Drugs and Society / Edition 9

Drugs and Society / Edition 9

by Hanson Glen R.
     
 

ISBN-10: 0763737321

ISBN-13: 9780763737320

Pub. Date: 11/15/2005

Publisher: Jones & Barlett Learning

Drugs And Society, Ninth Edition, Clearly Illustrates The Impact Of Drug Use And Abuse On The Lives Of Ordinary People And Provides Students With A Realistic Perspective Of Drug-Related Problems In Our Society. Written In An Objective And User-Friendly Manner, This Best-Selling Text Continues To Captivate Students By Incorporating Personal Drug Use And Abuse

Overview

Drugs And Society, Ninth Edition, Clearly Illustrates The Impact Of Drug Use And Abuse On The Lives Of Ordinary People And Provides Students With A Realistic Perspective Of Drug-Related Problems In Our Society. Written In An Objective And User-Friendly Manner, This Best-Selling Text Continues To Captivate Students By Incorporating Personal Drug Use And Abuse Experiences And Perspectives Throughout. Statistics And Chapter Content Have Been Revised To Include The Latest Information On Current Topics.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780763737320
Publisher:
Jones & Barlett Learning
Publication date:
11/15/2005
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
589
Product dimensions:
7.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents


Preface     x
Introduction to Drugs and Society     2
Introduction     4
Drug Use     4
Dimensions of Drug Use     5
Most Commonly Abused Drugs     14
An Overview of Drugs in Society     18
How Widespread Is Drug Abuse?     19
Extent and Frequency of Drug Use in Society     19
Current Patterns of Licit and Illicit Drug Use     28
Nonmedical Users of Pain Relievers     28
Types of Drug Users     33
Influence of the Mass Media on Drug Use     34
Drug Use and Drug Dependence     36
When Does Use Lead to Abuse?     37
Drug Dependence     38
The Costs of Drug Use to Society     39
Drugs, Crime, and Violence     41
Drugs in the Workplace: A Costly Affliction     44
Venturing to a Higher Form of Consciousness: The Holistic Self-Awareness Approach to Drug Use     46
Explaining Drug Use and Abuse     52
Introduction     54
Drug Use: A Timeless Affliction     55
The Origin and Nature of Addiction     57
Defining Addiction     57
Models of Addiction     58
Factors Contributing toAddiction     59
The Vicious Cycle of Addiction     61
Nondrug Addictions?     61
Major Theoretical Explanations: Biological     62
Abused Drugs as Positive Reinforcers     62
Drug Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders     63
Genetic Explanations     63
Major Theoretical Explanations: Psychological     64
Distinguishing Between Substance Abuse and Mental Disorders     64
The Relationship Between Personality and Drug Use     65
Theories Based on Learning Processes     65
Social Psychological Learning Theories     67
Major Theoretical Explanations: Sociological     67
Social Influence Theories     68
Structural Influence Theories     78
Danger Signals of Drug Abuse     82
Low-Risk and High-Risk Drug Choices     63
Drug Use, Regulation, and the Law     90
Introduction     92
Cultural Attitudes About Drug Use     92
The Road to Regulation and the FDA     93
Prescription Versus OTC Drugs     93
The Rising Demand for Effectiveness in Medicinal Drugs     95
Regulating the Development of New Drugs     95
The Effects of the OTC Review on Today's Medications     98
The Regulation of Drug Advertising     98
Prescription Advertising     99
Federal Regulation and Quality Assurance     99
Drug Abuse and the Law     101
Drug Laws and Deterrence     103
Factors in Controlling Drug Abuse     104
Strategies for Preventing Drug Abuse     107
Supply Reduction Strategy     107
Demand Reduction Strategy     108
Inoculation Strategy     108
Drug Courts     109
Current and Future Drug Use     109
Drug Legalization Debate     110
Drug Testing     112
Pragmatic Drug Policies     113
Homeostatic Systems and Drugs     118
Introduction     120
Overview of Homeostasis and Drug Actions     120
Introduction to Nervous Systems     120
Comprehensive Explanation of Homeostatic Systems     122
The Building Blocks of the Nervous System     122
The Neuron: The Basic Structural Unit of the Nervous System     122
The Nature of Drug Receptors     124
Agonistic and Antagonistic Effects on Drug Receptors     124
Neurotransmitters: The Messengers     125
Major Divisions of the Nervous System     128
The Central Nervous System     129
The Autonomic Nervous System     130
The Endocrine System     132
Endocrine Glands and Regulation     132
The Abuse of Hormones: Anabolic Steroids     133
Designer Steroids     135
Conclusion     135
How and Why Drugs Work     138
Introduction     140
The Intended and Unintended Effects of Drugs     140
The Dose-Response Relationship of Therapeutics and Toxicity     141
Margin of Safety     142
Potency Versus Toxicity     142
Drug Interaction     143
Additive Effects     143
Antagonistic (Inhibitory) Effects     143
Potentiative (Synergistic) Effects     144
Dealing with Drug Interactions     144
Pharmacokinetic Factors That Influence Drug Effects     145
Forms and Methods of Taking Drugs     146
Distribution of Drugs in the Body and Time-Response Relationships     148
Inactivation and Elimination of Drugs from the Body     150
Physiological Variables That Modify Drug Effects     151
Pathological Variables That Modify Drug Effects      151
Adaptive Processes and Drug Abuse     151
Tolerance to Drugs     152
Drug Dependence     155
Psychological Factors     156
The Placebo Effect     156
Addiction and Abuse: The Significance of Dependence     156
Hereditary Factors     157
Drug Craving     157
Other Factors     158
CNS Depressants: Sedative-Hypnotics     162
Introduction     164
An Introduction to CNS Depressants     164
The History of CNS Depressants     164
The Effects of CNS Depressants: Benefits and Risks     165
Types of CNS Depressants     166
Benzodiazepines: Valium-Type Drugs     167
Barbiturates     171
Other CNS Depressants     173
Patterns of Abuse with CNS Depressants     177
Treatment for Withdrawal     179
Alcohol: Pharmacological Effects     186
Introduction     188
The Nature and History of Alcohol     189
Alcohol as a Drug     189
Alcohol as a Social Drug     190
Impact of Alcohol     190
The Properties of Alcohol     191
The Physical Effects of Alcohol      192
Alcohol and Tolerance     194
Alcohol Metabolism     195
Polydrug Use     195
Short-Term Effects     195
Dependence     197
The Effects of Alcohol on Organ Systems and Bodily Functions     198
Brain and Nervous System     198
Liver     199
Digestive System     200
Blood     200
Cardiovascular System     201
Sexual Organs     202
Endocrine System     202
Kidneys     202
Mental Disorders and Damage to the Brain     202
The Fetus     202
Gender Differences     203
Malnutrition     203
Alcohol: A Behavioral Perspective     208
Introduction     210
Alcohol Consumption in the United States     210
Current Statistics and Trends in Alcohol Consumption     211
Percentages of the Drinking Population: A Pyramid Model     212
Economic Costs of Alcohol Abuse     218
History of Alcohol in America     220
Drinking Patterns     220
Historical Considerations     221
Defining Alcoholics     221
Cultural Differences      225
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism     226
Types of Alcoholics     226
Cultural Influences     227
Culture and Drinking Behavior     228
Culture and Disinhibited Behavior     229
Culture Provides Rules for Drinking Behavior     230
Culture Provides Ceremonial Meaning for Alcohol Use     230
Culture Provides Models of Alcoholism     230
Cultural Stereotypes of Drinking Patterns May Be Misleading     231
Culture Provides Attitudes Regarding Alcohol Consumption     232
College and University Students and Alcohol Use     233
Binge Drinking     234
Gender and Collegiate Alcohol Use     235
Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Women     235
The Role of Alcohol in Domestic Violence     237
Alcohol and Sex     238
Alcohol and the Family: Destructive Types of Support and Organizations for Victims of Alcoholics     238
Codependency and Enabling     238
Children of Alcoholics (COAs) and Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs)     239
Treatment of Alcoholism     239
Getting Through Withdrawal     240
Helping the Alcoholic Family Recover     241
Narcotics (Opioids)      250
Introduction     252
What Are Narcotics?     252
The History of Narcotics     252
Opium in China     252
American Opium Use     254
Pharmacological Effects     256
Narcotic Analgesics     256
Other Therapeutic Uses     257
Mechanisms of Action     258
Side Effects     258
Abuse, Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal     258
Heroin Abuse     259
Treatment of Heroin and Other Narcotic Dependence     265
Other Narcotics     268
Morphine     268
Methadone     269
Fentanyls     269
Hydromorphone     270
Oxycodone (OxyContin)     270
Meperidine     271
Buprenorphine     271
MPTP: A "Designer" Tragedy     271
Codeine     272
Pentazocine     272
Propoxyphene     272
Narcotic-Related Drugs     272
Dextromethorphan     272
Clonidine     273
Naloxone/Naltrexone     274
Stimulants     280
Introduction     282
Major Stimulants      282
Amphetamines     282
Cocaine     294
Current Attitudes and Patterns of Abuse     299
Minor Stimulants     308
Caffeinelike Drugs (Xanthines)     308
OTC Sympathomimetics     313
Herbal Stimulants     313
Tobacco     322
Tobacco Use: Scope of the Problem     324
Current Tobacco Use in the United States     324
The History of Tobacco Use     325
Popularity in the Western World     325
History of Tobacco Use in America     326
Phamacology of Nicotine     330
Nicotine Administration     330
Effects on the Central Nervous System     330
Other Effects of Nicotine     330
Clove Cigarettes     336
Cigarette Smoking: A Costly Addiction     336
Mortality Rates     336
Chronic Illnesses     337
Effects Without Smoking     340
Effects on the Fetus     340
Tobacco Use Without Smoking     341
Environmental Tobacco Smoke     342
Who Smokes?     342
Reasons for Smoking     343
The Motivation Not to Smoke     343
Alternative Activities for Successfully Quitting     344
Smoking Cessation Aids     344
Social Issues: Looking to the Future     346
Tobacco as a Gateway Drug     346
Smoking Prohibition Versus Smokers' Rights     347
Hallucinogens (Psychedelics)     352
Introduction     354
The History of Hallucinogen Use     354
The Native American Church     355
Timothy Leary and the League of Spiritual Discovery     355
Hallucinogen Use Today     356
The Nature of Hallucinogens     356
Sensory and Psychological Effects     357
Mechanisms of Action     359
Types of Hallucinogenic Agents     359
Traditional Hallucinogens: LSD Types     360
Phenylethylamine Hallucinogens     368
Anticholinergic Hallucinogens     370
Other Hallucinogens     372
Marijuana     382
Introduction     384
History and Trends in Marijuana Use     385
Current Use of Marijuana     388
Trends in Use     390
Annual Use     392
Perceived Harmfulness     392
Disapproval     392
Perceived Availability, Risk, and Use     392
Marijuana: Is It the Assassin of Youth?     293
Major Factors Affecting Marijuana Use     393
Is Marijuana Really a Gateway Drug?     394
Misperceptions of Marijuana Use     395
Characteristics of Cannabis     395
The Behavioral Effects of Marijuana Use     397
The "High"     397
Subjective Euphoric Effects     398
Driving Performance     400
Critical Thinking Skills     401
Amotivational Syndrome     401
Therapeutic Uses and the Controversy over Medical Marijuana Use     403
The Physiological Effects of Marijuana Use     407
Effects on the Central Nervous System     407
Effects on the Respiratory System     408
Effects on the Cardiovascular System     408
Effects on Sexual Performance and Reproduction     409
Tolerance and Dependence     410
Chronic Use     410
Inhalants     418
Introduction     420
History of Inhalants     420
Types of Inhalants     421
Volatile Substances     421
Anesthetics     423
Nitrites     424
Current Patterns and Signs of Abuse     424
Adolescent and Teenage Usage     424
Gender, Race, Socioeconomics, and Abuse     425
Signs of Inhalant Abuse     426
Dangers of Inhalant Abuse     426
Over-the-Counter (OTC), Prescription, and Herbal Drugs     430
Introduction     432
OTC Drugs     432
Abuse of OTC Drugs     432
Federal Regulation of OTC Drugs     434
OTC Drugs and Self-Care     434
Types of OTC Drugs     436
OTC Herbal (Natural) Products     448
Prescription Drugs     451
Prescription Drug Abuse     451
Proper Doctor-Patient Communication     452
Drug Selection: Generic Versus Proprietary     453
Common Categories of Prescription Drugs     455
Common Principles of Drug Use     462
Drug Use Within Major Subcultures     468
Introduction     470
Athletes and Drug Abuse     471
Drugs Used by Athletes     473
Prevention and Treatment     482
Drug Use Among Women     482
Women More Concerned About Drug Use Than Men     483
Patterns of Drug Use: Comparing Females with Males      483
Female Roles and Drug Addiction     483
Women's Response to Drugs     485
Treatment of Drug Dependency in Women     488
Drug Use in Adolescent Subcultures     489
Why Adolescents Use Drugs     490
Patterns of Drug Use in Adolescents     492
Adolescent versus Adult Drug Abuse     493
Consequences and Coincidental Problems     493
Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment of Adolescent Drug Problems     498
Summary of Adolescent Drug Abuse     500
Drug Use in College Student Subcultures     501
Reasons for College Students' Drug Use     501
Additional Noteworthy Findings Regarding Drug Use by College Students     504
HIV and AIDS     506
Nature of HIV Infection and Related Symptoms     507
Diagnosis and Treatment     507
Who Is at Risk for AIDS?     510
AIDS and Drugs of Abuse     512
Adolescents and AIDS     513
What to Do About HIV and AIDS     514
The Entertainment Industry and Drug Use     515
More Recent Promoter of Drug Use: The Internet     517
Drug Abuse Prevention     526
Introduction     528
Drug Prevention Programs      530
Considering the Audience and Approach     530
An Example of Drug Prevention at Central High in Elmtown     532
Comprehensive Prevention Programs for Drug Use and Abuse     531
Harm Reduction Model     534
Community-Based Drug Prevention     534
School-Based Drug Prevention     535
Family-Based Prevention Programs     538
Drug Prevention Programs in Higher Education     539
Overview and Critique of Existing Prevention Programs     539
Examples of Large-Scale Drug Prevention Programs     541
BACCHUS and GAMMA Peer Education Network     541
Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education Drug Prevention Programs     541
DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)     543
Drug Courts     543
Problems with Assessing the Success of Drug Prevention Programs     546
Other Alternatives to Drug Use     546
Meditation     547
The Natural Mind Approach     549
Treating Drug Dependence     554
Treatment of Addiction     556
Drug Addiction Treatment in the United States     558
Therapeutic Strategies     558
Historical Approaches     558
General Therapeutic Strategies     560
Specific Therapeutic Strategies     561
Pharmacological Strategies     562
Current Trends in Providing Treatment Services     564
Appendices     568
Index     576
Photo Credits     588

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