Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches


This book conveys to the reader an up-to-date overview of the science of ecotoxicology, which describes and predicts ecological changes resulting from a variety of human activi-
ties irvolving release of chemicals to the environment.
Throughout, the emphasis is on the analysis and synthesis of underlying principles from an ecosystem perspective that will be valuable to scientists and professionals in this area...

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Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989)
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This book conveys to the reader an up-to-date overview of the science of ecotoxicology, which describes and predicts ecological changes resulting from a variety of human activi-
ties irvolving release of chemicals to the environment.
Throughout, the emphasis is on the analysis and synthesis of underlying principles from an ecosystem perspective that will be valuable to scientists and professionals in this area of environmental science.

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Editorial Reviews

Examines the effects of the release of chemicals into the environment from an ecosystem perspective, rather than simply in terms of the effects on individuals or populations. The contributors provide analyses in four major areas: issues and approaches, responses of ecosystems to chemical stress, examples of methods and models of analysis, and decision making and public policy issues. Marine, aquatic, and terrestrial systems are treated. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781461281382
  • Publisher: Springer New York
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Series: Springer Advanced Texts in Life Sciences Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 547
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 1.14 (d)

Table of Contents

I Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches.- 1 Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches.- 2 Indicators of Ecosystem Response and Recovery.- 2.1 Stress, Ecosystem Response, and Recovery.- 2.2 A Focus on Useful Ecological Endpoints.- 2.3 Ecosystem Indicators.- 2.4 Conclusion.- II Responses of Ecosystems to Chemical Stress.- 3 Effects of Heavy Metals in a Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem.- 3.1 Approaches.- 3.2 Some Background on Metal-Polluted Foundry Cove.- 3.3 Effects of Heavy Metals on the Composition of the Macrobenthos.- 3.4 The Evolution of Resistance to Heavy Metals.- 3.5 Heavy Metal Accumulation and Detoxification in Resistant Biota.- 3.6 Conclusion.- 4 Determining the Ecological Effects of Oil Pollution in Marine Ecosystems.- 4.1 Acute Toxicity, the LD50 Approach.- 4.2 Ecosystem-Level Approaches.- 4.3 Effects of Oil Pollution on Benthic Communities.- 4.4 Effects of Oil Pollution on Planktonic Communities.- 4.5 Significance of the Observed Ecosystem Effects.- 4.6 Conclusions.- 5 The Effects of Chemical Stress on Aquatic Species Composition and Community Structure.- 5.1 Information Required for Effective Resource Management.- 5.2 Methodologies Used in the Study of Chemical Stress Effects.- 5.3 Early Studies of Community Composition and Structure as Indicators of Chemical Stress: The Historical Context.- 5.4 Structural Changes.- 5.5 Conclusions.- 6 Theoretical and Methodological Reasons for Variability in the Responses of Aquatic Ecosystem Processes to Chemical Stresses.- 6.1 The Global Significance of Ecosystem Processes and Chemical Stresses.- 6.2 The Detection of Ecosystem Responses to Stress.- 6.3 Terminology.- 6.4 Methodological Issues.- 6.5 Mechanistic Issues.- 6.6 Effects of Chemical Stress on Functional Networks.- 6.7 Chemical Stress Effects on Interactions Between Functional Networks.- 6.8 Indices of Ecosystem Health.- 6.9 Conclusions.- 7 The Effects of Chemicals on the Structure of Terrestrial Ecosystems: Mechanisms and Patterns of Change.- 7.1 Mechanisms of Chemical Exposure.- 7.2 Effects of Disturbance on Organisms.- 7.3 Consequences of Organism Injury to Alterations in Ecosystem Structure.- 7.4 Conclusions.- III Methods and Models.- 8 Models in Ecotoxicology: Methodological Aspects.- 8.1 Physical and Biological Scales.- 8.2 Aggregation, Simplification, and the Problem of Dimensionality.- 8.3 Equilibrium and Variability.- 9 Mathematical Models—Fate, Transport, and Food Chain.- 9.1 Components of Model.- 9.2 Transport, Salinity, and Solids Analyses.- 9.3 Organic Chemicals in the Water Column.- 9.4 Application to Kepone in the James River.- 9.5 Food Chain.- 9.6 Application to James River Striped Bass Food Chain.- 9.7 Conclusion.- 10 Deterministic and Statistical Models of Chemical Fate in Aquatic Systems.- 10.1 Theory.- 10.2 Steady-State Simplification.- 10.3 Deterministic Time Variable Models.- 10.4 Statistical Variation in Fish.- 10.5 Conclusions.- 11 Bioaccumulation of Hydrophobic Organic Pollutant Compounds.- 11.1 Physical-Chemical Considerations and Bioavailability.- 11.2 Biological Uptake, Retention, Metabolism, and Release.- 11.3 Bivalve Molluscs.- 11.4 Fish, Crustacea, and Polychaetes.- 11.5 Dietary Source of Organic Pollutants.- 11.6 Conclusion.- 12 Environmental Chemical Stress Effects Associated with Carbon and Phosphorus Biogeochemical Cycles.- 12.1 Carbon Cycle.- 12.2 Phosphorus Cycle.- 12.3 Simple Cycle Models.- 12.4 Analysis of Environmental Stresses in Carbon and Phosphorus Cycles.- 12.5 Stresses and Perturbations in the Carbon and Phosphorus Cycles.- 12.6 Sensitivity of Nutrient Flows to Biotic and Mineral Controls.- 12.7 Conclusion.- 13 Biomonitoring: Closing the Loop in the Environmental Sciences.- 13.1 Biomonitoring Programs for Ecosystems.- 13.2 Improving Biomonitoring Programs.- 13.3 Ecotoxicological and Biomonitoring Systems.- 14 The Role of Terrestrial Microcosms and Mesocosms in Ecotoxicologic Research.- 14.1 Historical Perspective.- 14.2 Microcosms as an Appropriate Technology.- 14.3 Mesocosms as an Appropriate Technology.- 14.4 Relationship to Mathematical Modeling.- 14.5 Ecotoxicological Applications of Microcosms and Mesocosms.- 14.6 Conclusions.- 14.7 Summary.- 15 The Role of Aquatic Microcosms in Ecotoxicologic Research as Illustrated by Large Marine Systems.- 15.1 Types of Microcosms.- 15.2 Applicability of Microcosm Results to Nature.- 15.3 Comparison of Microcosms with Other Experimental Approaches.- 15.4 Representative Results from Microcosms.- 15.5 Conclusion.- IV Ecotoxicological Decision Making.- 16 Ecotoxicology Beyond Sensitivity: A Case Study Involving “Unreasonableness” of Environmental Change.- 16.1 Potential Impacts on Seagrasses as an Ecotoxicological Case Study.- 16.2 Beyond Sensitivity: Raising the Acceptability Issue.- 16.3 Conclusion and Prospectus.- 17 Regulatory Framework for Ecotoxicology.- 17.1 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).- 17.2 Clean Water Act (CWA).- 17.3 Clean Air Act (CAA).- 17.4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).- 17.5 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund.- 17.6 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).- 17.7 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).- 18 Environmental Decision Making in the Presence of Uncertainty.- 18.1 Regulatory and Ecological Endpoints.- 18.2 Effects of Chemicals on Ecosystems.- 18.3 Sources of Ecological Uncertainties.- 18.4 Environmental Decision Making.

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