Hodgson 227
15 Law, Responsibility, and the Brain Dean Mobbs Hakwan C. Lau Owen D. Jones Chris D. Frith 243
16 The Controversy over Brain Research Hans Küng 261
Author Index 271