Early Childhood Curriculum: Developmental Bases for Learning and Teaching / Edition 5

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Overview

With a solid theoretical focus and child-centered approach, Early Childhood Curriculum stresses the importance of students understanding the foundations of their field before they develop and use quality teaching and instruction programs. The text strikes a balance between the most current research and trends with classic theories to create a working basis for developing curriculum for children from 0-8 years old.

This specific and reflective guide to implementing quality teaching programs in a chronological manner from infancy to grade three takes a largely constructivist approach that includes skills instruction and emergent literacy in a balanced reading program. The teacher guides, instructs, and scaffolds, and the child encounters, experiences, and accomplishes goals in beginning literacy.

The new sixth edition of the text includes thematic lesson plans that are updated to integrate state standards as well as current information on new brain research and its implications for infant-toddler programs.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137152339
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/15/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 456
  • Sales rank: 553,746
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE

The Changing Role of the Teacher in Developing Curriculum for Diverse Populations

Chapter Objectives

Introduction

Who Are the Children Served in Early Childhood Programs?

Children in Early Childhood Programs are Diverse

Cultural Differences

Ethnic Differences

Language Differences

Differences in Family Environments

Differences in Learning Needs

Early Childhood Programs and At-Risk Learners

Children of Divorced Families

Children of Teenage Parents

Homeless Children

Children Living in Other Stressful Situations

Children Who Have Disabilities

At-Risk Children May Need Intervention Programs

The Complex Nature of Settings for Early Childhood Programs

Public School Programs

Kindergarten Programs

Prekindergtarten Programs

Bilingual and English as a Second Language Programs

Programs for Children with Special Needs

Extended-Care Programs

Nonpublic School Programs

Head Start

Child Care

Continuing Complexity in Preschool Programs

The Changing Role of the Teacher In Developing Curriculum for Early Childhood Programs

The Role of the Teacher in Developing Curriculum for Diverse Populations

Multicultural Curriculum

Curriculum for Children from Diverse Family Environments

Curriculum for Children with Special Needs

The Role of the Teacher in Involving Parents in Curriculum Development

The Role of the Teacher in Addressing Conflicts Between Theory and Practice in Curriculum Development

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER TWO

Historical and Theoretical Bases for Appropriate Programs in Early Childhood Settings

Chapter Objectives

Historical Roots of Early Childhood Education

Rural Schools

The Evolution of Early Childhood Education

The Progressive Era

Nursery School and Child Care Movements

The Influence of Maria Montessori

Urbanization of Public Schools

A Period of Innovation: The 1950s and 1960s

The Evolution of Early Childhood Programs for Populations at Risk

African American Education

Latino Education

Native American Education

Minority Education During the Depression and War Years

Early Childhood Programs for Children with Disabilities

Intervention and Compensatory Programs in the 1960s and 1970s

Growth and Change in Early Childhood Programs from 1980 through 2006

Theoretical Bases of Development

Maturational Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychosocial Theory

Behaviorist Theory

Social Learning Theory

Cognitive-Developmental Theory/Constructivism

Early Childhood Curriculum Practices Today: Historical Influences Revisited

The Expanding roles of Early Childhood Education

Parental Interest in Learning in the Early Childhood Years

Expansion of Child Care

Expansion of Preschool Programs in Public Schools

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER THREE

The Need for Quality Programs in Early Childhood Education

Chapter Objectives

Introduction

How Classical and Contemporary Theories Inform Quality Early Childhood Programs

Applying Classical Theories

Maturational Theory

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Psychosocial Theory

Behaviorist Theory

Theory and Cultural Relevance: Ecological Theory

Gardner’s Theory of Intelligence

Characteristics of Quality Early Childhood Programs

Principles of Child Development

Balanced Curriculum

Parent, Teacher, and Child Relationships

Assessment and Accountability

Diversity in Children and Families

Ethics and Teacher Relationships

Models of Quality Early Childhood Programs

The Montessori Approach

The History of the Montessori Approach

Understanding the Montessori Approach

The Montessori Controversy

Developmentally Appropriate Practices

The History of DAP

The Initial Development of DAP

Guidelines for DAP

Revisions in DAP

Understanding the DAP Approach

High/Scope Curriculum

The History of High/Scope

Development of the High/Scope Curriculum

Understanding the High/Scope Model

Adult-Child Interaction

Learning Environment

Daily Routines

Assessment

Reggio Emilia

History of Reggio Emilia

Development of the Reggio Emilia Model

Understanding the Reggio Emilia Approach

The Environment

The Role of the Teaching Staff

The Role of the Child

The Curriculum

Assessment

The Project Approach

History of the Project Approach

Development of the Project Approach

The Role of Interaction

The Value of Informality

Variety of Teaching Methods

Understanding the Project Approach

The Curriculum: Three Phases of Projects

Assessment

Challenges to Quality in Early Childhood Programs

Differences in Training and Preparation

Differences in Salaries

The Impact of Frequent Staff

Turnover

Differences in Funding

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER FOUR

Developmental Characteristics of Young Children from Birth to 8 Years: Implications for Learning

Chapter Objectives

Neural Development: Understanding the Implications of Brain Research

Neural Development

Stress Hormones and Brain Development

Deprivation and Brain Development

Birth to 2 Years: The Sensorimotor Stage

Cognitive Development

Physical Development

Language Development

Social-Emotional Development

Characteristics and Competencies: Birth to 6 Months

Characteristics and Competencies: 6 to 12 Months

Characteristics and Competencies: 12 to 18 Months

Characteristics and Competencies: 18 to 24 Months

Infant and Toddler Development: Implications for Learning

Ages 2 to 5: The Preoperational Stage

Cognitive Development

Physical Development

Language Development

Social-Emotional Development

Characteristics and Competencies: 2 to 5 Years

Development in the Preschool Years: Implications for Learning

Ages 5 to 8 Years: The Transition from Preoperations to Concrete Operations

Cognitive Development

Physical Development

Language Development

Social-Emotional Development

Characteristics and Competencies in Children Ages 5 to 8 Years: Implications for Learning and Instruction

Cognitive Development

Physical Development

Social-Emotional Development

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER FIVE

Organizing Infant-Toddler Programs

Chapter Objectives

The Evolution of Infant-Toddler Programs

Infants and Toddlers Prior to the 20th Century

Infants and Toddlers in the 20th Century

Infant-Toddler Programs in the 21st Century

Infant-Toddler Child Care

Family Child Care

Child Care Centers

Public School Centers

Infant-Toddler Intervention Programs

Infant-Toddler Enrichment Programs

Considerations for Developing Models for Infant-Toddler Programs

Implications of Brain Research for Contemporary Programs

Implications of Infant-Toddler Developmental Needs

Cultural Influences

Family Partnership Influences

Characteristics of a Quality Infant-Toddler Model

The Role of Quality Caregivers

The Role of the Environment

The Role of Play

Physical Play

Cognitive Play

Social Play

The Outdoor Play Environment

The Role of Routines

Implications of Infant-Toddler Developmental Needs

The Role of Parents

Planning and Managing Infant-Toddler Developmental Experiences

Interactions and Experiences for Physical Development

Interactions and Experiences for Social and Emotional Development

Interactions and Experiences for Cognitive and Language Development

The Role of Thematic Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers

The Role of Assessment in Infant-Toddler Programs

Assessment of Infant-Toddler Development and Competencies

Assessment of Program Components

Assessment of Infant-Toddler Experiences and Activities

Assessment of the Behavior of Adult Caregivers

Assessment of Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs

Assessment of Parental Involvement in Infant-Toddler Programs

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER SIX

Infant-Toddler Curriculum: Birth to Age 2

Chapter Objectives

Curriculum for Physical Development

Nurturing Physical Development in Infants and Toddlers

Curriculum for Cognitive Development

Nurturing Cognitive Development for Infants and Toddlers

Curriculum for Language Development

Nurturing Language Development in Infants and Toddlers

Curriculum for Social Development

Nurturing Social Development in Infants and Toddlers

Curriculum for the Expressive Arts

Nurturing Expressive Arts in Infants and Toddlers

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER SEVEN

A Developmental Model for Preschool Programs

Chapter Objectives

Introduction

The Differences between Theory and Practice

Considerations for Developing a Model for Preschool Education

Principles of Child Development

Cognitive Development

Social-Emotional Development

Balanced Curriculum

Parent, Teacher, and Child Relationships

Assessment and Accountability

Diversity in Children and Families

Characteristics of a Quality Developmental Model

Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Using Principles of Development

The Inclusive Classroom

The Culturally Responsive Classroom

The Integrated Classroom

The Teacher’s Role

The Role of the Environment

The Role of Technology

The Role of Play

The Role of the Daily Schedule

Planning and Managing Instruction

Understanding Developmental-Thematic Curriculum

Roles of Developmental-Thematic Curriculum

Developmental-Thematic Curriculum as the Basic Framework

Developmental-Thematic as One of Several Approaches

Developmental-Thematic Curriculum as an Occasional Resource

Designing Developmental-Thematic Curriculum Units

Selecting a Theme Topic

Brainstorming a Topic

Developing a Brainstorming Web

Selecting Unit Activities

Determining Concepts, Skills, and Processes

Describing Developmental-Thematic Unit Objectives

Aligning Objectives with State Standards

Describing Integrated Unit Activities

Adapting Lesson Plans for Diversity

Planning for Assessment

Assessment of the Activity

Assessment of Student Learning

Scheduling Unit Activities

Implementing Developmental-Thematic Curriculum

Gathering Resources

Arranging the Environment

Planning with the Children

The Role of Assessment in Preschool Programs

Assessment of Child Development and Learning

Assessment of Children in Preschool Programs

Assessment of Program Components

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER EIGHT

Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5: Language and Cognitive Development

Chapter Objectives

Introduction

Curriculum for Language Development

How Young Children Develop Language

Forms of Language

Language Differences in the Preschool Years

Planning for Language Development

The Role of Play in Language Development

The Role of the Teacher in Language Development and Literacy

The Role of Parents in Language Development

The Role of an Environment in Language Development

Designing Curriculum for Language Development

Experiences That Promote Expressive Language

Experiences That Promote Receptive Language

Developing Foundations for Literacy

Resolving the Issues in Beginning Literacy Instruction

What Does the Young Child Need to Know to Develop Literacy?

Goals for Literacy

Essential Early Literacy Strategies

Emergent Writing

Activities for Promoting Emergent Writing

Taking Dictation and Developing Language Experience Stories

Emergent Reading

Designing Language Curriculum for Children with Language Differences

Designing Language Curriculum for Children with Disabilities

Curriculum for Cognitive Development

How Young Children Develop Concepts

Planning for Cognitive Development

Goals for Cognitive Development: Mathematics and Science

The Role of the Teacher in Cognitive Development

The Role of the Environment and Play in Cognitive Development

Designing Curriculum for Cognitive Development

The Integrated Curriculum

Development and Integrated Curriculum

Creativity and Integrated Curriculum

Using Thematic Units as a Focus for Integrated Curriculum

A Project Unit on Pizzas

An Emergent Curriculum Based on the Reggio Emilia Approach

Designing Cognitive Curriculum for Children with Disabilities

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER NINE

Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5: Social and Physical Development

Chapter Objectives

Curriculum for Social Development

Understanding Social Development

Life Changes That Affect Social Development

Child Abuse

Violence

Serious Illness and Death

Planning for Social Development

Goals for Social Development

Goals for Social Science

Psychology

Geography

Sociology

Anthropology

The Role of Play in Social Development

The Role of the Environment in Social Development

The Role of the Teacher in Social Development

Designing Curriculum for Social Development

Fostering Social Development

Designing Curriculum for Social Science

Designing Integrated Curriculum in Social Science

Designing Integrated Curriculum for Children’s Life Changes

Curriculum for Physical Development

Understanding Physical Development

Components of Perceptual-Motor Development

Planning for Physical Development

The Role of Play in Physical Development

The Role of the Environment in Physical Development

The Indoor Environment

The Outdoor Environment

The Role of the Teacher in Physical Development

Physical Development and Physical Fitness: Childhood Obesity

Designing Curriculum for Physical Development

The Integrated Curriculum for Physical Development

Designing Physical Development Activities for Children with Disabilities

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER TEN

Planning Programs for Children Ages 5 to 8

Chapter Objectives

The Significance of Developmental Changes in the Primary Grades

Physical Development

Cognitive Development

Social and Emotional Development

The Role of Play in the Primary Grades

Describing Appropriate Curriculum for Children Ages 5 to 8

Describing a Curriculum for Continuing Developmental Needs

Planning Programs for Children Ages 5 to 8 in the Primary Grades

The British Infant School Model

Team Teaching

Multiage Grouping

Characteristics of Primary Programs

Developmental Curriculum

Integrated Curriculum

Systematic Instruction

Cooperative Learning Groups

Peer Teaching

Planning and Managing Instruction

The Role of the Environment

The Role of the Teacher

Designing Thematic Curriculum

Selecting a Theme Topic

Brainstorming a Topic and Developing a Brainstorming Web

Planning with Students and Selecting Unit Activities

Determining Concepts, Skills, and Processes

Aligning Objectives with State Standards

Planning Lesson Activities and Projects

Planning for Assessment

Implementing Thematic Curriculum

Planning with Students and Parents

Scheduling

Incorporating Systematic Instruction

Managing Systematic Instruction

Balancing Thematic and Systematic Instruction

The Role of Assessment in Kindergarten and Primary Grades

The Purposes of Assessment in Kindergarten and Primary Grades

Assessing and Reporting Progress in Learning

Teacher-Designed Assessments

Commercially Designed Assessments

Interviews

Directed Assignments

Work Samples

Project Work

Portfolios

Reporting Progress to Parents

Identifying and Addressing Learning Problems

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER ELEVEN

The Transitional Curriculum: Ages 5 to 8: Language Arts

Chapter Objectives

Curriculum for Language Arts

The Continuing Process of Language Development

Addressing the Language Needs of Diverse Speakers

Designing Curriculum for Language Development

Group Discussions

Class Projects

Dramatic Productions

Field Trips

Children’s Literature

Cooperative Learning Groups

The Continuing Process of Literacy Development

Trends and Issues in Learning to Read in Kindergarten and the Primary Grades

The Role of the Environment

The Role of the Teacher

The Role of Technology

Stages of Literacy Acquisition

Stage 1: Setting Foundations for Literacy

Stage 2: Learning About Print and Understanding Printed Language

Stage 3: Becoming Independent Readers

Organizing the Language Arts Program

A Non-Ability-Grouped, Multilevel, First-Grade Classroom

Content-Area Grouping

The Reading Workshop

Accommodating the Learning Differences of Students with Special Needs

The Integrated Curriculum

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER TWELVE

The Transitional Curriculum: Ages 5 to 8: Mathematics and Science

Chapter Objectives

Curriculum for Mathematics

Trends and Issues in Mathematics

Planning the Mathematics Program

Goals for the Mathematics Program

The Role of the Environment and the Teacher

The Role of Technology in the Mathematics Program

Organizing the Mathematics Program

Designing Curriculum for the Mathematics Program

Accommodating Learning Differences Among Students

Curriculum for Science

How Young Children Learn About Science

Trends and Issues in Science

Planning the Science Program

Goals for the Science Program

Incorporating the Science Process

The Role of the Environment

The Role of the Teacher

Organizing the Science Program

Components of the Science Program

Designing Curriculum for the Science Program

Integrated Experiences That Promote Science

The Integrated Curriculum

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

The Transitional Curriculum: Ages 5 to 8: Social Studies and Physical Education

Chapter Objectives

Curriculum for Social Studies

Social Development of Ages 5 to 8

Activities for Nurturing Continued Social Development

Class Discussions

Cooperative Learning Groups

Democratic Decision Making

Social Studies Curriculum in Kindergarten and the Primary Grades

Goals for Social Studies

History

Geography

Economics

Sociology and Anthropology

Current Issues

Designing Curriculum for Social Studies

The Integrated Curriculum for Social Studies

Cross-Cultural E-Mail

Toys

Communities

Biographies of Global Leaders

Children’s Literature and Social Studies

Learning About Time Through Literature

Holiday Celebrations

Addressing Community Needs

Learning About the Legislative Process

Understanding Children with Disabilities

Curriculum for Physical Education

Physical Development of Children Ages 5 to 8

Planning for Physical Development

Designing Curriculum for Physical Development and Education

The Role of the Teacher

The Role of the Physical Education Teacher

The Integrated Curriculum for Physical Development

Summary

Study Questions

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

Teaching in the Real World

Beth

Renee

Yolanda

Susan

Rollo and Nancy

Gladys

Hector

Loretta

Loisa

References

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