Education for Everyone: An Agenda for Education in a Democracy / Edition 1

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Overview

The founders of our Republic envisioned education as providing forall citizens the necessary apprenticeship in the understanding andpractice of democracy. To make democracy safe we must haveuniversal schooling; to make schooling safe for education we musthave democracy. But since the founding of our country the study andpractice of democracy in our schools has weakened. We must returnto the primary purpose of education and ensure that it is indeedfor everyone.

The Agenda for Education in a Democracy proposed by the authorsis more than an effort to simply revitalize a faltering civicscurriculum. It is about restoring a shared humanity to theeducational process. It is about the need to make caring,compassion, freedom, dignity, and responsibility central to themission of schooling. It is about placing power andresponsibility–a concept more demanding of the individual thanis accountability–in the hands of those who need and deserveit. It is about taking the idea of excellence seriously. It isabout taking democracy seriously. It is about having real faith inreal people to do what is right, just, and honorable.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
“This is a provocative and intellectually stimulatingcollection of wisdom designed for the reader who truly believes inthe altruistic purpose of public education in today's tumultuousworld. Education for Everyone invites the reader to thinkdeeply about the power of one word, ‘DEMOCRACY,’ andwhy it remains the true foundation of the American educationalsystem.”
—Cile Chavez, president, Cile Chavez Consulting, Inc.

“The authors of Education for Everyone provide abasic primer for why public schools are central to democracyand how they need to change in order to fulfill theirhistoric purpose. Here is a compelling vision of what schools mustdo to create a learning environment that will foster an educatedcitizenry.”
—Anne Bryant, executive director, National School BoardsAssociation

Education for Everyone tells the story of severaldecades of work on educational renewal. In contrast to‘reform’ movements that assume a universal problemwithout diagnosi ng it, ‘renew al’ reminds us to thinkagain about the aims of education and how we might do better. Thisis a powerful message.”
—Nel Noddings, author of Happiness and Education

“John Goodlad, Stephen Goodlad and Corinne Mantle-Bromleyremain pioneers in the field of democratic education. As theoristswho have applied their agenda to the real world of practicaleducation, and as educators who are deeply reflective about theirpractical experience, they have become invaluable guides toteachers, administrators and students alike —to all whobelieve democracy and education are reciprocal arts and want toknow how best to marry them.”
—Benjamin R. Barber, author of Fear's Empire: War,Terrorism, and Democracy in an Age of Interdependence andJihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780787972240
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/6/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 208
  • Sales rank: 650,590
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.84 (d)

Meet the Author

John I. Goodlad is president of the Institute for EducationalInquiry and professor emeritus of the University of Washington. Heis the author or coauthor of numerous books including DevelopingDemocratic Character in the Young, Educational Renewal, The MoralDimensions of Teaching, and The Public Purpose of Education andSchooling, all from Jossey-Bass.
Corinne Mantle-Bromley is executive vice president of the Institutefor Educational Inquiry and research professor at the University ofWashington. She is a former classroom teacher and associateprofessor at Colorado State University with research interests andpublications most recently focusing on school-universitypartnerships for educational renewal.
Stephen John Goodlad is a writer and philosopher whose interestscenter on the relationships between environmentalism, ecology, anddemocracy and, in turn, the implications of those relationships foreducation and schooling. He is the editor of The Last Best Hopefrom Jossey-Bass.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

1. Schooling for Everyone.

2. Agenda for Education in a Democracy.

3. The Context of Schooling in a Democracy.

4. An Essential Narrative for Schooling.

5. Democracy, Education, and the Human Conversation.

6. Renewal.

7. Leadership for Educational Renewal.

8. Experiencing the Agenda.

Notes.

Appendix.

Index.

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First Chapter

Education for Everyone

Agenda for Education in a Democracy
By John I. Goodlad Corinne Mantle-Bromley Stephen John Goodlad

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7879-7224-X


Chapter One

Schooling for Everyone

We have always had education, and it is always with us. Some of it is intentional; most of it is unintentional. In the history of humankind, schools are relatively new. The education they offer is intentional. Like all human creations, schools require our attention or they wither. Because the education that schools are to furnish is usually thought to be both important and not assured as part of the casual education routinely provided by the surrounding culture, presumably everyone in that culture should participate. In other words, the education made intentional through schooling should be universal.

The idea of education through paideia-by, in, and for the culture-has a long and noble tradition. It is represented in the initiation rites of cultures around the world. Anthropologist Alicja Iwanska describes a period of three to four weeks among Melanesians in the Bismarck Archipelago when adult males and females tell tales at night around the fire-tales that convey elements of the culture that are worthy of preservation. The narratives address etiquette, taboos, and customs, as well as punishments for those who break them.

In the southwestern United States, a part of the world closer at hand and more familiar to most of our readers than the Bismarck Archipelago, the Zuni Indians take collective responsibility for guiding any and all children's behavior. Around a communal bowl in the kiva (a usually round ceremonial structure that is partly underground) of the Hopi Indians, stories are told and retold in a process of spontaneous social education. "In the case of the Zuni Indians, the self-appointed casual adults were the transmitters of the cultural heritage to children casually met; in the case of the Hopi, the elders of the community were the spontaneous educators; in the case of the [Melanesian] people of Lesu, the educators were the adult males and females. No one of those transmitters was even to the smallest degree a self-conscious specialist in educational planning."

Drawing presumably from Greek and Roman tradition, Webster's Third New International Dictionary injects deliberate intent into the definition of paideia: "training of the physical and mental faculties in such a way as to produce a broad enlightened mature outlook harmoniously combined with maximum cultural development." In modern times, Mortimer Adler's definition has sharpened educational intent: "the equivalent of the Latin humanitas (from which 'the humanities'), signifying the general learning that should be the possession of all human beings."

In Webster's and Adler's definitions are both the context that provides a necessary educational agenda for enculturating the members of the group, tribe, or community and the probable need for some kinds of mechanisms for ensuring universal attention to that agenda. Implicit in the well-being of the collective-not just of the individual-is an awareness that we, the people, however diverse we are, must live in a considerable degree of harmony with everybody and everybody's children, or else the group, the tribe, the community dissipates, disperses, or perishes. The evidence is in the history of humankind.

Education, Schooling, and Teaching

The idea that education through paideia provides a cultural transition from childhood to adulthood is very old. Embedded in this idea, apparently, is the operational concept of drawing the attention of the young to elements that are important to the culture's healthy continuation. Acquisition of the dispositions required for the retention of these elements necessitates repetition that in turn makes the necessary behavior routine. Twentieth-century psychologist B. F. Skinner built the contingencies to be repeatedly encountered by the inhabitants of his envisioned utopia as they walked the paths toward developing "a broad enlightened mature outlook harmoniously combined with maximum cultural development." Ideally there would be much ongoing debate about the validity of the contingencies. Who would determine them? What values and virtues would be embedded in them? How should those contingencies decided upon be transmitted and by whom? What should be preserved?

Herein lies a clutch of the most controversial issues surrounding yesterday's and today's conduct of schooling, the mechanism that, at an accelerating pace, came to be charged with taking the chance out of education through paideia. Some of the sense of adult responsibility for the enculturation of the young over a transitional period into adulthood has, over time, supported the development of educational institutions. As a consequence, schooling has helped to create and subsequently to expand childhood.

The status of childhood and both parental and cultural expectations for the young have always been enmeshed in ambiguity. For how long and to what degree would the indiscretions of children be treated with educative intent before warranting the punishment befitting adult malfeasance? The schools created several hundred years ago for preparing European children for adulthood were to be instruments of strict discipline. Much of this concept of discipline was carried over into the early schools of the New World, where it is still alive today.

How long were the family and the community to await the aging of children into economic usefulness? Labor laws to protect children have been a long time in coming and are not yet universal. What should be the role of the schools in preparing the young for such usefulness? And should this role be differentiated to align with the hardened caste systems characterizing human existence? These alignments come in many forms, often subtle. The most obvious are differentiated schools, differentiated curricula within the same schools, and regularities-cultural norms-that differentiate access to education according to hierarchies of caste.

The most encompassing issue pertaining to an intentional period of education for the young through the institution of schooling is that of mission. Is the apparatus of schooling-purpose, conditions, modes of conduct-to be geared to a cultural ethos of child development or is it to be first and foremost an instrument dedicated to preparation for adulthood? Is it a system with children at its center or a system in which children and childhood are nuisances to the enterprise? If it is the latter, then schooling will have no moral compass.

The preceding discussion shows that education and schooling are not interchangeable words. Education is ubiquitous; it happens, everywhere. Operationally, on the one hand, it is a self-induced activity: nobody can give it to me, nobody can take it away. Schooling, on the other hand, is a planned, deliberate, intentional enterprise, part of the larger educational enterprise. Adults have something in mind for me to learn; they expect me to partake of that learning; they authorize teachers with the intent of seeing to it that I do learn. Of course, I don't have to. But contingencies are arranged on the assumption that they will make it easier for me to learn or, put another way, more difficult for me to escape the learning intended. Indeed, sometimes these contingencies make it dangerous for one not to learn. But they do not necessarily make the learning attractive and easier to acquire.

Contrary to popular belief, the concepts of education, schooling, and teaching are not necessarily inherently good. Further definition is necessary to make such a determination. They are, of course, all moral endeavors, but moral, too, is a morally neutral word. We learn to love or to hate, to give or to take, to kill or let live. The moral aspect-whether good or bad-is inseparable from culture, acquired through paideia, intentionally and unintentionally.

But a culture in which the good is deeply embedded cannot guarantee that everyone will come to possess the valued attributes. Creating a technology to explore outer space that includes the necessary human expertise is a piece of cake compared to forging the infrastructure necessary to accomplish a culture's most exalted moral educational mission-sustaining a wise citizenry. A culture that takes this mission lightly by delegating it solely to its schools is not wise. A culture that takes lightly the moral character of the whole of its teaching is doomed.

The reader may conclude that there is a contradiction in a moral mission that, on the one hand, places the nurturing of childhood first and, on the other, sees sustaining a wise citizenry as primary. Our answer is that the best preparation for the latter is the former. The roots of the self-transcendence characteristic of the mature adult are embedded in childhood. Teaching children about adulthood can excite their imaginations but probably will do little to help them with the contingencies of daily life. The best assurance of a broad, enlightened outlook combined with maximum cultural development in adulthood is its genesis in the culture of childhood. Children are engaged in learning every minute they are awake. It is the wise guiding of this learning that ensures a wise citizenry.

Part-a very important part-of this guidance is the teaching provided by schools. As a teacher of teachers said to a class of students preparing for such teaching, "Teaching is a moral endeavor and cannot help but be so." Shifting uneasily in his chair, a future teacher raised his hand and said, "As a teacher, I don't want to get involved in this moral stuff. It's just too controversial." He was not alone in his discomfort. Although people preparing to teach have little trouble with the concept that teaching has both good and bad consequences, few express the intention of becoming moral guidance counselors. Nonetheless, educational philosopher Gary Fenstermacher views teaching as inescapably having a moral dimension:

What makes teaching a moral endeavor is that it is, quite centrally, human action undertaken in regard to other human beings. Thus, matters of what is fair, right, just, and virtuous are always present. Whenever a teacher asks a student to share something with another student, decides between combatants in a schoolyard dispute, sets procedures for who will go first, second, third, and so on, or discusses the welfare of a student with another teacher, moral considerations are present. The teacher's conduct, at all times and in all ways, is a moral matter. For that reason alone, teaching is a profoundly moral activity.

The pages that follow say much more about education writ large and about teaching in schools as a moral endeavor, as well as about the cultural sources that compete in the shaping of schools. The context envisioned as most desirable for this shaping is the work-in-progress called democracy. Democracy, wherever it is thought to exist, falls short of its own ideals. The authors agree with many thoughtful analysts, some of whom are cited in what follows, that education guided by these ideals is the driving force to the realization of these ideals and to their continuous renewal in the transforming world that is home to the whole of humankind.

Themes of This Book

There are two major themes in what follows and an array of subsidiary ones. Both major themes have been introduced in what precedes. First, there is in all cultures ongoing education for everyone. It is virtually as ubiquitous as the air we breathe. In modern, industrialized cultures, education provides a cacophony of teaching-some deliberate, some not-that challenges the interpreters, presents buzzing confusion, or creates a dulling impact for many.

Society commonly is reluctant to regard this as education. Only a couple of leaders in the television industry, during interviews conducted by a colleague, included education as one of the functions of this medium. All put forward entertaining and providing information; nearly all rejected educating. When the topic of education comes up, the thoughts of most people turn to schooling. As historian Lawrence Cremin once observed, it is folly to talk about educational improvement and excellence apart from the educational influence of families, peer groups, television and radio broadcasting (today we would add the Internet), the workplace, and more.

Second, there is today in most countries schooling for some. We say "schooling for some" because schooling is an enterprise of the formal political structure. Those in power can and do determine how much schooling is available for whom and even who will learn what under what rules of inclusion and exclusion. Stratification in the regularities put in place often conforms to stratification in the cultural caste system.

Our argument is that the well-being of a total culture requires education for all, without exclusivity on the basis of caste: ethnicity, race, sex, heredity, religion, lifestyles and sexual preferences, wealth, assumed intelligence, physical disability, or whatever else humans are able to think up as bases for discrimination. Whatever the medium intended for educating, the provision of total inclusion is a moral imperative in a democracy and, it is essential to point out, a practical necessity for the health of all and for the continued renewal of a democratic culture.

The medium of deliberate, intended learning that we address in this book is schooling. We believe our theses (and the agenda we advance) to be appropriate and, we hope, appealing to other agencies committed to serving the public good. Health, welfare, social work, after-school enterprises, and other human services with educational dimensions come to mind. Hal Lawson, for example, has described the adaptation of our agenda by community collaboratives in the service of vulnerable children, youths, and families.

The mission of society's intended learning, through whatever medium, is in large measure the product of its prevailing ethos. Authoritarian societies dictate mission; democratic societies ideally seek a working consensus. The latter is demanding and complex. As observant visitor Alexis de Tocqueville wrote more than a century and a half ago, our democracy is a daunting "apprenticeship of liberty." Political scientist Benjamin Barber has said, "Public schools must be understood as public not simply because they serve the public, but because they establish us as a public"-a democratic public. But he has also written, "Society undoes each workday what the school tries to do each school day."

Continues...


Excerpted from Education for Everyone by John I. Goodlad Corinne Mantle-Bromley Stephen John Goodlad Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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