Dried Fruits: Phytochemicals and Health Effects

Overview

Dried fruits serve as important healthful snack items around the world. They provide a concentrated form of fresh fruits, prepared by different drying techniques. With their unique combination of taste/aroma, essential nutrients, fibre, and phytochemicals or bioactive compounds, dried fruits are convenient for healthy eating and can bridge the gap between recommended intake of fruits and actual consumption. Dried fruits are nutritionally equivalent to fresh fruits, in smaller serving sizes, in the current dietary...

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Overview

Dried fruits serve as important healthful snack items around the world. They provide a concentrated form of fresh fruits, prepared by different drying techniques. With their unique combination of taste/aroma, essential nutrients, fibre, and phytochemicals or bioactive compounds, dried fruits are convenient for healthy eating and can bridge the gap between recommended intake of fruits and actual consumption. Dried fruits are nutritionally equivalent to fresh fruits, in smaller serving sizes, in the current dietary recommendations of various countries. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals who regularly consume generous amounts of dried fruits have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, obesity, various types of cancer, type-2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Dried fruits also have the advantage of being easy to store and distribute, available around the year, readily incorporated into other foods and recipes, and present a healthy alternative to salty or sugary snacks.

Dried Fruits: Phytochemicals and Health Effects is divided into three sections preceded by introductory chapters that provide an overview of dried fruits (their composition, phytochemicals and health applications) as well as the cancer chemopreventive effects of selected dried fruits (amla fruits or Indian gooseberries, avocados, berries, mangoes, mangosteens, persimmons, prunes, raisins, kiwi fruits, and other dried fruits). The first section covers the most popular dried berries (blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, cranberries, goji berries, mulberries, raspberries, and strawberries); the second section discusses non-tropical dried fruits (apples, apricots, cherries, citrus fruits, figs, nectarines, peaches, pears, prunes, and raisins); and the final section addresses tropical dried fruits (açai fruits, bananas, dates, guavas, papayas, mangoes, passion fruits, and pineapples).

Contributors to this volume are internationally renowned researchers who have provided a comprehensive account of the global perspectives of the issues relating to phytochemicals and health effects of dried fruits. The book will serve as a resource for those interested in the potential application of new developments in dried fruits’ nutraceuticals and functional foods. Biochemists, chemists, food scientists/technologists, nutritionists, and health professionals, from academia, government laboratories, and industry will benefit from this publication. Although this book is intended primarily as a reference book, it also summarises the current state of knowledge in key research areas and contains ideas for future work. In addition, it provides easy to read text suitable for teaching senior undergraduate and post-graduate students.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780813811734
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/25/2013
  • Series: Hui: Food Science and Technology Series , #2
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 508
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Associate Professor Cesarettin Alasalvar, TÜBITAK Marmara Research Centre, Food Institute, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey

Professor Fereidoon Shahidi, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xii

Preface xvii

1 Composition, phytochemicals, and beneficial health effects of dried fruits: an overview 1
Cesarettin Alasalvar and Fereidoon Shahidi

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of dried fruits 2

1.3 Phytochemicals in dried fruits 6

1.4 Beneficial health effects of dried fruits 13

1.5 Commercial products and industrial applications of dried fruits 14

1.6 Conclusions 14

References 15

2 Cancer chemopreventive effects of selected dried fruits 19
Joydeb Kumar Kundu and Young-Joon Surh

2.1 Chemoprevention: an overview 19

2.2 The promise of dried fruits in cancer prevention 19

2.3 Dried fruits as a potential source of chemopreventive phytochemicals 21

2.4 Biochemical basis of chemoprevention with dried fruits 21

2.5 Chemopreventive properties of bioactive substances derived from selected dried fruits 24

2.6 Conclusions 39

Acknowledgments 40

References 40

PART 1 DRIED BERRIES

3 Phytochemicals and health benefits of blackberries and black currants 55
Haiming Shi and Liangli (Lucy) Yu

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of blackberries and black currants 55

3.3 Phytochemicals in blackberries and black currants 58

3.4 Health benefits of blackberries and black currants 66

3.5 Commercial products and industrial applications of blackberries and black currants 68

3.6 Drying effects on antioxidant capacities and phenolics of blackberries and black currants 69

3.7 Conclusions 70

References 70

4 Dried blueberries: the effects of processing on health-promoting compounds 75
William L. Kerr

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Varieties and composition 76

4.3 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of blueberries 77

4.4 Phytochemicals 79

4.5 Health effects related to blueberries 83

4.6 Effects of processing on blueberry components 88

4.7 Conclusions 94

References 94

5 Functional characteristics of dried cranberries 101
K.M. Schaich

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Composition and nutritional characteristics of dried cranberry powder 102

5.3 Natural antioxidants in dried cranberry powder 113

5.4 Health effects of dried cranberry powders 116

5.5 Food applications of dried cranberry powders 123

5.6 Conclusions 126

References 126

6 Phytochemicals and health benefits of goji berries 133
Ying Zhong, Fereidoon Shahidi, and Marian Naczk

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Functional components in goji berries 134

6.3 Health benefits of goji berries 139

6.4 Conclusions 141

References 141

7 Dried mulberries: phytochemicals and health effects 145
Mine Gultekin Ozguven and Beraat Ozcelik

7.1 Introduction 145

7.2 Drying of mulberries 146

7.3 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of mulberries 146

7.4 Phytochemicals in mulberries and their by-products 148

7.5 Natural antioxidants in mulberries 151

7.6 Health effects of mulberries 153

7.7 Food application of mulberries and their by-products 155

7.8 Conclusions 156

References 157

8 Dried raspberries: phytochemicals and health effects 161
Esteban I. Mejia-Meza, Jaime A. Yáñez, Neal M. Davies, and Carter D. Clary

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Dehydration of raspberries 161

8.3 Phytochemicals in dried raspberries 162

8.4 Antioxidants in dried raspberries 169

8.5 Health benefits of dried raspberries 171

8.6 Conclusions 172

References 172

9 Phytochemical antioxidants and health benefits of dried strawberries 175
Rong Tsao and Hongyan Li

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Phytochemicals 176

9.3 Factors affecting phytochemicals 180

9.4 Health benefits of strawberries 182

9.5 Conclusions 186

References 186

10 Beneficial effects of dried berry fruits in human health and disease prevention 192
Shirley Zafra-Stone, Manashi Bagchi, and Debasis Bagchi

10.1 Introduction 192

10.2 Antioxidant protection 193

10.3 Cardiovascular health and metabolic syndrome 193

10.4 Neuroprotection 196

10.5 Anticancer activity 197

10.6 Helicobacter pylori and inflammatory response 203

10.7 Diabetes and vision 204

10.8 Conclusions 205

References 205

PART 2 NONTROPICAL DRIED FRUITS

11 Phytochemicals and health benefits of dried apple snacks 213
H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe and Ajit P.K. Joshi

11.1 Introduction 213

11.2 Food applications of dried apple snacks 213

11.3 Effects of drying methods and vacuum impregnation (VI) on apple phytochemicals 214

11.4 Antioxidant capacity of dried apple snacks 217

11.5 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of dried apple snacks 220

11.6 Health benefits of fresh and dried apples 222

11.7 Conclusions 222

References 223

12 Phytochemicals and health benefits of dried apricots 226
Neslihan Göncüoğlu, Burçe Ataç Mogol, and Vural Gökmen

12.1 Introduction 226

12.2 Production 226

12.3 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of dried apricots 228

12.4 Phytochemicals in dried apricots 229

12.5 Antioxidant activity of dried apricots 232

12.6 Chemical changes during drying of apricots 233

12.7 Effects of sulfur treatment on phytochemical content of apricots 234

12.8 Health benefits of dried apricots 236

12.9 Conclusions 239

References 239

13 Dried cherries: phytochemicals and health perspectives 243
Letitia McCune

13.1 Introduction 243

13.2 Production 243

13.3 Methods of drying 244

13.4 Nutritional characteristics 245

13.5 Antioxidant phytochemicals 246

13.6 Health benefits 248

13.7 Conclusions 253

References 253

14 Dried citrus fruits: phytochemicals and health beneficial effects 258
Tzou-Chi Huang and Chi-Tang Ho

14.1 Introduction 258

14.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of citrus 259

14.3 Phytochemicals in citrus 259

14.4 Health effects of dried citrus peels 267

14.5 Food application of citrus and their by-products 274

14.6 Conclusions 276

References 276

15 Functional characteristics of dried figs 284
Cesarettin Alasalvar

15.1 Introduction 284

15.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of fresh and dried figs 284

15.3 Phytochemicals in dried figs 288

15.4 Health benefits of dried figs 296

15.5 Conclusions 296

References 297

16 Drying nectarines: functional compounds and antioxidant potential 300
Daniel Valero, Huertas María Díaz-Mula, and María Serrano

16.1 Introduction 300

16.2 How to dry nectarines 301

16.3 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of dried nectarines 301

16.4 Phytochemicals in dried nectarines 303

16.5 Health benefits of dried nectarines 305

16.6 Commercial products and industrial applications of dried nectarines 306

16.7 Conclusions 306

References 306

17 Phytochemical composition and health aspects of peach products 309
Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Laura A. de la Rosa, Gustavo A. González-Aguilar,

and Jesús F. Ayala-Zavala

17.1 Introduction 309

17.2 Compositional and nutritional changes of peaches during dehydration 310

17.3 Phytochemicals in fresh and processed peaches 312

17.4 Health effects of peaches 318

17.5 Dry peaches and their by-products 320

17.6 Conclusions 321

Acknowledgments 321

References 321

18 Dried pears: phytochemicals and potential health effects 325
Lisete Silva, Fereidoon Shahidi, and Manuel A. Coimbra

18.1 Introduction 325

18.2 Phytochemicals in pears 326

18.3 Changes in phytochemical compounds during drying of pears 333

18.4 Bioavailability and potential health effects 338

18.5 Conclusions 346

References 347

19 Prunes: are they functional foods? 357
Alessandra Del Caro and Antonio Piga

19.1 Introduction 357

19.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of prunes 358

19.3 Phytochemicals in prunes and their by-products 360

19.4 Natural antioxidant in prunes 362

19.5 Health effects of prunes 363

19.6 Food application of prunes and their by-products 365

19.7 Conclusions 366

References 366

20 Raisins: processing, phytochemicals, and health benefits 372
Fereidoon Shahidi and Zhuliang Tan

20.1 Introduction 372

20.2 Types of raisins 372

20.3 Processing of raisins 373

20.4 Composition of raisins 376

20.5 Phytochemicals in raisins 377

20.6 Bioactivities and health benefits of raisins 384

20.7 Conclusions 387

References 388

PART 3 TROPICAL DRIED FRUITS

21 Açai fruits: potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory superfruits with

potential health benefits 395

Alexander G. Schauss

21.1 Introduction 395

21.2 Compositional and nutrition characteristics of açai fruits 396

21.3 Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of açai fruits 398

21.4 Phytochemicals in açai fruits 402

21.5 Processing of açai fruits for value-added products 406

21.6 Conclusions 408

References 409

22 Bananas, dried bananas, and banana chips: nutritional characteristics, phytochemicals, and health effects 414
Arianna Carughi

22.1 Introduction 414

22.2 Production and consumption 414

22.3 Dried bananas or banana figs 415

22.4 Dried and fried banana chips (crisps) 416

22.5 Nutritional content of bananas, dried bananas, and banana chips 416

22.6 Phytochemicals in bananas and dried fruit products 421

22.7 Potential health benefits of dried bananas 423

22.8 Conclusions 424

References 424

23 Nutritional composition, phytochemicals, and health benefits of dates 428
Cesarettin Alasalvar and Fereidoon Shahidi

23.1 Introduction 428

23.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of fresh and dried dates 429

23.3 Phytochemicals in fresh and dried dates 432

23.4 Health benefits of dates 438

23.5 Food application of dates, syrups, and their byproducts 439

23.6 Conclusions 440

References 440

24 Neutraceutical properties of dried tropical fruits: guavas and papayas 444
K. Nagendra Prasad, Azrina Azlan, and Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof

24.1 Introduction 444

24.2 Guavas 445

24.3 Papayas 449

24.4 Conclusions 453

Acknowledgments 453

References 453

25 Dried mangoes: phytochemicals, antioxidant properties, and health benefits 457
Fouad Abdulrahman Hassan, Sadeq Hasan Al-Sheraji, and Amin Ismail

25.1 Introduction 457

25.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of dried mangoes 458

25.3 Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of dried mangoes 460

25.4 Health benefits of dried mangoes 465

25.5 Conclusions 466

References 466

26 Phytochemicals and health applications of dried passion and pineapple fruits 471
Jian Sun, Li Li, Xiangrong You, Changbao Li, Zhichun Li, and Fen Liao

26.1 Introduction 471

26.2 Compositional and nutritional characteristics of dried passion and pineapple fruits 472

26.3 Phytochemicals in dried passion and pineapple fruits 473

26.4 Health benefits of dried passion and pineapple fruits 479

26.5 Commercial products and industrial applications of dried passion and pineapple fruits 482

26.6 Conclusions 482

Acknowledgments 482

References 483

Color plate section located between pages 356 and 357

Index 486

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