THE EARTH AND ITS PEOPLES presents world history in a balanced, global framework, shifting the focus away from political centers of power. This truly global text for the world history survey course employs a fundamental theme—the interaction of human beings and the environment—to compare different times, places, and societies. Special emphasis is given to technology (in its broadest sense) and how technological development underlies all human activity. Highly acclaimed in their fields of study, the authors bring a wide array of expertise to the program. A combination of strong scholarship and detailed pedagogy gives the book its reputation for rigor and student accessibility. The Fifth Edition features new pedagogy and a beautiful new design
Richard W. Bulliet (PhD, Harvard University) is Professor of Middle Eastern History at Columbia University. He has written scholarly works on a number of topics: the social and economic history of medieval Iran (THE PATRICIANS OF NISHAPUR and COTTON, CLIMATE, AND CAMELS IN EARLY ISLAMIC IRAN), the history of human-animal relations (THE CAMEL AND THE WHEEL and HUNTERS, HERDERS, AND HAMBURGERS), the process of conversion to Islam (CONVERSION TO ISLAM IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD), and the overall course of Islamic social history (ISLAM: THE VIEW FROM THE EDGE and THE CASE FOR ISLAMO-CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION). He is the editor of the COLUMBIA HISTORY OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. He has published four novels, coedited THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST, and hosted an educational television series on the Middle East. He was awarded a fellowship by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation and was named a Carnegie Corporation Scholar.
Pamela Kyle Crossley received her Ph.D. in Modern Chinese History from Yale University. She is currently the Robert and Barbara Black Professor of History at Dartmouth College. Her books include THE WOBBLING PIVOT: AN INTERPRETIVE HISTORY OF CHINA SINCE 1800; WHAT IS GLOBAL HISTORY?; A TRANSLUCENT MIRROR: HISTORY AND IDENTITY IN QING IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY; THE MANCHUS; ORPHAN WARRIORS: THREE MANCHU GENERATIONS AND THE END OF THE QING WORLD; and (with Lynn Hollen Lees and John W. Servos) GLOBAL SOCIETY: THE WORLD SINCE 1900.
Daniel R. Headrick received his Ph.D. in History from Princeton University. Professor of History and Social Science, Emeritus, at Roosevelt University in Chicago, he is the author of several books on the history of technology, imperialism, and international relations, including THE TOOLS OF EMPIRE: TECHNOLOGY AND EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY; THE TENTACLES OF PROGRESS: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM; THE INVISIBLE WEAPON: TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICS; TECHNOLOGY: A WORLD HISTORY; POWER OVER PEOPLES: TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTS AND WESTERN IMPERIALISM, 1400 TO THE PRESENT; and WHEN INFORMATION CAME OF AGE: TECHNOLOGIES OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE AGE OF REASON AND REVOLUTION, 1700-1850. His articles have appeared in the JOURNAL OF WORLD HISTORY and the JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY, and he has been awarded fellowships by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
Steven W. Hirsch holds a Ph.D. in Classics from Stanford University and is currently Associate Professor of Classics and History at Tufts University. He has received grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Massachusetts Foundation for Humanities and Public Policy. His research and publications include THE FRIENDSHIP OF THE BARBARIANS: XENOPHON AND THE PERSIAN EMPIRE, as well as articles and reviews in the CLASSICAL JOURNAL, the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY, and the JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY. He is currently working on a comparative study of ancient Mediterranean and Chinese civilizations.
Professor of History at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Lyman L. Johnson earned his Ph.D. in Latin American History from the University of Connecticut. A two-time Senior Fulbright-Hays Lecturer, he also has received fellowships from the Tinker Foundation, the Social Science Research Council, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the American Philosophical Society. His recent books include DEATH, DISMEMBERMENT, AND MEMORY; THE FACES OF HONOR (with Sonya Lipsett-Rivera); THE PROBLEM OF ORDER IN CHANGING SOCIETIES; ESSAYS ON THE PRICE HISTORY OF EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY LATIN AMERICA (with Enrique Tandeter); and COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA (with Mark A. Burkholder). He also has published in journals, including the HISPANIC AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW, the JOURNAL OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, the INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF SOCIAL HISTORY, SOCIAL HISTORY, and DESARROLLO ECONOMICO. He recently served as president of the Conference on Latin American History.
NOTE: Each chapter contains a conclusion, key terms, website resources, a suggested reading list, and notes. PART I: THE EMERGENCE OF HUMAN COMMUNITIES, TO 500 B.C.E. 1. Nature, Humanity, and History, to 3500 B.C.E. African Genesis. Technology and Culture in the Ice Age. The Agricultural Revolutions. Life in Neolithic Communities. Diversity and Dominance: Cave Art. Environment and Technology: The Iceman. 2. The First River-Valley Civilizations, 3500-1500 B.C.E. Mesopotamia. Egypt. The Indus Valley Civilization. Diversity and Dominance: Violence and Order in the Babylonian New Year's Festival. Environment and Technology: Environmental Stress in the Indus Valley. 3. New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, 2200-250 B.C.E. Early China, 2000-221 B.C.E. Nubia, 3100 B.C.E.-350 C.E. Celtic Europe, 1000-50 B.C.E. First Civilizations of the Americas: The Olmec and Chavin, 1200-250 B.C.E. Environment and Technology: Divination in Ancient Societies. Diversity and Dominance: Human Nature and Good Government in the Analects of Confucius and the Legalist Writings of Han Fei. 4. The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000-500 B.C.E. The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700-1100 B.C.E. The Aegean World, 2000-1100 B.C.E. The Assyrian Empire, 911-612 B.C.E. Israel, 2000-500 B.C.E. Phoenicia and the Mediterranean, 1200-500 B.C.E. Failure and Transformation, 750-550 B.C.E. Diversity and Dominance: Protests Against the Ruling Class in Israel and Babylonia. Environment and Technology: Ancient Textiles and Dyes. Issues In World History: Animal Domestication. PART II: THE FORMATION OF NEW CULTURAL COMMUNITIES, 1000 B.C.E.-400 C.E. 5. Greece and Iran, 1000-30 B.C.E. Ancient Iran, 1000-500 B.C.E. The Rise of the Greeks, 1000-500 B.C.E. The Struggle of Persia and Greece, 546-323 B.C.E. The Hellenistic Synthesis, 323-30 B.C.E. Diversity and Dominance: Persian and Greek Perceptions of Kingship. Material Culture: Wine and Beer in the Ancient World. Environment and Technology: Ancient Astronomy. 6. An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China, 753 B.C.E.-330 C.E. Rome's Creation of a Mediterranean Empire, 753 B.C.E.-330 C.E. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 B.C.E.-220 C.E. Diversity and Dominance: The Treatment of Slaves in Rome and China. Environment and Technology: Water Engineering in Rome and China. 7. India and Southeast Asia, 1500 B.C.E.-1025 C.E. Foundations of Indian Civilization, 1500 B.C.E.-300 C.E. Imperial Expansion and Collapse, 324 B.C.E.-650 C.E. Southeast Asia, 50-1025 C.E. Environment and Technology: Indian Mathematics. Diversity and Dominance: Relations Between Women and Men in the Kama Sutra and the Arthashastra. Issues in World History: Oral Societies and the Consequences of Literacy. PART III: GROWTH AND INTERACTION OF CULTURAL COMMUNITIES, 300 B.C.E.-1200 C.E. 8. Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 B.C.E.-1100 C.E. The Silk Road. The Indian Ocean Maritime System. Routes Across the Sahara. Sub-Saharan Africa. The Spread of Ideas. Diversity and Dominance: Travel Accounts of Africa and India. Environment and Technology: Camel Saddles. 9. The Sasanid Empire and the Rise of Islam, 200-1200. The Sasanid Empire, 224-651. The Origins of Islam. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate, 632-1258. Islamic Civilization. Diversity and Dominance: Secretaries, Turks, and Beggars. Environment and Technology: Chemistry. Material Culture: Head Coverings. 10. Christian Societies Emerge in Europe, 600-1200. The Byzantine Empire, 600-1200. Early Medieval Europe, 600-1000. The Western Church. Kievan Russia, 900-1200. Western Europe Revives, 1000-1200. The Crusades, 1095-1204. Environment and Technology: Iron Production. Diversity and Dominance: The Struggle for Christian Morality. 11. Inner and East Asia, 400-1200. The Sui and Tang Empires, 581-755. The Emergence of East Asia, to 1200. New Kingdoms in East Asia. Diversity and Dominance: Law and Society in China and Japan. Environment and Technology: Writing in East Asia, 400-1200. 12. Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, 200-1500. Classic-Era Culture and Society in Mesoamerica, 200-900. The Postclassic Period in Mesoamerica, 900-1500. Northern Peoples. Andean Civilizations, 200-1500. Diversity and Dominance: Burials as Historical Texts. Environment and Technology: Inca Roads. Issues in World History: Religious Conversion. PART IV: INTERREGIONAL PATTERNS OF CULTURE AND CONTACT, 1200-1550. 13. Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200-1500. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200-1260. The Mongols and Islam, 1260-1500. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia. Mongol Domination in China, 1271-1368. The Early Ming Empire, 1368-1500. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia, 1200-1500. Diversity and Dominance: Observations of Mongol Life. Environment and Technology: From Gunpowder to Guns. 14. Tropical Africa and Asia,1200-1500. Tropical Lands and Peoples. New Islamic Empires. Indian Ocean Trade. Social and Cultural Change. Diversity and Dominance: Personal Styles of Rule in India and Mali. Environment and Technology: The Indian Ocean Dhow. 15. The Latin West, 1200-1500. Rural Growth and Crisis. Urban Revival. Learning, Literature, and the Renaissance. Political and Military Transformations. Diversity and Dominance: Persecution and Protection of Jews, 1272-1349. Environment and Technology: The Clock. 16. The Maritime Revolution, to 1550. Global Maritime Expansion Before 1450. European Expansion, 1400-1550. Encounters with Europe, 1450-1550. Conclusion. Environment and Technology: Vasco da Gama's Fleet. Diversity and Dominance: Kongo's Christian King. Issues in World History: Climate and Population to 1500. PART V: THE GLOBE ENCOMPASSED, 1500-1750. 17. Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750. Culture and Ideas. Social and Economic Life. Political Innovations. Environment and Technology: Mapping the World. Diversity and Dominance: Political Craft and Craftiness. 18. The Diversity of American Colonial Societies, 1530-1770. The Columbian Exchange. Spanish America and Brazil. English and French Colonies in North America. Colonial Expansion and Conflict. Environment and Technology: A Silver Refinery at Potosi, Bolivia, 1700. Diversity and Dominance: Race and Ethnicity in the Spanish Colonies: Negotiating Hierarchy. 19. The Atlantic System and Africa, 1550-1800. Plantations in the West Indies. Plantation Life in the Eighteenth Century. Creating the Atlantic Economy. Africa, the Atlantic, and Islam. Environment and Technology: Amerindian Foods in Africa. Diversity and Dominance: Slavery in West Africa and the Americas. 20. Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750. The Ottoman Empire, to 1750. The Safavid Empire, 1502-1722. The Mughal Empire, 1526-1761. The Maritime Worlds of Islam, 1500-1750. Diversity and Dominance: Islamic Law and Ottoman Rule. Environment and Technology: Tobacco and Waterpipes. 21. Northern Eurasia, 1500-1800. Japanese Reunification. The Later Ming and Early Qing Empires. The Russian Empire. Environment and Technology: East Asian Porcelain. Diversity and Dominance: Gendered Violence: The Yangzhou Massacre. Issues in World History: The Little Ice Age. PART VI: REVOLUTIONS RESHAPE THE WORLD, 1750-1870. 22. Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850 Prelude to Revolution: The Eighteenth-Century Crisis. The American Revolution, 1775-1800. The French Revolution, 1789-1815. Revolution Spreads, Conservatives Respond, 1789-1850. Environment and Technology: The Guillotine. Diversity and Dominance: Robespierre and Wollstonecraft Defend and Explain the Terror. 23. The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760-1851. Causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Technological Revolution. The Impact of the Early Industrial Revolution. New Economic and Political Ideas. Diversity and Dominance: Adam Smith and the Division of Labor. Environment and Technology: Gas Lighting. 24. Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, 1800-1890. Independence in Latin America, 1800-1830. The Problem of Order, 1825-1890. The Challenge of Social and Economic Change. Diversity and Dominance: The Afro-Brazilian Experience, 1828. Environment and Technology: Constructing the Port of Buenos Aires, Argentina. 25 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1870. The Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire. The Qing Empire. Environment and Technology: The Web of War. Diversity and Dominance: Chinese Responses to Imperialism. 26. Africa, India, and the New British Empire, 1750-1870. Changes and Exchanges in Africa. India Under British Rule. Britain's Eastern Empire. Diversity and Dominance: Ceremonials of Imperial Domination. Environment and Technology: Whaling. Issues in World History: State Power, the Census, and the Question of Identity. PART VII: GLOBAL DIVERSITY AND DOMINANCE, 1850-1945. 27. The New Power Balance, 1850-1900. New Technologies and the World Economy. Social Changes. Socialism and Labor Movements. Nationalism and the Rise of Italy, Germany, and Japan. The Great Powers of Europe, 1871-1900. China, Japan, and the Western Powers. Environment and Technology: Railroads and Immigration. Diversity and Dominance: Marx and Engels on Global Trade and the Bourgeoisie. Material Culture: Cotton Clothing. 28. The New Imperialism, 1869-1914. The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods. The Scramble for Africa. Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific. Imperialism in Latin America. The World Economy and the Global Environment. Diversity and Dominance: Two Africans Recall the Arrival of the Europeans. Environment and Technology: Imperialism and Tropical Ecology. 29. The Crisis of the Imperial Order, 1900-1929. Origins of the Crisis in Europe and the Middle East. The "Great War" and the Russian Revolutions, 1914-1918. Peace and Dislocation in Europe, 1919-1929. China and Japan: Contrasting Destinies. The New Middle East. Society, Culture, and Technology in the Industrialized World. Diversity and Dominance: The Middle East After World War I. Environment and Technology: The Birth of Civil Aviation. 30. The Collapse of the Old Order, 1929-1949. The Stalin Revolution. The Depression. The Rise of Fascism. East Asia, 1931-1945. The Second World War. The Character of Warfare. Diversity and Dominance: Women, Family Values, and the Russian Revolution. Environment and Technology: The Enigma Machine. 31. Striving for Independence: India, Africa, and Latin America, 1900-1949. The Indian Independence Movement, 1905-1947. Sub-Saharan Africa, 1900-1945. Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil, 1900-1949. Environment and Technology: Gandhi and Technology. Diversity and Dominance: A Vietnamese Nationalist Denounces French Colonialism. Issues in World History: Famines and Politics. PART VIII: PERILS AND PROMISES OF A GLOBAL COMMUNITY, 1945 TO THE PRESENT. 32. The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945-1975. The Cold War. Decolonization and Nation Building. Beyond a Bipolar World. Environment and Technology: The Green Revolution. Diversity and Dominance: Race and the Struggle for Justice in South Africa 33. The End of the Cold War and the Challenge of Economic Development and Immigration, 1975-2000. Postcolonial Crises and Asian Economic Expansion. The End of the Bipolar World. The Challenge of Population Growth. Unequal Development and the Movement of Peoples. Technological and Environmental Change. Diversity and Dominance: The Struggle for Women's Rights in an Era of Global Political and Economic Change. Environment and Technology: The Computer Gets Personal. Material Culture: Fast Food. 34. New Challenges in a New Millennium. Globalization and Economic Crisis. The Question of Values. Global Culture. Diversity and Dominance: Conflict and Civilization. Environment and Technology: Global Warming.