Overview

This book provides a first synthetic view of an emerging area of ecology and biogeography, linking individual- and population-level processes to geographic distributions and biodiversity patterns. Problems in evolutionary ecology, macroecology, and biogeography are illuminated by this integrative view. The book focuses on correlative approaches known as ecological niche modeling, species distribution modeling, or habitat suitability modeling, which use associations between known occurrences of species and ...

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Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions (MPB-49)

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Overview

This book provides a first synthetic view of an emerging area of ecology and biogeography, linking individual- and population-level processes to geographic distributions and biodiversity patterns. Problems in evolutionary ecology, macroecology, and biogeography are illuminated by this integrative view. The book focuses on correlative approaches known as ecological niche modeling, species distribution modeling, or habitat suitability modeling, which use associations between known occurrences of species and environmental variables to identify environmental conditions under which populations can be maintained. The spatial distribution of environments suitable for the species can then be estimated: a potential distribution for the species. This approach has broad applicability to ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology, as well as to understanding the geographic potential of invasive species and infectious diseases, and the biological implications of climate change.

The authors lay out conceptual foundations and general principles for understanding and interpreting species distributions with respect to geography and environment. Focus is on development of niche models. While serving as a guide for students and researchers, the book also provides a theoretical framework to support future progress in the field.

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Editorial Reviews

Choice
[Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions] would serve as an excellent and authoritative textbook or resource for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level class on ecological modeling.
Priscum
This book is an impressively well written exposition of the conceptual foundation, practical implementation, and potential applications of niche modeling. . . . Overall, this book is an instant classic and a critical read for anyone interested in this fast-moving field of ecological niche modeling. I have already assigned it as required reading to graduate students in my lab.
— Alycia Stigall
Priscum - Alycia Stigall
This book is an impressively well written exposition of the conceptual foundation, practical implementation, and potential applications of niche modeling. . . . Overall, this book is an instant classic and a critical read for anyone interested in this fast-moving field of ecological niche modeling. I have already assigned it as required reading to graduate students in my lab.
Quarterly Review of Biology - Ian S. Pearce
I found this book very useful. Its theoretical rigor will please those already involved with niche modeling, and its numerous and interesting examples make it accessible to a broad readership.
Ecology - Dan L. Warren
Ecological Niches And Geographic Distributions concisely summarizes the conceptual framework and current major issues in a diverse and rapidly expanding literature. The numerous illustrations help to clarify key concepts and case studies, and the writing is clear throughout. Although the book sometimes forgoes depth in favor of clarity, ultimately I feel that this approach is for the best; many of the chapters in Parts 2 and 3 could be expanded to fill entire books of their own, but doing so would necessarily sacrifice much of the 'big picture' that is the focus of this volume. Ecological niches and geographic distributions would be a worthy addition to the library of any investigator using ENM/SDM methods in their research, and would be an excellent resource for students and investigators who are encountering the field for the first time.
From the Publisher

"[Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions] would serve as an excellent and authoritative textbook or resource for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level class on ecological modeling."--Choice

"This book is an impressively well written exposition of the conceptual foundation, practical implementation, and potential applications of niche modeling. . . . Overall, this book is an instant classic and a critical read for anyone interested in this fast-moving field of ecological niche modeling. I have already assigned it as required reading to graduate students in my lab."--Alycia Stigall, Priscum

"I found this book very useful. Its theoretical rigor will please those already involved with niche modeling, and its numerous and interesting examples make it accessible to a broad readership."--Ian S. Pearce, Quarterly Review of Biology

"Ecological Niches And Geographic Distributions concisely summarizes the conceptual framework and current major issues in a diverse and rapidly expanding literature. The numerous illustrations help to clarify key concepts and case studies, and the writing is clear throughout. Although the book sometimes forgoes depth in favor of clarity, ultimately I feel that this approach is for the best; many of the chapters in Parts 2 and 3 could be expanded to fill entire books of their own, but doing so would necessarily sacrifice much of the 'big picture' that is the focus of this volume. Ecological niches and geographic distributions would be a worthy addition to the library of any investigator using ENM/SDM methods in their research, and would be an excellent resource for students and investigators who are encountering the field for the first time."--Dan L. Warren, Ecology

"With a real exploration of key concepts, this book will be an essential guide for students and researchers, providing a theoretical framework with which to support future progress in the field. This book is highly recommended."--Evelyne Bremond-Hoslet, National d'Histoire Naturelle

"The seven authors have merged their ideas seamlessly . . ."--Janet Sprent, Bulletin of the British Ecology Society

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781400840670
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 10/31/2011
  • Series: Monographs in Population Biology
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition description: Course Book
  • Pages: 328
  • File size: 6 MB

Meet the Author

A. Townsend Peterson and Jorge Soberón are professors of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Kansas. Richard G. Pearson is a scientist at the American Museum of Natural History. Robert P. Anderson is associate professor of biology at the City College of New York, CUNY. Enrique Martínez-Meyer is professor at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Miguel Nakamura is a researcher at the Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas in Guanajuato, Mexico. Miguel B. Araújo is a senior researcher at the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid, and at the Universidade de Évora, Portugal.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ix

1 Introduction 1

Practicalities 2

This Volume 3

Part I Theory

2 Concepts of Niches 7

Major Themes in Niche Concepts 9

Grinnellian and Eltonian Niches 16

Estimating Grinnellian Niches: Practicalities 19

Summary 21

3 Niches and Geographic Distributions 23

Relations between Environmental and Geographic Spaces 24

The Ecological Equations 26

The BAM Diagram: A Thinking Framework 29

Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions 31

Estimating Geographic Areas and Ecological Niches 40

Summary 46

Part II Practice

4 Niches and Distributions in Practice: Overview 51

General Principles 52

Steps to Building Niche Models 56

5 Species' Occurrence Data 62

Types of Occurrence Data 62

Occurrence Data Content and Availability 77

Summary 81

6 Environmental Data 82

Species-Environment Relationships 82

Environmental Data for Ecological Niche Modeling 85

Environmental Data in Practice 87

Summary 95

7 Modeling Ecological Niches 97

What Is Being Estimated? 98

Modeling Algorithms 101

Implementation 112

Model Calibration 112

Model Complexity and Overfitting 123

Study Region Extent and Resolution Revisited 125

Model Extrapolation and Transferability 126

Differences among Methods and Selection of "Best" Models 128

Characterizing Ecological Niches 131

Summary 137

8 From Niches to Distributions 138

Potential Distributional Areas 138

Nonequilibrium Distributions 141

Detecting and Processing Nonequilibrium Distributions 143

Summary 149

9 : Evaluating Model Performance and Significance 150

Presences, Absences, and Errors 150

Calibration and Evaluation Datasets 153

Overfitting, Performance, Significance, and Evaluation Space 154

Selection of Evaluation Data 156

Evaluation of Performance 162

Assessing Model Significance 167

Future Directions 176

Summary 180

Part III Applications

10 Introduction to Applications 185

11 Discovering Biodiversity 189

Discovering Populations 190

Discovering Species Limits 191

Discovering Unknown Species 192

Connection to Theory 192

Practical Considerations 193

Review of Applications 195

Discussion 198

12 Conservation Planning and Climate Change Effects 200

Generalities 200

Connection to Theory 201

Practical Considerations 206

Review of Applications 208

13 Species' Invasions 215

Connection to Theory 216

Practical Considerations 216

Review of Applications 218

Caveats and Limitations 222

Future Directions and Challenges 224

14 The Geography of Disease Transmission 226

Connection to Theory 229

Practical Considerations 229

Review of Applications 230

Caveats and Limitations 235

Future Directions and Challenges 236

15 Linking Niches with Evolutionary Processes 238

Changes in the Available Environment 238

Niche Conservatism 240

Tests of Conservatism 243

Context 250

Learning More about Ecological Niche Evolution 250

Future Directions and Challenges 254

16 Conclusions 256

Appendices

Appendix A Glossary of Symbols Used 261

Appendix B Set Theory for G- and E-Space 266

Glossary 269

Bibliography 281

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