Early Church History

Overview

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Overview

When busy people want to know more about the Bible and the Christian faith, the Zondervan Quick-Reference Library offers an instant information alternative. Covering the basics of the faith and Bible knowledge in an easy-to-use format, this series helps new Christians and seasoned believers find answers to their questions about Christianity and the Bible.
The information is presented in units of one or two pages, so that each section can be read in a few minutes. The Zondervan Quick-Reference Library makes important knowledge affordable, accessible, and easy to understand for busy people who don’t have a lot of time to read or study.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Verlyn D. Verbrugge (PhD, University of Notre Dame) is Senior Editor at Large for Biblical and Theological Resources at Zondervan. He has published a number of articles as well as the acclaimed New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology: Abridged Edition (Zondervan, 2000), Paul’s Style of Church Leadership as Illustrated by His Instructions to the Corinthians on the Collection (Mellen, 1992), and A Not-So-Silent Night: The Unheard Story of Christmas and Why It Matters (Kregel, 2009).

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Prior to Pentecost

Just before Jesus ascended into heaven, he gave his followers both a promise and a challenge. His promise was that in a few days he was going to send to them the Holy Spirit, who would endue them with great spiritual power. Once that happened, they were to go out and be witnesses of all the things that they had seen Jesus do and say, beginning in Jerusalem, branching out into Judea and Samaria, and eventually reaching to the ends of the earth (Acts 1: 8).

Thereupon, the followers of Jesus waited in Jerusalem in the upstairs room where they were staying--the total number being about 120, including both men and women (Acts 1: 12-14). They spent much of their time together in intense prayer for the coming event, perhaps as a result of Jesus' instruction: "If you then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!" (Luke 11: 13).

During the ten days before the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost, the followers of Jesus did one other thing. Since the disciple Judas had defected from their group, betrayed the Lord into the hands of his enemies, and subsequently died by his own hand, the apostles felt it was important to appoint a replacement for him. The number twelve was significant, since these men were going to form the nucleus of a new people of God, comparable to the twelve tribes of Israel.

Therefore Simon Peter, who functioned as the group's leader, pro-posed that two men be selected who could fulfill the qualifications for being an apostle: one who had been with the Lord Jesus from the beginning of his ministry and who had been a witness of his resurrection (Acts

1: 15-22). The two men nominated for this position were Joseph Barsabbas and Matthias. After the disciples had prayed, asking the Lord to select the right one, they cast lots between the two of them, and the lot fell on Matthias. Nothing more is known about him, however.

Pentecost

Ten days after Jesus had ascended into heaven, a most astounding event happened--one that rightfully has been called the birthday of the church. The 120 followers of Jesus were altogether in one place, when suddenly "a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting" (Acts 2: 2). At the same time tongues of fire appeared to rest on each person, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit "and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them" (2: 4).

These phenomena were not imaginary or apparent only to the disciples of Jesus, since people throughout Jerusalem rushed to the scene to see what was going on. The crowd that gathered included not only residents of the city but also visitors from all over the Roman empire, who had come to the holy city for the Feast of Tabernacles. Some of the onlookers mocked what was going on, charging that it was simply a group of drunken Jews making a lot of commotion. But others were perplexed, since they were hearing words in their own languages from people who did not normally speak those languages.

Then Simon Peter, once again the spokesman for the group of Jesus' followers, stood up and addressed the crowd (Acts 2: 14-36). He told them that this was the beginning of the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies for a mighty outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the last days. This was happening as a result of the promise of Jesus, the Messiah whom God had promised for centuries to send, who had fulfilled God's promises in the Scriptures through his ministry, cross, and resurrection, and who was now sitting at God's right hand as Lord of all. Peter charged the crowd with being responsible for the crucifixion of God's Messiah.

The people were smitten by Peter's message and asked what they should do. Peter instructed them to repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus, so that they might receive the forgiveness of their sins as well as the Holy Spirit as a gift. Peter received an amazing response to this call to salvation; on that one day alone, three thousand people were baptized and added to the church (2: 37-41).

The New Christian Community

The Bible uses four words to describe the activities of the new community, centered around the apostles, that developed in this body of more than three thousand Spirit-filled Christians: teaching, fellowship, breaking of bread, and prayer (Acts 2: 42).

Teaching. In his Pentecost sermon Peter had given a brief summary of what Jesus said and did. But much more needed to be taught to this new community of faith in order to shape their hearts and their lives. The responsibility for doing this fell on the apostles. The Lord had charged them with passing on all the important details of his ministry, death, and resurrection. Their teachings were eventually encapsulated in the four Gospels.

Fellowship. The new believers quickly formed a community of love. The haves among them were eager to share their possessions with the have-nots. Some among them even sold their "possessions and goods" in order to help out the less fortunate among them (Acts 2: 45; 4: 32-35). The apostles took charge of distributing food to the needy (cf. 6: 1).

Breaking of bread. On a regular basis the new Christians broke bread together (2: 46). This seems to refer not to the mere act of eating a meal together, but to a special way of remembering the Lord Jesus. Perhaps they were reenacting what had taken place in the upper room before Jesus went to Gethsemane; perhaps they were recalling how Jesus had broken bread with them and eaten after he was raised from the dead (cf. Luke 24: 30, 35, 41-42; Acts 1: 4). In any case, this special commemoration eventually became the Eucharist.

Prayer. The early Christians had regular times of worship, including especially prayer. Every day they went to the temple courts to praise God's name, to thank him for miracles being performed in the name of Jesus, and to pray for one another. According to Luke, nothing important in the history of the New Testament church happened outside a context of prayer.

Life in this new community of faith was exciting and contagious.

People living in Jerusalem could not help but notice what was happening, and every day more were accepting Jesus as the Messiah. Within a short time their numbers climbed to five thousand men, besides women and children (4: 4).

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Table of Contents

Preface. . . . 6
Abbreviations of the Books of the Bible. . . . 7
Sources. . . . 9
Pentecost and Outreach in Jerusalem. . . . 15
Stephen and Philip and Outreach in Judea and Samaria . . . . 23
Peter and the Winds of Change. . . . 29
Paul---Conversion to First Missionary Journey. . . . 35
The Jerusalem Council. . . . 45
Paul---The Second Missionary Journey. . . . 51
Paul---The Third Missionary Journey. . . . 63
Paul’s Imprisonments. . . . 75
The Last Four Decades of the First Century. . . . 85
Map of the Roman World. . . . 96
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First Chapter

Prior to Pentecost
Just before Jesus ascended into heaven, he gave his followers both a promise and a challenge. His promise was that in a few days he was going to send to them the Holy Spirit, who would endue them with great spiritual power. Once that happened, they were to go out and be witnesses of all the things that they had seen Jesus do and say, beginning in Jerusalem,
branching out into Judea and Samaria, and eventually reaching to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8).
Thereupon, the followers of Jesus waited in Jerusalem in the upstairs room where they were staying---the total number being about 120, including both men and women (Acts 1:12--14). They spent much of their time together in intense prayer for the coming event, perhaps as a result of Jesus'
instruction: 'If you then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give the Holy
Spirit to those who ask him!' (Luke 11:13).
During the ten days before the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost,
the followers of Jesus did one other thing. Since the disciple Judas had defected from their group, betrayed the Lord into the hands of his enemies,
and subsequently died by his own hand, the apostles felt it was important to appoint a replacement for him. The number twelve was significant,
since these men were going to form the nucleus of a new people of God, comparable to the twelve tribes of Israel.
Therefore Simon Peter, who functioned as the group's leader, pro-posed that two men be selected who could fulfill the qualifications for being an apostle: one who had been with the Lord Jesus from the beginning of his ministry and who had been a witness of his resurrection (Acts
1:15--22). The two men nominated for this position were Joseph Barsabbas and Matthias. After the disciples had prayed, asking the Lord to select the right one, they cast lots between the two of them, and the lot fell on
Matthias. Nothing more is known about him, however.
Pentecost
Ten days after Jesus had ascended into heaven, a most astounding event happened---one that rightfully has been called the birthday of the church. The 120 followers of Jesus were altogether in one place, when suddenly
'a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting' (Acts 2:2). At the same time tongues of fire appeared to rest on each person, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit 'and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them' (2:4).
These phenomena were not imaginary or apparent only to the disciples of Jesus, since people throughout Jerusalem rushed to the scene to see what was going on. The crowd that gathered included not only residents of the city but also visitors from all over the Roman empire, who had come to the holy city for the Feast of Tabernacles. Some of the onlookers mocked what was going on, charging that it was simply a group of drunken Jews making a lot of commotion. But others were perplexed, since they were hearing words in their own languages from people who did not normally speak those languages.
Then Simon Peter, once again the spokesman for the group of Jesus'
followers, stood up and addressed the crowd (Acts 2:14--36). He told them that this was the beginning of the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies for a mighty outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the last days. This was happening as a result of the promise of Jesus, the Messiah whom God had promised for centuries to send, who had fulfilled God's promises in the Scriptures through his ministry, cross, and resurrection, and who was now sitting at God's right hand as Lord of all. Peter charged the crowd with being responsible for the crucifixion of God's Messiah.
The people were smitten by Peter's message and asked what they should do. Peter instructed them to repent and be baptized in the name of
Jesus, so that they might receive the forgiveness of their sins as well as the
Holy Spirit as a gift. Peter received an amazing response to this call to salvation; on that one day alone, three thousand people were baptized and added to the church (2:37--41).
The New Christian Community
The Bible uses four words to describe the activities of the new community,
centered around the apostles, that developed in this body of more than three thousand Spirit-filled Christians: teaching, fellowship, breaking of bread, and prayer (Acts 2:42).
Teaching. In his Pentecost sermon Peter had given a brief summary of what Jesus said and did. But much more needed to be taught to this new community of faith in order to shape their hearts and their lives. The responsibility for doing this fell on the apostles. The Lord had charged them with passing on all the important details of his ministry, death, and resurrection. Their teachings were eventually encapsulated in the four
Gospels.
Fellowship. The new believers quickly formed a community of love.
The haves among them were eager to share their possessions with the have-nots.
Some among them even sold their 'possessions and goods' in order to help out the less fortunate among them (Acts 2:45; 4:32--35). The apostles took charge of distributing food to the needy (cf. 6:1).
Breaking of bread. On a regular basis the new Christians broke bread together (2:46). This seems to refer not to the mere act of eating a meal together, but to a special way of remembering the Lord Jesus. Perhaps they were reenacting what had taken place in the upper room before Jesus went to Gethsemane; perhaps they were recalling how Jesus had broken bread with them and eaten after he was raised from the dead (cf. Luke 24:30,
35, 41--42; Acts 1:4). In any case, this special commemoration eventually became the Eucharist.
Prayer. The early Christians had regular times of worship, including especially prayer. Every day they went to the temple courts to praise
God's name, to thank him for miracles being performed in the name of
Jesus, and to pray for one another. According to Luke, nothing important in the history of the New Testament church happened outside a context of prayer.
Life in this new community of faith was exciting and contagious.
People living in Jerusalem could not help but notice what was happening,
and every day more were accepting Jesus as the Messiah. Within a short time their numbers climbed to five thousand men, besides women and children (4:4).
Read More Show Less

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