Early Intervention for Reading Difficulties: The Interactive Strategies Approach

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Overview

This book presents a research-supported framework for early literacy instruction that aligns with multi-tiered response-to-intervention (RTI) models. The book focuses on giving teachers a better understanding of literacy development and how to effectively support children as they begin to read and write. The authors' interactive strategies approach is designed around essential instructional goals related both to learning to identify words and to comprehending text. Detailed guidance is provided on ways to target these goals with K-2 students at risk for reading difficulties. Assessment and instructional strategies for whole-class, small-group, and one-to-one settings are discussed in depth. Numerous reproducible forms for documenting student learning are included.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"With the wide array of programs available for teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, teachers wonder, 'What is the best way to guide development in these essential components of literacy?' Scanlon et al. present a research-tested, balanced method for designing effective literacy instruction in primary classrooms. Writing in a strong voice that reflects their extensive experience, the authors concisely outline relevant concepts, include numerous classroom vignettes that bring the information to life, and provide valuable reproducible lists, charts, checklists, and other materials. As a core text in any Foundations of Reading or Emergent Literacy course, this book provides teacher candidates with clearly explained, research-tested methodologies for guiding children's literacy achievement."--Mary Shea, PhD, Professor/Director of Graduate Literacy Programs, Graduate Education and Leadership Department, Canisius College

"This is the most comprehensive, systematic, and teacher-friendly guide to reading instruction that I have seen in my 37 years as an elementary educator. It is a 'must read' for teachers and administrators in school districts working to implement RTI and a wonderful resource for all elementary-level teachers striving to develop competent, self-extending readers."--Mary S. Ziara, Title I teacher, East Lansing (Michigan) Public Schools 
 
"The authors have succeeded in inspiring this seasoned teacher to thoughtfully reflect on so many points. Do I understand all I need to know about early reading? Do I constantly consider my learners as individuals with a diversity of skills? Do I meet all readers where they are ready to learn? This is a book you will find yourself revisiting over and over again, whether you are a preservice teacher or a seasoned veteran. We owe it to our students to be the best informed professionals we can be--this book will continue us on that path."--Peggy Connors, MA, reading teacher, Abram Lansing Elementary School, Cohoes, New York
 

"The interactive strategies approach is an important new tool for an RTI toolbox. The authors provide a sophisticated approach to help children 'puzzle through' words. Teachers, coaches, and principals will consult this book to learn how to scaffold children and group them to tailor instruction. This book has extensive research support and provides activities that incorporate a continuum of whole-group, small-group, and one-to-one techniques."--Stephanie Al Otaiba, PhD, Florida State University College of Education and Florida Center for Reading Research, Tallahassee, Florida
 
"The authors' pragmatic approach equips the classroom teacher with the keys to successful intervention for all learners. Unlike many books that use the term ‘strategic reading’ yet leave the teacher guessing as to its implementation, this volume provides a road map for scaffolding and supporting reading using code- or meaning-based strategies. It should be required reading in every literacy specialist/coach graduate program. I used a prepublication version of this text in a graduate literacy course; students commented that they had never been exposed to many of the concepts presented. Inservice teachers were especially delighted by the text and ran to their classrooms to implement the approach."--Catherine M. O’Callaghan, PhD, Department of Education, Iona College
 

"What a wonderful book! The authors' approach highlights the importance of teachers' skills and knowledge for developing children's literacy. Throughout, teachers are supported in making informed decisions that result in exemplary instruction for all students. Each critical area of literacy is well described with effective practices that build from simple to complex, including activities that teachers can immediately bring to their classrooms. I especially appreciated the chapter on motivation. This book is a strong selection for teacher book clubs. I just finished teaching a literacy coaching course, and this would have been a perfect text."/m-/Diane M. Barone, EdD, Foundation Professor of Literacy Studies, University of Nevada, Reno

From the Publisher
"With the wide array of programs available for teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, teachers wonder, 'What is the best way to guide development in these essential components of literacy?' Scanlon et al. present a research-tested, balanced method for designing effective literacy instruction in primary classrooms. Writing in a strong voice that reflects their extensive experience, the authors concisely outline relevant concepts, include numerous classroom vignettes that bring the information to life, and provide valuable reproducible lists, charts, checklists, and other materials. As a core text in any Foundations of Reading or Emergent Literacy course, this book provides teacher candidates with clearly explained, research-tested methodologies for guiding children's literacy achievement."—Mary Shea, PhD, Professor/Director of Graduate Literacy Programs, Graduate Education and Leadership Department, Canisius College

"This is the most comprehensive, systematic, and teacher-friendly guide to reading instruction that I have seen in my 37 years as an elementary educator. It is a 'must read' for teachers and administrators in school districts working to implement RTI and a wonderful resource for all elementary-level teachers striving to develop competent, self-extending readers."—Mary S. Ziara, Title I teacher, East Lansing (Michigan) Public Schools 
 
"The authors have succeeded in inspiring this seasoned teacher to thoughtfully reflect on so many points. Do I understand all I need to know about early reading? Do I constantly consider my learners as individuals with a diversity of skills? Do I meet all readers where they are ready to learn? This is a book you will find yourself revisiting over and over again, whether you are a preservice teacher or a seasoned veteran. We owe it to our students to be the best informed professionals we can be—this book will continue us on that path."—Peggy Connors, MA, reading teacher, Abram Lansing Elementary School, Cohoes, New York
 

"The interactive strategies approach is an important new tool for an RTI toolbox. The authors provide a sophisticated approach to help children 'puzzle through' words. Teachers, coaches, and principals will consult this book to learn how to scaffold children and group them to tailor instruction. This book has extensive research support and provides activities that incorporate a continuum of whole-group, small-group, and one-to-one techniques."—Stephanie Al Otaiba, PhD, Florida State University College of Education and Florida Center for Reading Research, Tallahassee, Florida
 
"The authors' pragmatic approach equips the classroom teacher with the keys to successful intervention for all learners. Unlike many books that use the term ‘strategic reading’ yet leave the teacher guessing as to its implementation, this volume provides a road map for scaffolding and supporting reading using code- or meaning-based strategies. It should be required reading in every literacy specialist/coach graduate program. I used a prepublication version of this text in a graduate literacy course; students commented that they had never been exposed to many of the concepts presented. Inservice teachers were especially delighted by the text and ran to their classrooms to implement the approach."—Catherine M. O’Callaghan, PhD, Department of Education, Iona College
 

"What a wonderful book! The authors' approach highlights the importance of teachers' skills and knowledge for developing children's literacy. Throughout, teachers are supported in making informed decisions that result in exemplary instruction for all students. Each critical area of literacy is well described with effective practices that build from simple to complex, including activities that teachers can immediately bring to their classrooms. I especially appreciated the chapter on motivation. This book is a strong selection for teacher book clubs. I just finished teaching a literacy coaching course, and this would have been a perfect text."/m-/Diane M. Barone, EdD, Foundation Professor of Literacy Studies, University of Nevada, Reno

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Donna M. Scanlon, PhD, is Professor in the Reading Department at the University at Albany, State University of New York. Dr. Scanlon has spent most of her career studying children’s reading difficulties. Her studies have focused on the relationships between instructional characteristics and success in learning to read and on developing and evaluating approaches to preventing early reading difficulties. Findings from studies that she and her colleagues conducted have contributed to the emergence of response to intervention as a process for preventing reading difficulties and avoiding inappropriate and inaccurate learning disability classifications. Most recently, Dr. Scanlon’s work has focused on the development of teacher knowledge and teaching skill among both preservice and inservice teachers for the purpose of helping teachers to prevent reading difficulties.
 
Kimberly L. Anderson, PhD, is a research associate in the Child Research and Study Center at the University at Albany, State University of New York, and an adjunct instructor in the University’s Reading Department. Dr. Anderson has contributed to the Center’s research on the interactive strategies approach (ISA) by serving as an intervention teacher; by providing professional development for teachers learning to implement the ISA in the early primary grades in both classroom and intervention settings; and, most recently, by collaborating with preservice educators from institutions across New York on enhancing preservice teacher knowledge related to literacy instruction. She worked for many years as a school psychologist at the elementary level and has spent several years as a reading teacher at the primary level, utilizing the ISA to provide small-group intervention to kindergartners and first-grade students.
 
Joan M. Sweeney, MSEd, is a reading teacher in the North Colonie Central School District in Latham, New York. Previously, she was a research associate in the Child Research and Study Center at the University at Albany, State University of New York, where she provided intervention for struggling readers, supervised intervention teachers, and coached classroom teachers utilizing the ISA to support children’s literacy development.

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Table of Contents

I A Comprehensive Approach to Early Intervention 1

1 The Interactive Strategies Approach 3

Characteristics of the ISA 4

Studies of the ISA 6

The ISA and Response to Intervention 8

Reading Is a Complicated Process and Requires Comprehensive Instruction 9

Children Who Struggle with Literacy Acquisition 12

Instructional Goals in the ISA 14

General Principles for Preventing Reading Difficulties 19

Organization of the Book 25

2 Responsive Classroom Instruction 26

Classroom Instruction in an RTI Context 27

Developing a Language Arts Program for Readers at Multiple Levels 29

A Week and a Day in First Grade 32

Small-Group Literacy Instruction 41

Interventions Beyond the Classroom 46

3 Motivation to Read and Write 51

Promoting Interest in Books 52

Developing a Sense of Confidence and Competence 55

Attributions for Success 58

Goal Orientation: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation 60

Documenting Literacy Motivation 62

Motivation and RTI 62

II Learning the Alphabetic Code 65

Introduction 65

4 Purposes and Conventions of Print 69

The Purposes of Print 69

Conventions of Print 71

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 73

5 Phonological Awareness 76

Phonemic Awareness versus Phonics 77

Why is Phonemic Awareness Important? 78

Phonemic Awareness and Reading Problems 79

Instructional Influences on the Development of Phonemic Awareness 79

Why is it Difficult for Some Children to Notice/Attend to Phonemes? 80

Assessing Phonological Awareness 82

Grouping and Pacing 84

Activities for Promoting (and Assessing) Phonological Awareness 84

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 105

6 Letter Naming 107

Assessing Letter Knowledge 108

Choosing Letters for Instruction 110

Sequence of Objectives for Learning about Letters 110

Letter Recognition 112

Letter Naming 118

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress in Letter Identification 121

Letter Production 121

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress in Letter Production 124

7 Letter-Sound Association 126

The Link between Letter Names and Letter Sounds 126

Selecting and Using Key Words (Mnemonics) 129

Teaching and Practicing Letter Sounds 132

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress in Letter-Sound Knowledge 138

8 The Alphabetic Principle and the Alphabetic Code 139

Early Development of Skill in Using the Alphabetic Code 140

Teaching the Concept of the Alphabetic Principle: Beginning Letters 141

Teaching the Concept of the Alphabetic Principle: Ending Letters 144

Later Development of Skill in Using the Alphabetic Code 147

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 170

9 Larger Orthographic Units and Multisyllabic Words 174

Phonograms and Word Families 175

Decoding Words with Multiple Syllables 181

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress in Using Larger Orthographic Units 185

III Word Learning 187

Introduction 187

10 Strategic Word Learning 199

Approaches to Word Identification 200

Strategic Word Learning 204

Teaching to Promote the Use of Word Identification Strategies 207

Word Identification Strategy-Focused Instruction 217

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 225

11 High-Frequency Word Learning 227

Early Instruction of High-Frequency Words 227

Later Instruction of High-Frequency Words and Building Automaticity 239

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 248

IV Meaning Construction 251

Introduction 251

12 Vocabulary and Oral Language Development 255

Language and Reading 256

Instruction to Support Vocabulary Development 259

Interactive Read-Alouds and Conversations to Promote the Development of Vocabulary and Oral Language 264

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 274

13 Comprehension and General Knowledge 276

The Process of Comprehension 276

Active Meaning Construction 277

Levels of Comprehension 278

Knowledge and Comprehension 279

Instruction and Knowledge Development 282

Comprehension Instruction 284

Evaluating and Documenting Children's Progress 294

V Implementing Intensified Instruction 299

Introduction 299

14 Small-Group and One-to-One Intervention 303

Coordination across Instructional Settings 304

Goals of Instruction 305

Intervention Lessons: General Overview 306

A Complete Small-Group Lesson 329

Intensifying Instruction: One-to-One Intervention 339

15 A Proposed Model for Multi-Tiered Intervention 344

Kindergarten 344

First Grade 348

Second Grade and Beyond 351

A Final Word on Assessment 352

References 353

Index 364

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