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Real-time systems are systems in which temporal properties are
essential for reliability and correctness. Examples of systems where
correctness and reliability are important for safety reasons include
control systems for cars, trains and air planes. In devices such as
washing machines, DVD players and mobile phones the correctness and
reliability of the embedded real-time computing systems are important
for economical reasons as it is expensive to repair errors after the
Duration Calculus is an interval logic having special features for
expressing and analysing time durations of states in real-time
systems. Duration Calculus represents a formal approach to the
development of real-time systems, where requirements and designs can
be expressed and reasoned about at an appropriate level of
This book presents the logical foundations of Duration Calculus in a
coherent and thorough manner and through selective case studies it
expains how Durations Calculus can be applied to formal specification
and verification of real-time systems. The book also contains an
extensive survey of the research on Duration Calculus.
Material included in the book has been used for M.Sc. and
Ph.D. courses, but the book is also valuable for experienced
researchers and professionals.
1. Introduction.- 2. Interval Logic.- 3. Duration Calculus.- 4. Deadline-Driven Scheduler.- 5. Relative Completeness.- 6. Decidability.- 7. Undecidability.- 8. Model Checking: Linear Duration Invariants.- 9. State Transitions and Events.- 10. Superdense State Transitions.- 11. Neighborhood Logic.- 12. Probabilistic Duration Calculus.- References.- Abbreviations.- Symbol Index.