Early Childhood Education: Learning Together / Edition 1

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Overview

Early Childhood Education: Learning Together provides a comprehensive overview of early childhood education. This exciting new text encourages students to understand the need for flexible approaches in their work with children. Early childhood education is not a “one size fits all” proposition, so this text encourages students in multiple ways to reflect upon why they are doing what they are doing. With connections to NAEYC standards, case studies, and essays from real people on the front lines of early childhood education, students will leave the course with a superior foundation in both the theoretical aspects of ECE and the real world applications of those theories.

In developing Early Childhood Education: Learning Together, we bring together the best research and the most effective practices in Early Childhood.

We have heard that many students are using their first Early Childhood course to explore their interest in the field - perhaps to discover a new profession or a second career. These comments shaped every aspect of Early Childhood Education: Learning Together. The resulting textbook is infused with real cases, NAEYC standards, and graphs and tables for easy reference and student review.

We also understand that college can be a financial challenge for students. Because of this, Early Childhood Education: Learning Together is half the price of comparable introductory texts.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073378480
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 11/11/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 544
  • Sales rank: 166,822
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Virginia Casper is a developmental psychologist and teacher educator who has worked for over thirty years with children and families in early intervention and research.

She is on the graduate faculty at Bank Street College of Education, where she directed the Infant and Family Development and Early Intervention Program and served as Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the Graduate School from 2002–2007. Virginia has also worked internationally, for the past decade, in South Africa. Her current work there involves a community-based, participatory research and curriculum development model that includes community training in HIV/AIDS prevention and infant/toddler group care and advocacy. Her work on attachment, gender, and teacher-parent relations has been published in Teacher’s College Record, The Harvard Education Review and Zero to Th ree. She co-authored a previous book entitled: Gay Parents/Straight Schools: Building Communication and Trust (1999). She and her partner, Donna Futterman, are the parents of an adult son.

Rachel Theilheimer Rachel has worked with young children, their families,and teachers in public school, private and public child care, Head Start, and parent groups. She has been a teacher, a group leader, a director, and an educational consultant. For the past twenty-five years, she has taught adults at the pre-GED, community college, bachelors, and graduate levels and conducted numerous professional development workshops. She is professor of early childhood education at Borough of Manhattan Community College where she chairs the Teacher Education Department. She has published articles and book chapters about teacher education, social justice issues, and infant care.

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Table of Contents

PART ONE An Introduction to Early Childhood

1 Working with Young Children 1

Early Care and Education 2

What Is Care? 2

What Is Education? 3

Some Purposes of Early Care and Education 4

Quality of Early Care and Education 4

Applying Child Development Principles 5

Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education 8

Early Childhood Educators 8

Diverse Biographies and Cultural Identities 9

Real Voice: Efrén Michael Léon, Las Cruces, New Mexico 12

Thoughtful Individuals 14

Professional Development 18

Educator Relationships with Other Adults 24

Working as Part of a Classroom Team 25

Working with Supervisors 27

Working with Others to Support Inclusion 28

Collaborating with Family Members 29

Summary 30

Further Activities 31

2 Children and the Worlds They Inhabit 32

Our Rapidly Changing World 33

Globalization and Education 34

Culture 35

Ecological Theories 36

What Children Know and How 38

What Can We Provide for Young Children? 39

Consistency and Predictability 40

Practice That Supports Health 42

Respect and Equal Access 45

Real Voice: Joan Bibeau, Grand Rapids, Minnesota 46

Inclusion of Those with Disabilities and Special Needs 53

Work Against Poverty and Racism 55

Social Justice 56

The Developmental-Interaction Approach 57

Having a Voice 60

Joining with Others 60

Speaking Out for Children and Families 61

Summary 62

Further Activities 63

3 Children Learning about the World through Relationships 64

Early Experience 65

Brain Development: The Neuroscience of Experience 65

Yin’s and Brad’s Early Experiences 67

Attachment, Relationships, and Experience 69

An Evolutionary Theory in Cultural Context 69

Relationship History = Attachment Quality 70

Classifying Attachment 71

Being Known 72

Real Voice: Meg Gillette, Birmingham, Alabama 74

Emotions and Self-Regulation 75

The Development of Emotions 75

Regulating Emotions 76

Theory of Mind 78

Applications to Classroom Practice 79

Self-Regulation in Classrooms 80

Social and Emotional Development in Classrooms 84

Electronic Screens: A Relationship? 88

Difficult Experiences and Challenging Conversations 90

4 Children Understanding the World through Play 95

The Integrative Role of Play 96

Imagination 96

Communication of Meaning 97

Transformation of Thought 97

Problem Solving 98

Play in the Lives of Children 98

The Roots of Play 98

Play in the Preschool Years 99

Play in the Primary Grades 100

Qualities of Play 101

Intrinsic Motivation 101

Attention to Means over End 101

Freedom from Externally Imposed Rules 102

Self-Expression through Symbol and Metaphor 103

Categories of Play 104

Functional Play 105

Constructive Play 105

Dramatic Play 106

Games with Rules 108

Affective Components 109

Communicating and Integrating Emotions 109

Identity and Mastery 110

Playing for and about Power 112

Play and Difference 113

Play and Gender 113

Play and Culture 114

Play and Special Needs 115

Play Relationships in the Classroom 116

Play and Peer Relationships 116

Play and Teacher-Child Relationships 116

The Role of Play in a Democratic Society 120

Play, Imagination, and Social Change 121

Debates about Play 121

Real Voice: Melissa Dubick, Austin, Texas 122

Summary 123

Further Activities 125
PART TWO Foundations of Early Childhood Education

5 Early Childhood Perspectives: Then and Now, Near and Far 126

Early Childhood around the World 127

Early Education in South Africa 128

Early Education in India 130

Early Education in the People’s Republic of China 131

Views of Childhood in Western History 133

Ancient Greece and Rome 133

Europe in Medieval Times 134

Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe 135

Nineteenth-Century Europe and the United States 137

Twentieth-Century Europe and the United States 141

The Progressive Movement, 1890–1930 143

Real Voice: Steve Vande Zande, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 146

Mid-Twentieth-Century America to Present Times 151

The Great Society and Head Start 151

Special Education: From Mainstreaming to Inclusion to

Continuum of Services 152

Standardization, Accountability, and Testing 153

Summary 154

Further Activities 155

6 Theories of Early Childhood: Explanations, Applications, and Critiques 156

What Is a Theory? 157

Real Voice: Amy Bolotin, Ridgefield, Connecticut 158

Michael’s Story 159

Theories Arise in Context 159

Psychoanalytic and Psychoanalytically Informed Theories 163

Freudian Theory 163

Freud’s Immediate Successors 164

Contemporary Psychoanalytically Informed Theories of Early Childhood 165

Evaluation of the Psychoanalytic Viewpoint 167

Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Psychoanalytic and Psychoanalytically Informed Theories 167

Behaviorist Theories 168

Social Learning Theory 168

Cognitive Behavioral Theory 169

Evaluation of Behaviorist Theory 170

Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Behaviorist Theories 170

Maturational Theories 171

Evaluation of Maturational Theories 171

Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using

Maturational Theories 171

Constructivist Theories 172

Neo-Piagetian Theories 173

Evaluation of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Theory 173

Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Constructivist Theory 174

Contextualist Theories 174

Contemporary Contextualist Theories 176

Contextualist Theories and Early Childhood Education 177

Evaluation of Contextualist Theory 177

Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Contextualist Theory 177

Humanist Theories 178

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 178

Humanist Theory and the Early Childhood Educator 178

Evaluation of Humanist Theory 178

Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Humanist Theory 179

Developmental Systems Theories 179

Transactional Model of Development 179

Dynamic Systems Theory 180

Identity Theories 181

Theories about Gender Identity and Gender Roles 181

Postmodern and Feminist Poststructuralist Theories 183

Theories of Racial and Ethnic Identity 184

Theories about Intelligence 186

Intelligence in the Psychological Literature 186

Multiple Intelligences 186

Summary 187

Further Activities 189

7 Early Childhood Programming 190

Care and Education 191

The Role of Continuity 192

A Continuum of Care 193

Care and Education in the Home 194

Family, Friend, and Neighbor Care 194

Family Child Care 195

Nannies 195

Real Voice: Alexis Harper, Bellingham, Washington 196

Funding 197

Public Funding 197

Private Child Care 199

Full-Day Child Care 200

Center-Based Infant/Toddler Programs 200

Faith-Based Programs 201

Employer Involvement 201

Campus Child Care 202

Short-Term Child Care 202

Elementary Schools 204

Kindergarten 204

PK–3 Schools 205

Charter Schools and Vouchers 205

Homeschooling 205

Out-of-School Programs 206

Specialized Programs for Infants and Toddlers 207

Early Intervention 207

Infant Mental Health Services 208

Programs for Families 209

Parent-Child Programs 209

Home Visiting 209

Family Literacy Programs 210

Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies 211

Approaches: Explanation, Application, and Critiques 211

Some Early Approaches and Methods 212

More Recent Approaches 216

Making Approaches Your Own 217

Summary 218

Further Activities 221
PART THREE Knowing All Children “From the Inside Out”: The Observation, Assessment and Teaching Cycle

8 Children, Development, and Culture 222

Understanding and Applying Child Development Principles 224

Basic Principles of Development 224

Influences on Development 226

Domains of Development 233

Physical Growth and Motor Development 235

Social-Emotional Development 238

Cognitive Development 239

Language and Literacy 242

Children with Special Needs 247

When Difference Requires Diagnosis 248

Universal Design 248

Real Voice: Sabrina Rotonda Irvin, San Jose, California 249

Summary 251

Further Activities 252

9 Observation: The Roots of Practice 253

Observing and Recording 254

Noticing and Describing Details 255

Watching, Listening, and Analyzing 256

Describing, Not Deciding 258

Teaching Reflectively 259

Reasons to Observe and Record 260

To Become a Skillful Learning Partner 261

To Frame Experiences and Interactions 262

To Communicate with Families and Colleagues 265

To Develop Professionally 268

The How of Observing and Recording 269

What to Observe and Record 269

Respecting Confidentiality 270

Being Aware of and Examining Biases 271

Real Voice: Elaine Chu, New York, New York 272

Observing Continuously over Time 273

The Practicalities of Observing and Recording 274

Selecting Methods 274

Analyzing Data 279

Synthesizing Findings 280

Making Observation and Recording Work 281

Summary 283

Further Activities 284

10 Early Childhood Assessment 285

The Roots of Assessment 286

Assessment and Evaluation 287

Formative and Summative Assessment 287

The Assessment Cycle 287

Building Relationships 288

Gathering Information 289

Interpreting Information and Deciding What to Do 290

Taking Action 291

The Purposes of Assessment 292

Evaluative Decisions 292

Curricular Decisions 293

Goals and Objectives 294

Assessment in a School Context 295

Keeping the Focus on Children 295

Observation Is the Foundation of Assessment 296

Assessment Tools 299

Assessing Children from Birth to Three 299

Evaluating Three- to Eight-Year-Old Children’s Performance and Progress 300

Creating Portfolios of Children’s Work 302

Externally Imposed Assessments 306

Historical Context 307

Early Learning Standards 307

Accountability and Power 309

Tests and Young Children 309

Communicating Assessment Results 312

Reports to Families 312

Reports to Colleagues 312

Real Voice: Joanne Frantz, Columbus, Ohio 315

Feedback to Children 316

Summary 317

Further Activities 319
PART FOUR Working with Children and Their Families: Applying What We Know

11 Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 320

Life with Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 321

A Dynamic Period 321

Development Is Bumpy 322

Influences on Development 323

Attachment and Separation All Day Long 326

Program Support for Attachment 326

Real Voice: Jonnia R. Jackson, Chicago, Illinois 328

Separation in the First Few Weeks—and Beyond 329

How the Environment Supports Attachment 332

The Day with Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 333

Playing and Learning 333

Play, Friendship, and Interaction 338

Planned Experiences 341

Planning Space for Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 344

Keeping Children Safe 344

Features of Space 345

Summary 348

Further Activities 349

12 Preschoolers and Kindergartners 350

Life with Preschoolers and Kindergartners 351

Physical Development 351

Social-Emotional Development 352

Cognition 354

What Preschoolers and Kindergartners Learn and How 355

Social Studies as Core Curriculum 356

Language and Literacy 357

Real Voice: Rafael Peña, Las Vegas, Nevada 358

Activities and Materials 360

Technology 366

Classrooms for Preschoolers and Kindergartners 368

Planning Authentic Experiences 368

Scheduling and Predictability 373

The Space 376

Summary 380

Further Activities 383

13 First, Second, and Third Graders 384

Life with First, Second, and Third Graders 385

Physical and Cognitive Changes 386

Social-Emotional Changes 388

What Children Learn in the Early Grades 389

Social Studies 390

Real Voice: Sal Vascellero, New York, New York 391

Language and Literacy 393

Math and Science 398

Planning Curriculum 402

Ways to Plan 403

Planning the Schedule 405

Using Space 408

Print Rich, Not Print Noisy 411

Summary 412

Further Activities 413
PART FIVE Linking to Home and Community

14 Partnering with Twenty-First-Century Families 414

Some Background and Definitions 415

Historical Roots of Family Involvement 415

Defining the Terms: Family Involvement, Partnerships, and Parent Education 415

Parent Education and Family Support Programs 416

Benefits and Challenges of Teacher-Family Partnerships 419

Benefits for Children 419

Real Voice: Melisa McNery, Blytheville, Arkansas 420

Benefits and Challenges for Families 421

Benefits and Challenges for Teachers 421

Family Diversities 422

Ethnicity, “Race,” and Socioeconomic Class 423

Linguistic Diversity and Culture 424

Fathers 425

Family Configurations 426

Knowing about Families 430

Will This Information Help My Work with Children? 430

Finding Optimal Distance 430

Recognizing and Building on Family Strengths 431

Establishing Relationships with Families 431

Building Trust 431

Approaches to Working with Families 432

Interactions with Families 434

Beginning the School Year 434

Back-to-School Nights 435

Parent-Teacher Conferences 436

Community Gatherings 437

Encouraging Families to Volunteer 437

Information Sharing between Teachers and Families 438

Teacher-Initiated Information Exchange 438

Parent-Initiated Information Exchange 439

Sharing Information with the Whole Group of Parents 440

Addressing Serious Issues 440

Collaborating with Other Professionals 440

Referrals to Community Agencies and Other Helping

Professionals 441

Summary 441

Further Activities 443

15 Policy Issues and Early Childhood Practice 444

Policy 445

History of Early Childhood Education Policy 446

Attitudes about the Role of the Family in the Early Years 447

Early Care versus Education/Targeted versus Universal 448

Social, Economic, and Health Status of Children 449

Why Policy Makers Are Interested in Early Childhood

Education 449

The Power of Brain Research 451

Changing Families 451

The Achievement Gap and School Readiness 452

Why Early Childhood Professionals Should Be Involved in Policy 455

Quality of Early Childhood Programs 456

Credentials of Early Childhood Professionals 458

Compensation of Early Childhood Professionals 459

Access to Professional Development 460

What Happens in the Early Childhood Classroom 461

Working for Change on the State Level 462

Early Learning Systems Initiatives 462

School Readiness Initiatives 464

State Prekindergarten Initiatives 466

Professional Development and Compensation Initiatives 466

Professional and National Organizations and Agencies 467Real Voice: Eva Hansen, Fayetteville, North Carolina 468

Summary 469

Further Activities 471

Appendix A NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct 472

Appendix B Convention on the Rights of the Child 479

References 488

Glossary 501

Credits 508

Index 511
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