Earth Almanac: An Annual Geophysical Review of the State of the Planet

Overview

How did El Nino change weather patterns and affect crops around the world? What are humans doing to help or hinder the health of the world's oceans? And what hurricane event happended for the first time since 1893? Whether you're a student writing a report, or a professional in need of some quick answers, you'll find what you're looking for in the Earth Almanc. Covering the state of the four major geophysical topics associated with the Earth: the atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, and land, this new edition ...

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Overview

How did El Nino change weather patterns and affect crops around the world? What are humans doing to help or hinder the health of the world's oceans? And what hurricane event happended for the first time since 1893? Whether you're a student writing a report, or a professional in need of some quick answers, you'll find what you're looking for in the Earth Almanc. Covering the state of the four major geophysical topics associated with the Earth: the atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, and land, this new edition presents an incredible amount of usable information about the changes in our planet during 1999. Details of whole earth events and human-made and natural disasters are chronicled along with the necessary background information and statistics for understanding the science involved. Hot topics such as global warming, ozone depletion, and El Nino.

Goldstein explores specific major geophysical events and then continues with information on the latest scientific developments in fields such as geology, oceanography, and meteorology. Readers will also discover hot topics entries that are unique to this almanac—namely information on human-made events (pollution, carbon dioxide, oil spills urbanization, and water conflicts). Current and complete with more than 300 photos, charts, and statistical graphs, no other reference book compares to this one-stop resource. Topics covered include

Air Pollution

Cryosphere: The Ice

El Nino

Fresh Water

Geological Processes

Global Warming

Land Use

Ocean Fundamentals

Structure of the Atmosphere

Whole-Earth Events

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
This new annual almanac reviews geophysical processes in four major areas: the Earth s atmosphere, oceans, land, and fresh water. For each area, Goldstein an author of numerous educational materials with a master s degree in environmental science and education summarizes research, covers major events (through 1998), and describes processes, cycles, and pertinent data. Appendixes outline selected treaties and law as well as selected national and international scientific programs. Teachers, students, and environmentally concerned citizens alike will greatly appreciate the comprehensive coverage of topics, which range from global warming and El NiOo to land use and permafrost, as well as the extensive use of interesting tables, graphs, and charts. In addition, the volume is quite appealing visually, with plenty of photos. Highly recommended for public and academic libraries for its solid presentation of basic scientific background information and socially and scientifically relevant data. Paul Haschak, Southeastern Louisiana Univ. Lib., Hammond Copyright 2000 Cahners Business Information.
Booknews
A freelance environmental writer, Goldstein summarizes the earth events and disasters that occurred during 1998 to provide a reference for scholars, journalists, and general readers. She covers the atmosphere, oceans, land, and fresh water and discusses hurricanes and tornadoes, air pollution, oil spills, sea surface temperature, El Nino, continental drift, volcanoes, urbanization, wildfires, permafrost, water conflicts, and other topics. She identifies sources of statistics and contacts for organizations, but otherwise provides no references. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781573564526
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 11/30/2001
  • Series: Earth Almanac Series
  • Edition description: 2ND
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 568
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.15 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables ix
List of Figures xiii
List of Graphics, Diagrams, Photos, and Satellite Images xv
Preface xvii
Scope xvii
Sources xvii
Overview, 1998 xvii
Whole-Earth Events, 1998 xviii
Earth Events xviii
Costly Disasters xviii
Solar Storm xviii
Gamma Rays xviii
Earth Research xviii
Earth Tilt xviii
Tropical Arctic xix
Utah Meteor xix
Solid Core xix
The Slow Zone xix
Life on Earth xx
First Land Plant xx
Life in Rocks xx
Bacteria Biomass-ive xx
Atmosphere 1
Atmosphere Dynamics 1
Structure of the Atmosphere 1
Layers of the Atmosphere 1
Troposphere 1
Stratosphere 1
Mesosphere 2
Thermosphere 2
Exosphere 2
Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere 2
Weather 2
The Trade Winds 4
The Jet Stream 4
Storms 4
Hurricanes 5
Hurricane Classification 6
Atlantic Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1998 6
Pacific and Indian Ocean Cyclones and Typhoons, 1998 12
Other Storms, Tornadoes, and Floods, 1998 13
Research and Response 17
Air Pollution and Energy 21
Major Pollutants 27
Carbon Monoxide 27
Lead 29
Particulate Matter 30
Sulfur Dioxide 33
Nitrogen Oxides and Volatile Organic Compounds: Smog and "Bad" Ozone 37
Air Pollution Events, 1998 44
Air Pollution Research, 1998 47
Atmospheric Ozone: The "Good" Ozone Laoyer 47
Ozone Depletion over the Antarctic 53
Antarctic Ozone Depletion, 1998 53
The Montreal Protocol 54
Other Ozone-Related Events and Research, 1998 55
Energy 56
Overview of Energy Use 57
Fossil Fuels: Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas 64
Transportation 68
Electricity 70
Household Appliances 71
Energy Alternatives 73
Energy News, 1998 76
Global Warming 81
The Greenhouse Effect 81
Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming 81
Global Climate Models 86
Reservations and Uncertainty 88
Controversy 88
The Kyoto Protocol 95
The United States and the Kyoto Protocol 96
Global Warming, 1998 98
High Temperatures, 1998 100
Health Effects of Global Warming 103
Global Warming and Wildlife 103
Research and Response 104
Oceans 107
Oceans: Environment, Fisheries, and Pollution 107
Ocean Fundamentals 107
Ocean Salinity 108
Ocean Minerals 109
Ocean Sediment 109
Ocean Circulation and Currents 109
Sea Level 113
Sea Surface Temperature 115
Ocean Research, 1998 117
Fisheries 117
Significant Fishery Events, 1998 122
United States and Fisheries 124
Fishing Vessels: Global and United States 131
Bycatch, Habitat Destruction, and Marine Debris 133
Ocean Pollution 136
Chemical Contamination 136
Ocean Pollution, 1998 141
Oil Spills 141
Related Events and Research 144
Oxygen Depletion 145
Phytoplankton 147
Algae Blooms 147
Coral Reefs 152
Life in the Oceans: Research, 1998 159
El Nino 161
Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction 161
El Nino Conditions in the Pacific 162
Teleconnections, or How El Nino Affects Global Climate 162
Causes of El Nino 166
La Nina 166
El Nino and Global Warning 167
Monitoring El Nino 167
ENSO: El Nino-Southern Oscillation 167
Tracking ENSO Today 168
Significant El Nino/La Nina Events of 1998 173
Winter 1998 173
Spring 1998 178
Summer 1998 179
Extreme Events Affected by El Nino and La Nina 182
Other Effects from El Nino Conditions 185
The Land 188
Geologic Processes 188
The Earth's Layered Structure 189
Continental Drift 189
Tectonic Plates 190
Tectonic Plate Movement 190
Divergent Boundaries 190
Convergent Boundaries 191
Transform Boundaries 193
The Sea Floor and Magnetism 195
Questions and Research 195
Significant Earthquakes of 1998 202
Other Earthquakes, 1998 209
Tsunami 211
Tsunami Alerts 212
Tsunami, 1998 212
Research and Response 214
Volcanoes 214
Volcanic Site 215
Predicting Volcanic Eruptions 216
Volcanic Gases 216
Volcanoes and Global Climate 217
Monitoring Volcanic Activity 217
Volcanic Eruptions, 1998 223
Research 229
Land Use Issues: Cover, Soil, and Forests 232
Urbanization 232
Events and News, 1998 234
Land Cover and Resources 236
Events and News, 1998 243
Agriculture and the Land 244
Events, Research, and Response, 1998 246
Soil Erosion 246
Erosion of U.S. Cropland 247
Agriculture and Soil, 1998 248
Deserts and Desertification 249
Desertification 249
Desertification and Drought, 1998 254
Wildfires 255
Wildfires, 1997 255
Wildfires, 1998 256
Research and Response 260
Forests 260
Deforestation 261
Consequences of Deforestation 261
Causes of Deforestation 262
Forest Events and News, 1998 280
Forest Conservation and Forest Wildlife 282
Research 283
...and Response 284
Fresh Water 286
Cryosphere: The Ice 286
Antarctica 287
Greenland 288
The Arctic 288
Other Glaciers 288
Permafrost 290
The Cryosphere and Climate Change 291
Research and Events: Antarctica 291
Events: Greenland 294
Events: The Arctic 295
Events: Alaska 295
Events: Other Glaciers 296
Research and Events: Permafrost and Sea Ice 297
Pollution of the Cryosphere 300
Avalanches, 1998 301
Research and Response 302
Nature of Fresh Water Environment 304
Surface Water 306
Water Use in the United States 314
Wild and Scenic Rivers 321
Dams 325
The Example of Aswan Dam, Egypt 325
Groundwater 326
The High Plains (Ogalla) Aquifer 330
MTBE 330
Water Conflicts 333
Middle East and North Africa 335
Asia 336
Europe 336
North America 336
South America 337
Water Pollution Events, 1998 337
Research 339
...and Response 340
Water and Wildlife 341
Laws and Lawsuits 341
Appendix I Selected Treaties and Laws 343
Montreal Protocol, 1987 343
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 344
The Kyoto Protocol 345
The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992 345
MARPOL (International Commision for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships at Sea) 346
Overview of Selected U.S. Laws 347
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 1976 347
Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), 1972 347
Clean Water Act (CWA), 1977 348
The Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP), 1998 348
Clean Air Act (CAA) 349
Oil Pollution Act (OPA), 1990 349
Endangered Species Act (ESA), 1973 349
Appendix II Selected International and National Scientific Programs 350
International Programs and Organizations 350
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 350
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 350
Other Selected International Organizations 351
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) 351
Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) 352
The World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) 352
Selected U.S. Government Agencies and Government-Sponsored Organizations 353
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 353
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 354
National Climate Data Center (NCDC) 354
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) 355
Other U.S. Agencies and Organizations 355
U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 355
U.S. Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) 355
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) 356
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) 356
Independent Organizations 356
Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security 356
Glossary 357
Conversion Formulas 361
Length 361
Area 361
Volume 361
Mass 361
Conversions 361
Length 361
Area 361
Volume 361
Mass and Weight 361
Temperature 362
Conversions from Universal Time 363
Geologic Timeline 364
Earth Facts 365
Abbreviations 366
Index 367
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