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Earthquakes: Plate Tectonics and Earthquake Hazards
     

Earthquakes: Plate Tectonics and Earthquake Hazards

by Timothy Kusky
 

ISBN-10: 0816064628

ISBN-13: 9780816064625

Pub. Date: 01/28/2008

Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated

The Hazardous Earth is an eight-volume set that provides students with a comprehensive account of natural hazards-the geologic processes that create conditions dangerous to humans-and what can be done to minimize their effects. Designed to complement science curricula, the books present vivid accounts of historic disasters and events that have shaped history and

Overview

The Hazardous Earth is an eight-volume set that provides students with a comprehensive account of natural hazards-the geologic processes that create conditions dangerous to humans-and what can be done to minimize their effects. Designed to complement science curricula, the books present vivid accounts of historic disasters and events that have shaped history and serve as warnings for future generations.

Earthquakes explores the furious impact of nature and the massive devastation that is often the result of the relentless forces built up within the Earth. The book is divided into two sections: the first consists of chapters that describe the main components of the theory of plate tectonics, using many examples to illustrate each main process; the second consists of chapters that focus on earthquakes-how they form and their short- and long-term effects. Sidebars throughout the book clarify fundamental concepts about plate tectonics and associated hazards and provide capsule biographical portraits of key scientists in the field of Earth science.

The volume includes information on areas at risk for earthquakes in the United States, convergent margins, divergent plate boundaries, earthquake disasters, earthquake hazards, earthquake magnitude, earthquake prediction, preparation, and response, structure of the Earth, transform margin processes, understanding ancient earthquakes.

The book contains more than 40 black-and-white photographs and line illustrations, the Geologic Time Scale, a glossary of terms, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. The Hazardous Earth set is essential for middle and high school students, teachers, and general readers who seekcomprehensive information on geologic processes that are hazardous to people and the environment.

About the Author:
Timothy Kusky, Ph.D., is the Paul C. Reinert Professor of Natural Sciences and director of the Center for Environmental Sciences at Saint Louis University, Missouri, where he teaches courses and conducts research worldwide in Precambrian geology, environmental geology, structural geology, remote sensing, tectonics, and geological hazards

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780816064625
Publisher:
Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date:
01/28/2008
Series:
The Hazardous Earth Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
192
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range:
11 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
Acknowledgments     xiii
Introduction     xv
Plate Tectonics
General Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics     3
Physiography: Shape of the Surface of the Planet     4
Historical Development of the Plate Tectonics Theorem     6
Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930)     8
Alexander Logie Du Toit (1878-1948)     11
Plate Tectonics and the Hazardous Earth     12
How Plate Tectonics Works     13
Conclusion     18
Divergent Plate Boundaries     20
Divergent Plate Boundary Processes     20
Divergent Plate Boundaries in Continents     21
Kevin C. Burke (1929- )     22
Modes of Extension     23
Divergent Plate Boundaries in the Oceans     25
Transition from Continental to Oceanic Rifting: The Afar Triangle     26
Conclusion     32
Transform Plate Boundaries and Transform Faults     34
Transform Margin Processes     35
Transform Boundaries in the Continents     36
Transform Boundaries in the Oceans     40
Tanya Atwater (1942- )     41
Conclusion     42
Convergent Margins     44
Convergent Plate Margin Processes     46
Southern Alaska's Convergent Margin     46
Arcs     50
Variations between Different Types of Convergent Margin Arcs     52
Collisions     56
The Tibetan Plateau     59
Conclusion     63
Earthquakes
Earthquakes     67
Areas at Risk for Significant Earthquakes in the United States     69
Origins of Earthquakes     74
Method of Locating Epicenters Using Three Intersecting Circles     76
Measuring Earthquakes     78
Earthquake Magnitude     80
Conclusion     82
Earthquake Hazards     84
Ground Motion     85
Ground Breaks     88
Mass Wasting     89
Liquefaction     90
Changes in Ground Level     92
Tsunami and Seiche Waves     92
Damage to Utilities (Fires, Broken Gas Mains, Transportation Network)     96
Conclusion     97
Earthquake Prediction, Preparation, and Response     98
Earthquake Statistics     98
Predicting Earthquakes     99
China's Liaoning Earthquake: Successful Earthquake Prediction     102
Seismic Hazard Zones and Risk Mapping     103
Paleoseismicity: Understanding Ancient Earthquakes     104
Architecture and Building Codes     106
Agencies That Deal with Earthquakes     107
Earthquake Response     107
Utilities Infrastructure and Emergency Response     108
Earthquake Readiness     108
Conclusion     110
Descriptions of Earthquake Disasters     111
Earthquakes That Struck Convergent Margins     112
Earthquakes That Struck Transform Margins     128
Earthquakes That Struck Intraplate Regions and Divergent Margins     131
Conclusion     139
Summary     140
Appendix     143
Glossary     144
Further Reading and Web Sites     153
Index     161

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