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Prepare with the Power of Classroom Practice.

• Take Practice Tests for each chapter of your text.
— Completion of each practice test generates a study plan that is unique to you.
— The study plan links to text excerpts activities with feedback, and videos and other media that can help you master concepts covered in your text.
• Complete Assignments and Activities to apply text content to real classroom situations.
• Authentic classroom video shows real teachers and students interacting, and helps prepare you for the classroom.
• Explore the Building Teaching Skills and Dispositions exercises to practice and strengthen the skills that are essential to teaching.
• Case studies offer real-life perspectives on common issues and challenges faced in the classroom.
• Authentic student and teacher classroom artifacts provide you with the actual types of materials encountered every day by teachers.

To order this book WITH MyEducationLab, use either ISBN:
ISBN-13: 9780136111238
ISBN-10: 0136111238

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136111238
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 1/9/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 615
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Anita Woolfolk Hoy received her BA Magna Cum Laude in 1969 from the University of Texas at Austin, with a major in Psychology and a minor in Chemistry. In 1972 she was awarded a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from the same university. From 1973 to 1993 she was on the faculty of the Department of Educational Psychology (Chair 1990-1993) of the Graduate School of Education, Rutgers University. Currently she is a Professor in the College of Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Her professional offices include Vice-President for Division K (Teaching & Teacher Education) of the American Educational Research Association and President of Division 15 (Educational Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. Currently, she is editor of Theory Into Practice, a journal that provides multiple perspectives and scholarly discussions of issues that concern educators. Professor Woolfolk Hoy has published research in the areas of teacher cognition, student perceptions of teachers, teachers’ beliefs, student motivation, and the application of educational psychology to teaching. Her work appears in the Journal of Educational Psychology, American Educational Research Journal, Review of Research in Education, Teaching and Teacher Education, the Elementary School Journal, Action in Teacher Education, Teachers College Record, Educational Researcher, and the Educational Psychologist. Her text, Educational Psychology (Allyn and Bacon), is in its 10th edition and is the most widely read introduction to educational psychology in the field. She is married to Wayne K. Hoy, the Novice Fawcett Chair in Educational Administration at The Ohio State University. Together have completed the 3rd edition of Instructional Leadership: A Research-Based Guide to Learning in Schools (Allyn & Bacon) and conduct research on teacher and school efficacy. They have three children: Wayne, President of Advanced Software Products; Kelly, a teacher at The Phillips Brooks School in Menlo Park, CA; and Liz, a student in Columbus, OH. Their insights about education are frequently volunteered and greatly appreciated.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 – Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology

Learning and Teaching Today

Dramatic Diversity: Students Today

High Expectations: No Child Left Behind

Do Teachers Make a Difference? Two Examples

What Is Good Teaching?

Inside four classrooms

Beginning Teachers

The Role of Educational Psychology

In the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and Teaching

Is it Just Common Sense?

Using Research to Understand and Improve Teaching

What is Scientifically Based Research?

Theories for Teaching

Preview: Theories for Educational Psychology

Stages: Piaget, Freud, and Erikson

Learning and Motivation: Behaviorism, Information Processing, and Social Cognitive Theory

Contextual Theories: Vygotsky and Bronfenbrenner

Three Questions Across the Theories

Beware of Either/Or

Diversity and Convergence in Educational Psychology


Chapter 2 – Cognitive Development and Language

A Definition of Development

Three Questions Across the Theories

General Principles of Development

The Brain and Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Influences on Development

Basic Tendencies in Thinking

Four Stages of Cognitive Development

Information-Processing and Neo-Piagetian Views of Cognitive Development

Some Limitations of Piaget’s Theory

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective

The Social Sources of Individual Thinking

Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development

The Role of Language and Private Speech

The Zone of Proximal Development

Limitations of Vygotsky’s Theory

Implications of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories for Teachers

Piaget: What Can We Learn?

Vygotsky: What Can We Learn?

Reaching Every Student: Using the Tools of the Culture

The Development of Language

What Develops? Language and Cultural

When and How Does Language Develop?

Diversity in Language: Dual Language Development

Emergent Literacy

Diversity and Convergence in Cognitive Development



Chapter 3 – The Self, Social, and Moral Development

Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development



Teachers and Students

Reaching Every Student: Teachers and Child Abuse

Physical Development

Physical and Motor Development

Play, Recess, and Physical Activity

Challenges in Physical Development

The Brain and Adolescent Development

Self and Identity

Erickson: Stages of Psychosocial Development

Racial and Ethnic Identity



Point/Counterpoint: The School’s Roes in Self-Esteem

Sex Differences in Self-Concept and Self-Esteem

Gender Development

Sex and Gender

Gender Bias

Understanding Others and Moral Development

Theory of Mind and Intention

Moral Development

Moral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal Choices

Diversity in Moral Reasoning

Moral Behavior: Cheating

Diversity and Convergence in Personal/Social Development

Chapter 4 – Learner Differences and Learning Needs


Language and Labels

What Does Intelligence Mean?

Multiple Intelligences

Intelligence as a Process

Measuring Intelligence

Sex Differences in Intelligence

Learning and Thinking Styles

Learning Styles/Preferences

Intellectual Styles

Individual Differences and the Law


Section 504 Protections

Students with Learning Challenges

Neuroscience and Learning Challenges

Students with Learning Disabilities

Students with Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders

Students with Language and Communication Disorders

Students with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties

Students with Intellectual Difficulties

Students with Health Impairments

Students Who are Deaf

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger Syndrome

Response to Intervention (RTI)

Students Who are Gifted and Talented

Who are These Students?

Identifying and Teaching Gifted Students

Diversity and Convergences

Chapter 5 – Culture and Diversity

Today’s Diverse Classrooms

American Cultural Diversity

Meet Five Students

Cautions: Interpreting Cultural Differences

Economic and Social Class Differences

Social Class and SES

Poverty and School Achievement

Ethnic and Racial Differences

Terms: Ethnicity and Race

Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement

The Legacy of Discrimination

Stereotype Threat

Language Differences in the Classroom



Reaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness in Bilingual Students

Bilingual Education

Gender in Teaching and Learning

Gender Bias in Texts

Gender Bias in Teaching

Multicultural Education: Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms

Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

Fostering Resilience

Diversity and Convergences

Diversity in Learning

Convergences: Teaching Every Student


Chapter 6 - Behavioral Views of Learning

Understanding Learning

Neuroscience of Learning

Learning Is Not Always What It Seems

Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses

Types of Consequences

Reinforcement Schedules

Antecedents and Behavior Change

Applied Behavior Analysis

Methods for Encouraging Behaviors

Handling Undesirable Behavior

Putting it All Together: Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management

Group Consequences

Contingency Contracts and Token Reinforcement

Reaching Every Student: Severe Behavior Problems

What’s New” Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Supports

Challenges to Behavioral Views: Thinking about Behavior

Social Learning Theory

Elements of Observational Learning


Problems and Issues

Criticisms of Behavioral Methods

Ethical Issues

Diversity and Convergences in Behavioral Learning



Chapter 7 - Cognitive Views of Learning

Elements of the Cognitive Perspective

Comparing Cognitive and Behavioral Views

The Brain and Cognitive Learning

The Importance of Knowledge in Learning

Cognitive Views of Memory

Sensory Memory

Working Memory

Long Term-Memory

Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term Memory

Explicit Memories: Semantic and Episodic

Implicit Memories

Storing and Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory

Becoming Knowledgeable: Some Basic Principles

Development of Declarative Knowledge

Development of Procedural Knowledge

Diversity and Convergences in Cognitive Learning

Diversity: Individual Differences and Working Memory

Diversity: Individual Differences and Long-Term Memory

Convergences: Connecting with Families

Chapter 8 - Complex Cognitive Processes


Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation

Sources of Individual Differences in Metacognition

Learning Strategies

Learning Strategies and Tactics

Visual Tools for Organizing

Reading Strategies

Applying Learning Strategies

Reaching Every Student: Learning Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities

Problem Solving

Identifying: Problem Finding

Defining Goals and Representing the Problem

Exploring Possible Solution Strategies

Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back

Factors That Hinder Problem Solving

Expert Knowledge and Problem solving

Creativity and Creative Problem Solving

Defining Creativity

What Are the Sources of Creativity?

Assessing Creativity

Creativity in the Classroom

The Big C: Revolutionary Innovation

Critical Thinking

Developing Critical Thinking

The Language of Thinking

Critical Thinking in Specific Subjects

Teaching for Transfer

The Many Views of Transfer

Teaching for Positive Transfer

Diversity and Convergences in Complex Cognitive Processes



Chapter 9 – The Learning Sciences and Constructivism

What are the Learning Sciences?

What is Constructivism?

Cognitive Constructivism: Piaget

Social Constructivism: Vygotsky

How is Knowledge Constructed?

Common Elements of Constructivist Student-Centered Teaching

Applications of Constructivist Theories

Discovery, Inquiry, and Problem-Based Learning

Cooperative Learning

Cognitive Apprenticeships and Reciprocal Teaching

Fostering Communities of Learning

Dilemmas of Constructivist Practice

Brain-based Teaching

Service Learning

Learning in a Digital World

Learning about and with Technology


Diversity and Convergence in Constructivist Views

Chapter 10 - Social Cognitive Views of Motivation and Learning

Social Cognitive Theory and Triarchic Reciprocity

Self-Efficacy: Students and Teachers

Academic Self-Efficacy, Learning, and Motivation

Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy

Agency and Self-Regulation

What Influences Self-Regulated Learning?

Models of Self-Regulated Learning

An Individual Example

Reaching Every Student: Two Classrooms and a Family

Teaching Applications of Social Cognitive Theory

Modeling and Observational Learning

Teaching for Self-regulation

Cognitive Behavior Modification

Diversity and Convergence in Social Cognitive Explanations

Chapter 11 - Motivation in Learning and Teaching

Teachers’ Casebook: What Would You Do?

What Is Motivation?

Meeting Some Students

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Five General Approaches to Motivation


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness

Needs: Lessons for Teachers

Goal Orientations

Types of Goals and Goal Orientations

Feedback, Goal Framing, and Goal Acceptance

Goals: Lessons for Teachers

Beliefs and Self-Perceptions

Beliefs about Knowing: Epistemological Beliefs

Beliefs about Ability

Beliefs about Causes and Control: Attribution Theory

Beliefs about Self-Worth

Beliefs and Attributions: Lessons for Teachers

Interests, Curiosity, Emotions, and Anxiety

Tapping Interests

Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity

Emotions and Anxiety

Reaching Every Student: Coping with Anxiety

Curiosity, Interests, and Emotions: Lessons for Teachers

Motivation to Learn and School

Tasks for Learning

Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishment

Grouping, Evaluation, and Time

Diversity and Convergences in Motivation to Learn

Diversity in Motivation

Convergences: Strategies to Encourage Motivation

Summary Table


Chapter 12 - Creating Learning Environments

Teachers’ Casebook: What Would You Do?

The Need for Organization

The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation

The Goals of Classroom Management

Creating a Positive Learning Environment

Some Research Results

Routines and Rules Required

Planning Spaces for Learning

Planning for Computer Uses

Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class

Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning

Encouraging Engagement

Prevention Is the Best Medicine

Caring Relationships: Connections in School

Dealing with Discipline Problems

Stopping Problems Quickly

Bullying and Cyber-Bullying

Special Problems with High School Students

Violence in Schools


Reaching Every Student: Peer Mediation and Negotiation

The Need for Communication

Message Sent—Message Received

Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It?

Counseling: The Student’s Problem

Confrontation and Assertive Discipline

Diversity and Convergences in Learning Environments

Diversity: Culturally Responsive Management

Convergences: Research on Management Approaches

Summary Table

Teachers’ Casebook: What Would They Do?

Chapter 13. Teaching Every Student

The First Step: Planning

Research on Teaching

Characteristics of Effective Teachers

Knowledge for Teaching

Teacher Expectations

Teaching Approaches

Explanation and Direct Instruction

Seatwork and Homework

Hands-on, Minds-on Activities and Projects

Conceptual Change Teaching

Differentiated Instruction

Flexible Grouping

Peer-Assisted Learning

Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms

Diversity and Convergence in Teaching

Culturally Relevant Teaching

Beyond Models to Excellent Teaching: Learner-Centered Principles

Chapter 14 - Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized


Basics of Assessment

Measurement and Assessment

Assessing the Assessments: Reliability and Validity

Classroom Assessment: Testing

Using the Tests from Textbooks

Objective Testing

Essay Testing

Alternatives to Traditional Assessments

Authentic Classroom Assessment

Portfolios and Exhibitions

Evaluating Portfolios and Performances

Informal Assessments


Criterion-referenced versus Norm-referenced Grading

Effects Grading on Students

Grades and Motivation

Beyond Grading: Communicating with Families

Standardized Testing

Types of Scores

Interpreting Standardized Test Reports

Accountability and High-Stakes Testing

Reaching Every Student: Helping Students with Disabilities Prepare for High-Stakes Tests

Diversity and Convergences in Assessment



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