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Overview

Educational Assessment of Students, Fifth Edition

Anthony J. Nitko, Susan M. Brookhart

This highly respected text offers the most comprehensive discussion of traditional and alternative assessments of any classroom assessment text—explaining, giving examples, discussing pros and cons, and showing how to construct virtually all of the traditional and alternative assessments teachers use in the classroom.

EXCEPTIONAL GUIDANCE ON HOW TO CONSTRUCT ALL TYPES OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENTS THAT TEACHERS USE

  • In addition to hundreds of practical examples throughout the text, step-by-step how-to instructions, checklists, guidelines, and strategies all provide concrete guidance on selecting, crafting, evaluating, and interpreting assessments.
  • Particularly strong coverage of using and crafting performance assessments, projects, portfolios, and scoring rubrics is found in Chapter 11, "Performance, Portfolio, and Authentic Assessments: An Overview," and Chapter 12, "How to Craft Performance Tasks, Projects, Portfolios, Rating Scales, and Scoring Rubrics."

EXPANDED COVERAGE ON APPLYING NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND, STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, AND STATE STANDARDS TO ASSESSMENT

  • New coverage on "High-Stakes Assessment and Accountability" and the "No Child Left Behind Act" in Chapter 1 includes assessment of students with disabilities, effectiveness of the No Child Left Behind Act, and state and federal accountability issues.
  • New coverage on standards-referencing frameworks is included in Chapter 17, "Interpreting Norm-Referenced Scores."

SEPARATE CHAPTER ON FINDING, EVALUATING, AND USING PUBLISHED ASSESSMENTS

  • Many teachers use tests provided by textbook publishers or from sources outside their schools. Chapter 18, "Finding and Evaluating Published Assessments," focuses on this and provides concrete guidance for teachers on locating, evaluating, and incorporating existing assessments into their curriculum.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131719255
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 5/19/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 576
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.76 (h) x 0.85 (d)

Meet the Author

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Anthony J. Nitko is an adjunct professor, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Arizona, and professor emeritus and former chairperson of the Department of Psychology in Education at the University of Pittsburgh. His research interests include curriculum-based criterion-referenced testing, integration of testing and instruction, classroom assessment, and the assessment of knowledge and higher-order thinking skills. His publications included the chapter “Designing Tests That Are Integrated with Instruction” in the third edition of Educational Measurement (1989). He co-authored (with C. M. Lindvall) Measuring Pupil Achievement and Aptitude; (with T. C. Hsu) Pitt Educational Testing Aids (PETA, a package of computer programs for classroom teachers); and (with R. Glaser) the chapter “Measurement in Learning and Instruction” in the second edition of Educational Measurement (1971).

Professor Nitko has been the editor of the journal Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, and also d’News, the AERA Division D newsletter. Some of the journals in which his research has appeared are American Educational Research Journal, Applied Measurement in Education, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, Educational Technology, Journal of Educational Measurement, and Research in Developmental Disabilities.

Professor Nitko has been a member of several committees of the American Educational Research Association, was elected secretary of AERA Division D, served on committees of the National Council on Measurement in Education, and was elected to the board of directors and as president of the latter. He received Fulbright awards to Malawi and Barbados and has served as a consultant to various government and private agencies in Bangladesh, Barbados, Botswana, Egypt, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Namibia, Oman, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam.

Susan Brookhart is coordinator of assessment and evaluation for the School of Education at Duquesne University. Prior to this assignment, she was professor and chair of the Department of Educational Foundations and Leadership at Duquesne. Previous to her higher education experience, she taught both elementary and middle school. Her research interests include the role of classroom assessment in student motivation and achievement, the connection between classroom assessment and large-scale assessment, and grading.

Professor Brookhart is a past president of the American Educational Research Associations’ Special Interest Group on Classroom Assessment. She has been the education columnist for National Forum, the journal of Phi Kappa Phi. From 2003-2005 she served as newsletter editor for the National Council on Measurement in Education, and was program co-chair for the 2004 NCME annual meeting. She is the author of two books: The Art and Science of Classroom Assessment is a combination literature review and how-to book about classroom assessment in higher education; Grading is a textbook about grading in K-12 schools. She was written or co-authored over 40 articles on classroom assessment, educational measurement, program evaluation, and professional development, and serves on the editorial boards of Teachers College Record and Applied Measurement in Education

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The goal of Educational Assessment of Students, Third Edition, is to help teachers and teachers in training to improve instruction through better assessment of students. It focuses directly on the professional practices of elementary and secondary schoolteachers. It is a core text written for a first course in educational testing and constructing classroom assessments. It serves equally as the textbook for an undergraduate course or a first graduate course in educational assessment. No formal course work in statistics or college mathematics is necessary to understand the text.

In preparing this edition, a new effort was made to make it easy for the reader to apply the material to classroom practice through clear explanations, many practical examples and illustrations, checklists, and step-by-step how-to instructions. As with previous editions, I have written the text from the viewpoint that teaching and assessment should blend together. To help students with real-world experiences, Internet website addresses have been added throughout to help students to quickly link to examples and resources outside the text.

The book covers basic concepts as well as a complete treatment of educational assessment—from developing plans that integrate teaching and assessment; to crafting objective, performance, and portfolio assessments; to evaluating students and discussing evaluations with parents; to interpreting state-mandated tests and standardized achievement tests.

It is important in a first course that students receive a balanced treatment of the topics. Thus, both the strengths and limitations of each assessmenttechnique are explained. Research is cited that supports or refutes assessment and teaching practices.

This edition focuses more dearly on classroom assessment than the previous edition. Each chapter was revised with the goal of making the material more relevant to the practical issues teachers face. For example, mandated state programs have placed more emphasis on teachers aligning their classroom practices and assessments with state content and performance standards. In each chapter, I integrate suggestions for how to accomplish this alignment.

The book treats teachers as professionals. It recognizes that teachers' experiences and judgments are necessary for proper and valid use of educational assessment. I do not hesitate to point out teachers' erroneous judgments and assessment abuses, however, where good lessons can be learned from them. To ensure that the text material is in keeping with the competencies and standards held to be important by the profession, each chapter is keyed to the American Federation of Teachers, the National Council on Measurement in Education, and the National Education Association Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (reproduced in Appendix A).

Organization of the Text

As in the previous edition, this book is organized into three parts. Part One provides the foundation for classroom assessment. Part Two centers on how to plan and craft classroom assessments. Part Three discusses how to interpret and use standardized tests.

Each chapter begins with a list of learning targets that the reader should attain. Each learning target is keyed to the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students. Following the body of each chapter is a summary in list form to help the reader recall information. Each chapter concludes with a list of important concepts and terms, a set of exercises and discussion questions, and a brief annotated list of additional readings. Many of the exercises at the end of the chapters are performance tasks. These require applying and extending the principles taught in the chapter. Readers are often encouraged to compare their exercise results with those of others in the course to obtain greater insight into a topic. Instructors can use these exercises as a basis for in-class activities.

Part I, The Bases for Assessment in the Classroom, contains five chapters presenting the foundations for educational assessment. Chapter 1 discusses classroom decision making and how assessments help to improve it. It provides a brief overview of the assessment landscape, so the reader can see the broader picture of educational assessment before delving into specifics. Chapter 2 discusses goals and learning targets of classroom instruction. The chapter is simplified in this edition by presenting fewer cognitive taxonomies than the previous edition. New to this edition is a discussion of how state standards can be used to develop classroom teaming targets for day-to-day teaching. Chapter 3 discusses the validity of assessment results. The chapter has been simplified to focus exclusively on the current conceptions of validity held by the profession. One part of the chapter focuses exclusively on the validity of the results of teacher-crafted assessments, the other on the validity of other assessment results a teacher and a school will use. Chapter 4 describes reliability. The order of presentation of the topics has been improved to make the material flow better for the reader. Chapter 5 discusses teachers', students', and administrators' ethical responsibilities and uses of assessments. It applies the National Council on Measurement in Education's Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement (reproduced in Appendix C) as an organizational framework. Also, this chapter describes legal issues regarding assessment and how assessments can be made to validly accommodate mainstreamed learners.

Part II, Crafting and Using Classroom Assessments, demonstrates how a teacher uses artistry and functionality to produce useful teaching tools. The ten chapters in this part provide complete coverage of how to craft virtually all types of assessments a teacher may need to use. Chapter 6 has been extensively rewritten to show clearly how teaching, assessing, and grading fit together. There are new examples showing how several different methods of assessment can be integrated into lesson plans, be matched with assessment purpose, and provide formative and summative assessment throughout an instructional unit. Chapter 7 discusses completion and true-false items, including multiple true-false items. Chapter 8 discusses how to craft multiple-choice and matching exercises. In this edition, material on alternative formats of objective items, such as masterlist and tabular matching exercises, have been integrated into this chapter. Chapter 9 focuses on crafting and marking essay items. Chapter 10 is devoted to assessing higher-order thinking skills, including problem solving and critical thinking. The presentation is simplified from the previous edition.

Two chapters are devoted to alternative and performance assessments in schools. Chapter 11 describes the basic concepts and major components of authentic and performance assessments. It surveys the many different types of performance assessments and projects that are currently used in schools. New to this edition is classroom assessment using the Multiple Intelligences Theory framework. Chapter 12 focuses exclusively on crafting and evaluating performance assessments and portfolios. The chapter shows how to craft the tasks, scoring rubrics, and rating scales necessary to produce valid results. The chapter applies the Dimensions of Learning Model as a framework for performance assessment design. Different methods of crafting rubrics are discussed. Chapter 13 focuses entirely on format, informal classroom assessment for purposes of diagnosing why a student is having difficulty learning. It shows how six different diagnostic assessment approaches may be integrated into the teaching process. Chapter 14 has been simplified, but is still about administering assessments, helping students do their best on assessments, and improving assessment tasks through item analysis. Item analysis for open-response items is new in this edition.

Chapter 15 has been extensively rewritten. It is organized in five major sections. Section One provides background for grading including grading and continuous assessment, formative and summative student assessment, and how various stakeholders use grades. Section Two presents various options that schools use to report student progress, including report cards, parent-teacher conferences, and—new to this edition—narrative reports. Section Three focuses on sensible grading practices that result in valid summative grades for students. The chapter provides teachers with the tools for creating a grading philosophy that is logically consistent with both their teaching approach and their purposes for assessing students. The tools integrate all the planning considerations discussed in earlier chapters. As a result, teachers can use a coherent and sensible grading model. Linking grades to teaching and assessment plans; and discussions of special problems in grading, such as using zeros and the unclear meaning of failure, are new to this edition. Section Five shows how to set grade boundaries and combine scores to produce summative grades.

The text concludes with Part III, Interpreting and Using Standardized Tests. Chapter 16 describes different types of standardized achievement tests, how to administer them, and how to use their results. The chapter has been updated to reflect new editions of tests and to include material on how to select a standardized test that complements a state's mandated assessment program. Chapter 17 covers norm-referenced scores and contrasts them with criterion-referenced scores. Various types of scores are explained, emphasizing how a teacher should interpret and explain them to parents. Chapter 18 discusses how to locate and evaluate an appropriate standardized test to use in a school setting. The chapter updates material on how to use the Internet to obtain assessment information. Chapter 19 briefly summarizes the types of scholastic aptitude, vocational interest, and personality assessments a teacher may encounter in student reports. New editions of the tests are included. The chapter includes a discussion of aptitudes and learning, and how the classroom and school environments affect these.

No single introductory course is likely to cover all of these chapters in detail. However, with this text an instructor can choose material to suit the needs of teachers at different levels of professional development and experience. The book provides ample material for both independent study and later reference while teaching.

Supplemental Material

The appendixes are especially important for complete learning of educational assessment concepts and applications. Appendix A reproduces the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students, to which the learning targets of each chapter are keyed. Appendix B reproduces the Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education, which describes the obligations of test developers and test users in straightforward language. Appendix C reproduces the Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement. Appendix D summarizes and gives examples of using several cognitive, affective, and psychomotor taxonomies of educational learning targets. Appendix E summarizes the general cross-curriculum learning targets derived from the Dimensions of Learning Model. Appendix F illustrates the assessment of metacognition. Appendix G shows several alternative ways to craft an assessment blueprint for summative evaluation. Appendix H is a brief description of basic statistical concepts such as mean, standard deviation, and correlation. Appendix I shows examples of how to calculate reliability and decision-consisting indexes. Appendix J lists commonly used published tests and cites the volume and page of the Mental Measurements Yearbooks in which they are reviewed. Appendix K lists the major test publishers' Internet websites and postal addresses.

An Instructor's Manual provides numerous test items. The test bank is also planned in computerized form.

Acknowledgments

A project of this magnitude requires the help of many persons. I am very much indebted to the reviewers whose critical readings of the chapters in this edition's manuscript contributed greatly to their technical accuracy, readability, and pedagogy: Susan M. Brookhart, Duquesne University; Deborah Brown, West Chester University; Robert Lange, University of Central Florida; Craig Mertler, Bowling Green State University; Susan E. Phillips, Michigan State University; Anthony Truog, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater; Richard Wolf, Teachers College, Columbia University; and Michael J. Young, University of Pittsburgh.

I would also like to thank the reviewers of the second edition: Peter W Airasian, Boston College; Lawrence M. Aleamoni, University of Arizona; Carol E. Baker, University of Pittsburgh; W L. Bashaw, University of Georgia; Susan M. Brookhart, Duquesne University; Lee Doebler, University of Montevallo; Betty E. Gridley, Ball State University; Thomas M. Haladyna, Arizona State University; Charles Hughes, Pennsylvania State University; Louise F. Jernigan, Eastern Michigan University; Suzanne Lane, University of Pittsburgh; William P. Moore, University of Kansas; Pamela A. Moss, University of Michigan; Bruce Rogers, University of Northern Iowa; William M. Stallings, Georgia State University; Hoi K. Suen, Pennsylvania State University; James S. Terwilliger, University of Minnesota; Michael S. Trevisan, Washington State University; Kinnard White, University of North Carolina; and David R. Young, SUNY-Cortland.

My students at the School of Education, University of Pittsburgh; the Curriculum Development and Evaluation Centre, Botswana Ministry of Education; Jamaica Ministry of Education; and the Examination Development Center, Indonesia Ministry of Education and Culture used the second edition. They provided insightful feedback and corrections of errors that have greatly improved the usefulness of the text. Francis Amedahe helped classify chapter learning targets and write tests items. Huixing Tang of the Psychological Corporation, Wendy Yen of CTB/McGraw-Hill, Sara Hennings of Houghton Mifflin, James Impara of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, and David Frisbie and Robert Forsyth of the Iowa Testing Program were most generous in helping me to locate information about, obtain copies of, and understand many of the standardized test materials described in this book. Kevin Davis, Julie Peters, Holly Jennings, and Christina Kalisch, of Merrill/Prentice Hall, as well as Emily Autumn of Clarinda Publication Services, encouraged and cajoled me at every stage from acquisition through production, and applied their considerable knowledge and skill to producing the book. To all of these persons, and others I have failed to mention, I offer my most sincere thanks and appreciation.

No one deserves more thanks, for this edition as well as past editions, than my best friend and darling wife Veronica. The bulk of the revisions for this edition were made evening and weekends in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Veronica made suggestions for improvement, providing a teacher's perspective. She typed the entire manuscript during the day while I was away on project activities. Her energy, enthusiasm, and constant encouragement sustained me during this revision process. She claims that "this is the last time," but I hope she will continue should there be another edition. To Veronica, then, I lovingly dedicate this book.

DISCOVER THE COMPANION WEBSITE
ACCOMPANYING THIS BOOK

The Prentice Hall Companion Website:
A Virtual Learning Environment

Technology is a constantly growing and changing aspect of our field that is creating a need for content and resources. To address this emerging need, we have developed an online learning environment for students and professor's alike—Companion Websites—to support our textbooks.

In creating a Companion Website, our goal is to build on and enhance what the textbook already offers. For this reason, the content for each user-friendly website is organized by chapter and provides the professor and student with a variety of meaningful resources. Common features of a Companion Website include:

For the Professor-
Every Companion Website integrates Syllabus Manager™, an online syllabus creation and management utility.

  • Syllabus Manager™ provides you, the instructor, with an easy, step-by-step process to create and revise syllabi, with direct links into Companion Website and other online content without having to learn HTML.
  • Students may logon to your syllabus during any study session. All they need to know is the web address for the Companion Website, and the password you've assigned to your syllabus.
  • After you have created a syllabus using Syllabus Manager™ students may enter the syllabus for their course section from any point in the Companion Website.
  • Class dates are highlighted in white and assignment due dates appear in blue. Clicking on a date, the student is shown the list of activities for the assignment. The activities for each assignment are linked directly to actual content, saving time for students.
  • Adding assignments consists of clicking on the desired due date, then filling in the details of the assignment–name of the assignment, instructions, and whether or not it is a one-time or repeating assignment.
  • In addition, links to other activities can be created easily. If the activity is online, a URL can be entered in the space provided, and it will be linked automatically in the final syllabus.
  • Your completed syllabus is hosted on our servers, allowing convenient updates from any computer on the Internet. Changes you make to your syllabus are immediately available to your students at their next logon.

For the Student-

  • Chapter Objectives-outline key concepts from the text
  • Interactive Self-quizzes-complete with hints and automatic grading that provide immediate feedback for students

    After students submit their answers for the interactive self-quizzes, the Companion Website Results Reporter computes a percentage grade, provides a graphic representation of how many questions were answered correctly and incorrectly, and gives a question by question analysis of the quiz. Students are given the option to send their quiz to up to four email addresses (professor, teaching assistant, study partner, etc.).
  • Message Board-serves as a virtual bulletin board to post-or respond to-questions or comments to a national audience
  • Net Searches-offer links by key terms from each chapter to related Internet content Web Destinations-links to www sites that relate to chapter content

To take advantage of these and other resources, please visit the Educational Assessment of Students Companion Website at ...

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Table of Contents

1 Classroom decision making and using assessment 1
2 Describing the goals and learning targets of instruction 17
3 Validity of assessment results 37
4 Reliability of assessment results 66
5 Professional responsibilities, ethical behavior, and legal requirements in educational assessments 84
6 Planning for integrating assessment and instruction 106
7 Completion, short-answer, and true-false items 132
8 Multiple-choice and matching exercises 147
9 Essay assessment tasks 188
10 Higher-order thinking, problem solving, and critical thinking 207
11 Performance, portfolio and authentic assessments : an overview 243
12 How to craft performance tasks, projects, portfolios, rating scales, and scoring rubrics 261
13 Formative evaluation using informal diagnostic assessments 295
14 Preparing your students to be assessed and using students' results to improve your assessments 311
15 Evaluating and grading student progress 335
16 Standardized achievement tests 371
17 Interpreting norm-referenced scores 391
18 Finding and evaluating published assessments 420
19 Scholastic aptitude career interests, attitudes, and personality tests 434
App. A Standards for teacher competence in educational assessment of students 455
App. B Code of fair testing practices in education (revised) 458
App. C Code of professional responsibilities in educational measurement 461
App. D Summaries of taxonomies of educational objectives : cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains 465
App. E Categories of learning targets derived from the dimensions of learning model 472
App. F Assessment of metacognition 474
App. G Examples of alternative blueprints for a summative unit assessment 476
App. H Scoring guide for Oregon's writing assessment 479
App. I Basic statistical concepts 486
App. J Computational procedures for various reliability coefficients 498
App. K A limited list of published tests 503
App. L List of test publishers and their Websites 505
Read More Show Less

Preface

Preface

The goal of Educational Assessment of Students, Third Edition, is to help teachers and teachers in training to improve instruction through better assessment of students. It focuses directly on the professional practices of elementary and secondary schoolteachers. It is a core text written for a first course in educational testing and constructing classroom assessments. It serves equally as the textbook for an undergraduate course or a first graduate course in educational assessment. No formal course work in statistics or college mathematics is necessary to understand the text.

In preparing this edition, a new effort was made to make it easy for the reader to apply the material to classroom practice through clear explanations, many practical examples and illustrations, checklists, and step-by-step how-to instructions. As with previous editions, I have written the text from the viewpoint that teaching and assessment should blend together. To help students with real-world experiences, Internet website addresses have been added throughout to help students to quickly link to examples and resources outside the text.

The book covers basic concepts as well as a complete treatment of educational assessment—from developing plans that integrate teaching and assessment; to crafting objective, performance, and portfolio assessments; to evaluating students and discussing evaluations with parents; to interpreting state-mandated tests and standardized achievement tests.

It is important in a first course that students receive a balanced treatment of the topics. Thus, both the strengths and limitations of each assessment techniqueare explained. Research is cited that supports or refutes assessment and teaching practices.

This edition focuses more dearly on classroom assessment than the previous edition. Each chapter was revised with the goal of making the material more relevant to the practical issues teachers face. For example, mandated state programs have placed more emphasis on teachers aligning their classroom practices and assessments with state content and performance standards. In each chapter, I integrate suggestions for how to accomplish this alignment.

The book treats teachers as professionals. It recognizes that teachers' experiences and judgments are necessary for proper and valid use of educational assessment. I do not hesitate to point out teachers' erroneous judgments and assessment abuses, however, where good lessons can be learned from them. To ensure that the text material is in keeping with the competencies and standards held to be important by the profession, each chapter is keyed to the American Federation of Teachers, the National Council on Measurement in Education, and the National Education Association Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (reproduced in Appendix A).

Organization of the Text

As in the previous edition, this book is organized into three parts. Part One provides the foundation for classroom assessment. Part Two centers on how to plan and craft classroom assessments. Part Three discusses how to interpret and use standardized tests.

Each chapter begins with a list of learning targets that the reader should attain. Each learning target is keyed to the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students. Following the body of each chapter is a summary in list form to help the reader recall information. Each chapter concludes with a list of important concepts and terms, a set of exercises and discussion questions, and a brief annotated list of additional readings. Many of the exercises at the end of the chapters are performance tasks. These require applying and extending the principles taught in the chapter. Readers are often encouraged to compare their exercise results with those of others in the course to obtain greater insight into a topic. Instructors can use these exercises as a basis for in-class activities.

Part I, The Bases for Assessment in the Classroom, contains five chapters presenting the foundations for educational assessment. Chapter 1 discusses classroom decision making and how assessments help to improve it. It provides a brief overview of the assessment landscape, so the reader can see the broader picture of educational assessment before delving into specifics. Chapter 2 discusses goals and learning targets of classroom instruction. The chapter is simplified in this edition by presenting fewer cognitive taxonomies than the previous edition. New to this edition is a discussion of how state standards can be used to develop classroom teaming targets for day-to-day teaching. Chapter 3 discusses the validity of assessment results. The chapter has been simplified to focus exclusively on the current conceptions of validity held by the profession. One part of the chapter focuses exclusively on the validity of the results of teacher-crafted assessments, the other on the validity of other assessment results a teacher and a school will use. Chapter 4 describes reliability. The order of presentation of the topics has been improved to make the material flow better for the reader. Chapter 5 discusses teachers', students', and administrators' ethical responsibilities and uses of assessments. It applies the National Council on Measurement in Education's Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement (reproduced in Appendix C) as an organizational framework. Also, this chapter describes legal issues regarding assessment and how assessments can be made to validly accommodate mainstreamed learners.

Part II, Crafting and Using Classroom Assessments, demonstrates how a teacher uses artistry and functionality to produce useful teaching tools. The ten chapters in this part provide complete coverage of how to craft virtually all types of assessments a teacher may need to use. Chapter 6 has been extensively rewritten to show clearly how teaching, assessing, and grading fit together. There are new examples showing how several different methods of assessment can be integrated into lesson plans, be matched with assessment purpose, and provide formative and summative assessment throughout an instructional unit. Chapter 7 discusses completion and true-false items, including multiple true-false items. Chapter 8 discusses how to craft multiple-choice and matching exercises. In this edition, material on alternative formats of objective items, such as masterlist and tabular matching exercises, have been integrated into this chapter. Chapter 9 focuses on crafting and marking essay items. Chapter 10 is devoted to assessing higher-order thinking skills, including problem solving and critical thinking. The presentation is simplified from the previous edition.

Two chapters are devoted to alternative and performance assessments in schools. Chapter 11 describes the basic concepts and major components of authentic and performance assessments. It surveys the many different types of performance assessments and projects that are currently used in schools. New to this edition is classroom assessment using the Multiple Intelligences Theory framework. Chapter 12 focuses exclusively on crafting and evaluating performance assessments and portfolios. The chapter shows how to craft the tasks, scoring rubrics, and rating scales necessary to produce valid results. The chapter applies the Dimensions of Learning Model as a framework for performance assessment design. Different methods of crafting rubrics are discussed. Chapter 13 focuses entirely on format, informal classroom assessment for purposes of diagnosing why a student is having difficulty learning. It shows how six different diagnostic assessment approaches may be integrated into the teaching process. Chapter 14 has been simplified, but is still about administering assessments, helping students do their best on assessments, and improving assessment tasks through item analysis. Item analysis for open-response items is new in this edition.

Chapter 15 has been extensively rewritten. It is organized in five major sections. Section One provides background for grading including grading and continuous assessment, formative and summative student assessment, and how various stakeholders use grades. Section Two presents various options that schools use to report student progress, including report cards, parent-teacher conferences, and—new to this edition—narrative reports. Section Three focuses on sensible grading practices that result in valid summative grades for students. The chapter provides teachers with the tools for creating a grading philosophy that is logically consistent with both their teaching approach and their purposes for assessing students. The tools integrate all the planning considerations discussed in earlier chapters. As a result, teachers can use a coherent and sensible grading model. Linking grades to teaching and assessment plans; and discussions of special problems in grading, such as using zeros and the unclear meaning of failure, are new to this edition. Section Five shows how to set grade boundaries and combine scores to produce summative grades.

The text concludes with Part III, Interpreting and Using Standardized Tests. Chapter 16 describes different types of standardized achievement tests, how to administer them, and how to use their results. The chapter has been updated to reflect new editions of tests and to include material on how to select a standardized test that complements a state's mandated assessment program. Chapter 17 covers norm-referenced scores and contrasts them with criterion-referenced scores. Various types of scores are explained, emphasizing how a teacher should interpret and explain them to parents. Chapter 18 discusses how to locate and evaluate an appropriate standardized test to use in a school setting. The chapter updates material on how to use the Internet to obtain assessment information. Chapter 19 briefly summarizes the types of scholastic aptitude, vocational interest, and personality assessments a teacher may encounter in student reports. New editions of the tests are included. The chapter includes a discussion of aptitudes and learning, and how the classroom and school environments affect these.

No single introductory course is likely to cover all of these chapters in detail. However, with this text an instructor can choose material to suit the needs of teachers at different levels of professional development and experience. The book provides ample material for both independent study and later reference while teaching.

Supplemental Material

The appendixes are especially important for complete learning of educational assessment concepts and applications. Appendix A reproduces the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students, to which the learning targets of each chapter are keyed. Appendix B reproduces the Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education, which describes the obligations of test developers and test users in straightforward language. Appendix C reproduces the Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement. Appendix D summarizes and gives examples of using several cognitive, affective, and psychomotor taxonomies of educational learning targets. Appendix E summarizes the general cross-curriculum learning targets derived from the Dimensions of Learning Model. Appendix F illustrates the assessment of metacognition. Appendix G shows several alternative ways to craft an assessment blueprint for summative evaluation. Appendix H is a brief description of basic statistical concepts such as mean, standard deviation, and correlation. Appendix I shows examples of how to calculate reliability and decision-consisting indexes. Appendix J lists commonly used published tests and cites the volume and page of the Mental Measurements Yearbooks in which they are reviewed. Appendix K lists the major test publishers' Internet websites and postal addresses.

An Instructor's Manual provides numerous test items. The test bank is also planned in computerized form.

Acknowledgments

A project of this magnitude requires the help of many persons. I am very much indebted to the reviewers whose critical readings of the chapters in this edition's manuscript contributed greatly to their technical accuracy, readability, and pedagogy: Susan M. Brookhart, Duquesne University; Deborah Brown, West Chester University; Robert Lange, University of Central Florida; Craig Mertler, Bowling Green State University; Susan E. Phillips, Michigan State University; Anthony Truog, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater; Richard Wolf, Teachers College, Columbia University; and Michael J. Young, University of Pittsburgh.

I would also like to thank the reviewers of the second edition: Peter W Airasian, Boston College; Lawrence M. Aleamoni, University of Arizona; Carol E. Baker, University of Pittsburgh; W L. Bashaw, University of Georgia; Susan M. Brookhart, Duquesne University; Lee Doebler, University of Montevallo; Betty E. Gridley, Ball State University; Thomas M. Haladyna, Arizona State University; Charles Hughes, Pennsylvania State University; Louise F. Jernigan, Eastern Michigan University; Suzanne Lane, University of Pittsburgh; William P. Moore, University of Kansas; Pamela A. Moss, University of Michigan; Bruce Rogers, University of Northern Iowa; William M. Stallings, Georgia State University; Hoi K. Suen, Pennsylvania State University; James S. Terwilliger, University of Minnesota; Michael S. Trevisan, Washington State University; Kinnard White, University of North Carolina; and David R. Young, SUNY-Cortland.

My students at the School of Education, University of Pittsburgh; the Curriculum Development and Evaluation Centre, Botswana Ministry of Education; Jamaica Ministry of Education; and the Examination Development Center, Indonesia Ministry of Education and Culture used the second edition. They provided insightful feedback and corrections of errors that have greatly improved the usefulness of the text. Francis Amedahe helped classify chapter learning targets and write tests items. Huixing Tang of the Psychological Corporation, Wendy Yen of CTB/McGraw-Hill, Sara Hennings of Houghton Mifflin, James Impara of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, and David Frisbie and Robert Forsyth of the Iowa Testing Program were most generous in helping me to locate information about, obtain copies of, and understand many of the standardized test materials described in this book. Kevin Davis, Julie Peters, Holly Jennings, and Christina Kalisch, of Merrill/Prentice Hall, as well as Emily Autumn of Clarinda Publication Services, encouraged and cajoled me at every stage from acquisition through production, and applied their considerable knowledge and skill to producing the book. To all of these persons, and others I have failed to mention, I offer my most sincere thanks and appreciation.

No one deserves more thanks, for this edition as well as past editions, than my best friend and darling wife Veronica. The bulk of the revisions for this edition were made evening and weekends in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Veronica made suggestions for improvement, providing a teacher's perspective. She typed the entire manuscript during the day while I was away on project activities. Her energy, enthusiasm, and constant encouragement sustained me during this revision process. She claims that "this is the last time," but I hope she will continue should there be another edition. To Veronica, then, I lovingly dedicate this book.

DISCOVER THE COMPANION WEBSITE
ACCOMPANYING THIS BOOK

The Prentice Hall Companion Website:
A Virtual Learning Environment

Technology is a constantly growing and changing aspect of our field that is creating a need for content and resources. To address this emerging need, we have developed an online learning environment for students and professor's alike—Companion Websites—to support our textbooks.

In creating a Companion Website, our goal is to build on and enhance what the textbook already offers. For this reason, the content for each user-friendly website is organized by chapter and provides the professor and student with a variety of meaningful resources. Common features of a Companion Website include:

For the Professor-
Every Companion Website integrates Syllabus Manager™, an online syllabus creation and management utility.

  • Syllabus Manager™ provides you, the instructor, with an easy, step-by-step process to create and revise syllabi, with direct links into Companion Website and other online content without having to learn HTML.
  • Students may logon to your syllabus during any study session. All they need to know is the web address for the Companion Website, and the password you've assigned to your syllabus.
  • After you have created a syllabus using Syllabus Manager™ students may enter the syllabus for their course section from any point in the Companion Website.
  • Class dates are highlighted in white and assignment due dates appear in blue. Clicking on a date, the student is shown the list of activities for the assignment. The activities for each assignment are linked directly to actual content, saving time for students.
  • Adding assignments consists of clicking on the desired due date, then filling in the details of the assignment–name of the assignment, instructions, and whether or not it is a one-time or repeating assignment.
  • In addition, links to other activities can be created easily. If the activity is online, a URL can be entered in the space provided, and it will be linked automatically in the final syllabus.
  • Your completed syllabus is hosted on our servers, allowing convenient updates from any computer on the Internet. Changes you make to your syllabus are immediately available to your students at their next logon.

For the Student-

  • Chapter Objectives-outline key concepts from the text
  • Interactive Self-quizzes-complete with hints and automatic grading that provide immediate feedback for students

    After students submit their answers for the interactive self-quizzes, the Companion Website Results Reporter computes a percentage grade, provides a graphic representation of how many questions were answered correctly and incorrectly, and gives a question by question analysis of the quiz. Students are given the option to send their quiz to up to four email addresses (professor, teaching assistant, study partner, etc.).
  • Message Board-serves as a virtual bulletin board to post-or respond to-questions or comments to a national audience
  • Net Searches-offer links by key terms from each chapter to related Internet content Web Destinations-links to www sites that relate to chapter content

To take advantage of these and other resources, please visit the Educational Assessment of Students Companion Website at http://www.prenhall.com/nitko.

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