Educational Psychology: Developing Learners / Edition 4

Educational Psychology: Developing Learners / Edition 4

by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod

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ISBN-10: 0130887048

ISBN-13: 9780130887047

Pub. Date: 07/10/2002

Publisher: Pearson

This widely used book is known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps readers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers. The book concentrates on core concepts and


This widely used book is known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps readers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers. The book concentrates on core concepts and principles and gives readers an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology. More coverage of learning than any other introductory educational psychology book. This book contains unique, integrated coverage of diversity and inclusion and offers readers an opportunity to apply their knowledge of ed psych in an authentic context while strengthening their skills in assessment. For professionals in the field of Educational Psychology.

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Table of Contents

Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making     2
Case Study: Hidden Treasure     3
Teaching as Decision Making     4
Using Research in Classroom Decision Making     5
Drawing Conclusions from Research     7
Applying Psychological Theories in Classroom Decision Making     10
Importance of Regular Assessments in Classroom Decision Making     10
Accommodating Diversity in the Classroom     11
Developing as a Teacher     13
Studying Educational Psychology Effectively     14
The Big Picture     16
Case Study: More Harm Than Good?     16
Development and Diversity
Cognitive and Linguistic Development     18
Case Study: Economic Activities     19
Basic Principles of Human Development     20
Role of the Brain in Cognitive Development     22
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development     24
Piaget's Basic Assumptions     25
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development     26
Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory     31
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development     33
Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions     34
Current Perspectives on Vygotsky's Theory     37
AnInformation Processing View of Cognitive Development     42
Attention     43
Learning Strategies     44
Knowledge     45
Metacognition     46
Critiquing Information Processing Theory     48
Linguistic Development     49
Theoretical Perspectives on Language Development     50
Trends in Language Development     50
Learning a Second Language     53
Considering Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development     55
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     55
The Big Picture     57
Case Study: In the Eye of the Beholder     58
Development of Self, Social Skills, and Morality     60
Case Study: The Bad Apple     61
Environmental Influences on Personal, Social, and Moral Development     61
Effects of Parenting     62
Effects of Culture     62
Peer Influences     64
Self-Socialization     64
Development of a Sense of Self     65
Factors Influencing the Development of Self-Views     66
Developmental Changes in Sense of Self     68
Social Development     72
Peer Relationships      73
Social Cognition     77
Fostering Social Skills     83
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups     85
Moral and Prosocial Development     86
Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior     87
Development of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg's Theory     89
Possible Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning: Gilligan's Theory     91
Determinants of Moral and Prosocial Behavior     92
Promoting Moral and Prosocial Development in the Classroom     93
Considering Diversity in Sense of Self, Social Development, and Morality     95
Ethnic Differences     95
Gender Differences     96
Socioeconomic Differences     96
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     97
The Big Picture     98
Characteristics of Different Age-Groups     98
General Themes in Personal, Social, and Moral Development     98
Case Study: The Scarlet Letter     99
Group Differences     102
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn't in School     103
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective     104
Cultural and Ethnic Differences     105
Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School      105
Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity     107
Creating a More Multicultural Classroom Environment     113
Gender Differences     116
Origins of Gender Differences     121
Socioeconomic Differences     124
Risk Factors Associated with Poverty     125
Working with Homeless Students     128
Fostering Resilience     128
Building on Students' Strengths     129
Students at Risk     129
Characteristics of Students at Risk     130
Why Students Drop Out     131
Supporting Students at Risk     131
Remembering Within-Group Diversity     133
Group Differences and Special Needs     134
The Big Picture     135
Case Study: The Active and the Passive     136
Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs     138
Case Study: Tim     139
Keeping Individual Differences in Perspective     140
Intelligence     140
Measuring Intelligence     141
How Theorists Conceptualize Intelligence     144
Nature, Nurture, and Group Differences in Intelligence     147
Being Optimistic About Students' Potential      148
Temperament     149
Temperament in the Classroom     150
Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms     151
Public Law 94-142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)     151
Is Inclusion in the Best Interest of Students?     153
Classifying Students with Special Needs     154
Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties     155
Learning Disabilities     155
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)     159
Speech and Communication Disorders     161
General Recommendations for Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties     162
Students with Social or Behavioral Problems     163
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders     163
Autism     166
General Recommendations for Students with Social or Behavioral Problems     167
Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning     168
Mental Retardation     169
Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges     170
Physical and Health Impairments     170
Visual Impairments     171
Hearing Loss     172
Severe and Multiple Disabilities     174
General Recommendations for Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges     174
Students with Advanced Cognitive Development     176
Giftedness     176
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs     178
The Big Picture     179
Case Study: Quiet Amy     180
Learning and Motivation
Learning and Cognitive Processes     182
Case Study: Darren's Day at School     183
Looking at Learning from Different Perspectives     184
Learning as a Change in Behavior     184
Learning as a Change in Mental Representations or Associations     185
Learning and the Brain     186
Keeping an Open Mind About Theories of Learning     187
Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology     187
Basic Terminology in Cognitive Psychology     189
A Model of Human Memory     191
The Nature of the Sensory Register     191
Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention     192
The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory     193
Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge     194
The Nature of Long-Term Memory     195
Critiquing the Three-Component Model     195
Long-Term Memory Storage     196
The Various Forms of Knowledge     196
How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned     197
How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned     206
Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage     207
Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge     208
Long-Term Memory Retrieval     210
The Nature of Long-Term Memory Retrieval     210
Factors Affecting Retrieval     211
Why Learners Sometimes Forget     214
Giving Students Time to Process: Effects of Increasing Wait Time     216
Accommodating Diversity in Cognitive Processes     217
Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs     219
The Big Picture     219
Case Study: How Time Flies     220
Knowledge Construction     222
Case Study: Pulling It All Together     223
Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory     224
Construction in Storage     224
Construction in Retrieval     226
Knowledge Construction as a Social Process     227
Benefits of Joint Meaning-Making with Peers     227
Organizing Knowledge     228
Concepts      228
Schemas and Scripts     233
Theories     234
When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry: Origins and Effects of Misconceptions     235
Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction     238
Providing Opportunities for Experimentation     238
Presenting the Ideas of Others     239
Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding     239
Promoting Dialogue     241
Using Authentic Activities     242
Creating a Community of Learners     243
The Challenge of Conceptual Change     245
Considering Diversity in Constructive Processes     250
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     251
The Big Picture     251
Case Study: Earth-Shaking Summaries     251
Higher-Level Thinking Processes     254
Case Study: A Question of Speed     255
The Nature of Higher-Level Thinking     256
Metacognition and Study Strategies     257
Effective Study Strategies     259
Factors Affecting Strategy Use     265
Transfer     269
Basic Concepts in Transfer     269
Factors Affecting Transfer     271
Importance of Retrieval in Transfer     273
Problem Solving     274
Basic Concepts in Problem Solving     275
Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving     278
Using Computer Technology to Promote Problem Solving     283
Creativity     284
Fostering Creativity     285
Critical Thinking     287
Fostering Critical Thinking     288
Considering Diversity in Higher-Level Thinking Processes     290
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     291
The Big Picture     292
Case Study: Checks and Balances     292
Behaviorist Views of Learning     294
Case Study: The Attention Getter     295
Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism     295
Classical Conditioning     298
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses     299
Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning     300
Operant Conditioning     301
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning     302
Reinforcement in the Classroom     302
Using Reinforcement Effectively     307
Shaping New Behaviors     310
Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses     311
Reducing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors      314
Extinction     314
Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors     314
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors     315
Punishment     315
Maintaining Desirable Behaviors Over the Long Run     319
Promoting Intrinsic Reinforcement     320
Using Intermittent Reinforcement     320
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors     321
Applied Behavior Analysis     321
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support     322
Considering Diversity in Student Behaviors     323
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     324
Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches     324
The Big Picture     326
Case Study: Hostile Helen     326
Social Cognitive Views of Learning     328
Case Study: Parlez-Vous Francais?     329
Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory     329
The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment     331
Expectations     331
Vicarious Experiences     332
Cognitive Processing     332
Decisions About How to Behave     333
Nonoccurrence of Expected Consequences     333
Modeling      334
Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling     335
How Modeling Affects Behavior     336
Characteristics of Effective Models     337
Helping Students Learn from Models     338
Self-Efficacy     340
How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition     341
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy     342
Fostering High Self-Efficacy     344
Teacher Self-Efficacy     346
Self-Regulation     346
Self-Regulated Behavior     347
Self-Regulated Learning     352
Self-Regulated Problem Solving     355
Reciprocal Causation     357
Considering Diversity from a Social Cognitive Perspective     359
Using Diverse Models to Promote Success and Self-Efficacy     359
Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk     360
Supporting Students with Special Needs     360
The Big Picture     361
Unifying Ideas in Social Cognitive Theory     361
Comparing the Three Perspectives of Learning     362
Case Study: Teacher's Lament     363
Motivation and Affect     364
Case Study: Quick Draw     365
The Nature of Motivation      365
How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior     366
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation     367
Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation     368
The Trait Perspective     368
The Behaviorist Perspective     369
The Social Cognitive Perspective     370
The Cognitive Perspective     370
What Basic Needs Do People Have?     370
Self-Worth     370
Relatedness     372
Affect and Its Effects     374
How Affect Is Related to Motivation     375
How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition     376
Anxiety     377
Addressing Diversity in Motivation and Affect     383
Cultural and Ethnic Differences     384
Gender Differences     385
Socioeconomic Differences     385
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     385
The Big Picture     386
Guiding Principles     387
Case Study: When "Perfect" Isn't Good Enough     387
Cognitive Factors in Motivation     390
Case Study: Passing Algebra     391
The Interplay of Cognition and Motivation     392
Self-Perceptions and Intrinsic Motivation      392
Self-Efficacy     393
Self-Determination     394
Expectancies and Values     398
Internalizing the Values of Others     399
Fostering Expectancies and Values in the Classroom     400
Interest     400
Situational Versus Personal Interest     401
Promoting Interest in Classroom Subject Matter     403
Goals     403
Achievement Goals     404
Work-Avoidance Goals     408
Social Goals     408
Career Goals     409
Coordinating Multiple Goals     409
Dispositions     410
Attributions: Perceived Causes of Success and Failure     412
How Attributions Influence Affect, Cognition, and Behavior     414
Developmental Trends in Attributions     415
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions     417
Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness     418
Teacher Expectations and Attributions     419
How Expectations and Attributions Affect Classroom Performance     420
Forming Productive Expectations and Attributions for Student Performance     421
Considering Diversity in the Cognitive Aspects of Motivation     424
Ethnic Differences     424
Gender Differences     425
Socioeconomic Differences     425
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     427
The Big Picture     428
General Principles of Motivation     428
Revisiting the Four Theoretical Perspectives     428
Case Study: Writer's Block     430
Classroom Strategies
Instructional Strategies     432
Case Study: Oregon Trail     433
Overview of Instructional Strategies     434
Planning for Instruction     435
Identifying the Goals of Instruction     436
Conducting a Task Analysis     440
Developing a Lesson Plan     442
Expository Approaches     443
Lectures and Textbooks     443
Mastery Learning     446
Direct Instruction     447
Computer-Based Instruction     449
Online Research     450
Hands-On and Practice Activities     451
Discovery Learning     451
In-Class Activities     453
Computer Simulations and Applications     454
Homework     455
Authentic Activities     456
Interactive and Collaborative Approaches      457
Teacher Questions     458
Class Discussions     460
Reciprocal Teaching     462
Technology-Based Discussions     465
Cooperative Learning     465
Peer Tutoring     470
Taking Student Diversity into Account     474
Considering Group Differences     474
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     475
The Big Picture     477
Case Study: Uncooperative Students     477
Creating a Productive Learning Environment     482
Case Study: A Contagious Situation     483
Creating an Environment Conducive to Learning     484
Arranging the Classroom     485
Creating an Effective Classroom Climate     485
Setting Limits     490
Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task     493
Monitoring What Students Are Doing     496
Modifying Instructional Strategies     496
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account     497
Dealing with Misbehaviors     499
Ignoring Behavior     499
Cueing a Student     500
Discussing a Problem Privately with a Student     500
Teaching Self-Regulation Strategies     502
Using Behaviorist Approaches     503
Conferring with Parents     504
Addressing Aggression and Violence at School     504
Creating a Nonviolent School Environment     506
Intervening Early for Students at Risk     507
Providing Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble     507
Taking Student Diversity into Account     507
Creating a Supportive Climate     508
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors     509
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     510
Coordinating Efforts with Others     510
Working with Other Teachers     510
Working with the Community at Large     512
Working with Parents     512
The Big Picture     519
Case Study: Old Friends     520
Classroom Assessment Strategies     522
Case Study: The Math Test     523
Assessments as Tools     524
The Various Forms of Educational Assessment     525
Using Assessment for Different Purposes     527
Promoting Learning     527
Guiding Instructional Decision Making     529
Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems      529
Promoting Self-Regulation     529
Determining What Students Have Learned     529
Important Qualities of Good Assessment     530
Reliability     531
Standardization     534
Validity     534
Praticality     538
Informal Assessment     539
RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment     540
Paper-Pencil Assessment     541
Constructing the Assessment Instrument     542
Administering the Assessment     549
Scoring Students' Responses     550
RSVP Characteristics of Paper-Pencil Assessment     552
Performance Assessment     553
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks     553
Planning and Administering the Assessment     555
Scoring Students' Responses     556
RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessment     557
Including Students in the Assessment Process     561
Encouraging Risk Taking     562
Evaluating an Assessment Tool Through Item Analysis     563
Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments     564
Test Anxiety     564
Testwiseness     566
Accommodating Group Differences      566
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     566
The Big Picture     568
Learning, Motivation, and Assessment     568
General Guidelines for Classroom Assessment     568
Case Study: Pick and Choose     569
Summarizing Student Achievement     570
Case Study: B in History     571
Revisiting Self-Regulation and the RSVP Characteristics     572
Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment     572
Raw Scores     572
Criterion-Referenced Scores     573
Norm-Referenced Scores     574
Using Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom     577
Determining Final Class Grades     577
Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit     579
Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades     580
Including Students in the Grading Process     581
Using Portfolios     582
Standardized Tests     584
Types of Standardized Tests     584
Technology and Assessment     587
Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests     587
Interpreting Standardized Test Scores     588
High-Stakes Testing and Accountability      591
Problems with High-Stakes Testing     592
Potential Solutions to the Problems     593
Taking Student Diversity into Account     594
Cultural Bias     594
Language Differences     595
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     595
Confidentiality and Communication About Assessment Results     596
Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents     598
The Big Picture     599
Case Study: Can Johnny Read?     600
Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients     A-1
Analyses of the Ending Case Studies     B-1
Matching Book and Ancillary Content to the Praxis Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests     C-1
Glossary     G-1
References     R-1
Name Index     N-1
Subject Index     S-1

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