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Shindo examines the images of Dust Bowl migrants in photography, fiction, film, and song and marks off the various distances between these representations and the realities of migrant lives. He shows how photographer Dorothea Lange, novelist John Steinbeck, Hollywood filmmaker John Ford, and folksinger Woody Guthrie, as well as folklorists and government reformers, sympathized with the migrants' plight but also appropriated that experience to further their own aesthetic and ideological agendas.
The haunted look of Lange's "Migrant Mother" and other photos, the powerful story of the Joad family in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, Ford's poetic cinematic adaptation of that novel, and the gritty plainfolk lyrics of Guthrie's Dust Bowl Ballads have all combined to portray the migrants as the quintessential victims of the Great Depression. Shindo, however, contends that these artists failed to fully grasp the realities of "Okie" culture and seemed far more concerned with promoting views and agendas that the migrants themselves might have found inaccurate or unappealing.
Shindo's study shows us how art can dominate history in the popular mind and illuminates the ways in which artists blend aesthetics and politics to make a personal statement about the human condition. His book not only increases our understanding of a tragic era in American history but also expands the scope of current histories of the American West to include cultural representations and their importance.
List of Illustrations
Displaced Voices: The Migrants as American Victims
1. The Ideals of American Democracy: New Deal Reformers and the Migrant
2. The Passion and the Humanity: Dorothea Lange and Migrant Mother
3. The Perfectibility of Man: John Steinbeck and the Grapes of Wrath
Photo Essay. Introducing Americans to America: The Image of the Migrants
4. The World-Old Desire to Tell a Story: John Ford and The Grapes of Wrath
5. The Things That You Fight For: Woody Guthrie and the Dust Bowl Ballads
6. The Uses of American Culture: Folkorists and the Migrant
The Ghost of Tom Joad: The Persistence of Dust Bowl Representations
Appendix: A Note on Method