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Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians
     

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians

by Stan Hillman
 

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ISBN-10: 0198570317

ISBN-13: 9780198570318

Pub. Date: 09/29/2008

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Amphibians are the extant descendants of the first vertebrate class to successfully colonize terrestrial environments; hence they occupy a unique position between fish and reptiles. Amphibian skin provides essentially no resistance to evaporative water loss, and consequently daily water turnover rates are an order of magnitude greater than in other terrestrial

Overview

Amphibians are the extant descendants of the first vertebrate class to successfully colonize terrestrial environments; hence they occupy a unique position between fish and reptiles. Amphibian skin provides essentially no resistance to evaporative water loss, and consequently daily water turnover rates are an order of magnitude greater than in other terrestrial vertebrate groups. This has led to a suite of physiological, morphological, and behavioural adaptations that has allowed a successful terrestrial existence in spite of this apparently spendthrift water retention strategy.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780198570318
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Publication date:
09/29/2008
Series:
Ecological and Environmental Physiology Series
Pages:
464
Product dimensions:
6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.20(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ix

Foreword xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Amphibian Characteristics and Monophyly 1

1.2 Amphibian Orders 3

1.3 Environmental Biophysics of Gas, Water and Ion Exchange: Aquatic-Terrestrial Transition 10

1.4 Biophysics of Thermal Balance 20

1.5 Habitats and Morphotypes 23

1.6 Phylogeny of the Amphibia 59

1.7 Phylogeny and Environmental Physiology 62

2 General Physiological Principles 69

2.1 Water and Ion Budgets 69

2.2 Temperature and Thermal Energy Budgets 95

2.3 Chemical Energy Budgets 99

2.4 Respiratory Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange 110

2.5 Erythrocytes Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange 129

2.6 Cardiovascular Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange 138

2.7 Tissue Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange 155

2.8 Blood Volume Control 157

3 Specialized Physiological Characteristics of Amphibia 165

3.1 Skin and Urinary Bladder as Models for Water and Ion Exchange 165

3.2 Cutaneous Water Exchange: Skin Uptake and Evaporation 184

3.3 Dehydration Tolerance 203

3.4 Temperature 215

3.5 Metabolism 236

3.6 Nitrogen Excretion 255

3.7 Kidneys and Nephrostomes 263

3.8 Developmental Plasticity 275

4 Physiological Adaptations to Extreme Environments 281

4.1 Salt and Osmotic Sensitivity 281

4.2 Arid Environments 287

4.3 Hibernation Adaptations 306

4.4 Metabolic Depression 333

5 Approaches and Techniques 343

5.1 The Comparative Method Approach 343

5.2 Techniques 350

6 Conclusions and Future Directions 375

6.1 What We Know Now 375

6.2 Phylogenetic Breadth 376

6.3 Population Declines and Environmental Physiology 378

6.4 Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics 379

6.5 Levels of Organization 380

Bibliography383

Index 461

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