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Overview

This widely used book is known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps readers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers. The book concentrates on core concepts and principles and gives readers an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology. More coverage of learning than any other introductory educational psychology book. This book contains unique, integrated coverage of diversity and inclusion and offers readers an opportunity to apply their knowledge of ed psych in an authentic context while strengthening their skills in assessment. For professionals in the field of Educational Psychology.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

From reviews of the book:

“Rather than simply presenting the necessary content, the author makes you feel like she is talking directly to you. . . . I love that diversity that has been woven throughout the fabric of this text. . . . Ormrod’s personalized writing style will reach undergraduate students in a way that few authors can. [The book] is concise, yet thorough; comprehensive, yet unpretentious.”

--Angela Bloomquist, California University of Pennsylvania

‘Compared to other texts, Ormrod’s text is written in a more accessible way. . . . Strengths [include] accessibility, good use of supplementary materials, [and] updated research.”

--David Yun Dai, University at Albany, SUNY

“Love how each chapter discusses diversity and special needs! . . . Most students keep this text throughout their teaching careers as a resource. Of all the educational psychology textbooks that I’ve used, this one is the most comprehensive and interactive with vivid examples. . . . The supplemental materials are very useful. The power point is extensive and easy to use for lecture. I use the test bank materials and find the questions to be aligned with students’ licensure exams.”

--Cindy Ballantyne, Northern Arizona University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131190870
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 1/4/2005
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 600
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeanne Ellis Ormrod received her A.B. in psychology from Brown University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in educational psychology from The Pennsylvania State University. She earned licensure in school psychology through postdoctoral work at Temple University and the University of Colorado at Boulder and has worked as a middle school geography teacher and school psychologist. She was Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Northern Colorado until 1998, when she moved east to return to her native New England. She has published numerous research articles on cognition and memory, cognitive development, and giftedness but is probably best known for this book and four others: Human Learning (currently in its sixth edition); Essentials of Educational Psychology (currently in its third edition); Child Development and Education (co-authored with Teresa McDevitt, currently in its fifth edition); and Practical Research (co-authored with Paul Leedy, currently in its tenth edition). She has also recently published a non-textbook for a broad audience: Our Minds, Our Memories: Enhancing Thinking and Learning at All Ages. With her three children now grown and out on their own, she lives in New Hampshire with her husband Richard.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Soon after I wrote the first edition of Educational Psychology, I had the good fortune to return to a middle school classroom teaching geography to two sections of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. On my first day back in a K-12 setting, I was quickly reminded of how exciting and energizing the process of teaching growing children can be. This experience confirmed once again what I have always known—that the principles of educational psychology have clear relevance to the decisions a classroom teacher must make on an ongoing basis. How children and adolescents learn and think, how they change as they grow and develop, why they do the things they do, how they are often very different from one another—our understanding of all these things has innumerable implications for classroom practice and, ultimately, for the lives of the next generation.

I have been teaching educational psychology since 1974, and I have loved every minute of it. Because I want the field of educational psychology to captivate you the way it has captivated me, I have tried to make the book interesting, meaningful, and thought-provoking as well as informative. I have a definite philosophy about how future teachers can best learn and apply educational psychology-a philosophy that has guided me as I have written all three editions of this book. More specifically, I believe that you can construct a more accurate and useful understanding of the principles of educational psychology when you:

  • Focus on core principles of the discipline
  • Relate the principles to your own learning and behavior
  • Mentally "process" theprinciples in an effective manner
  • Consider numerous classroom applications of the principles

As I will show you in a moment, I have incorporated numerous features into the book that will encourage you to do all of these things. I hope that you will learn a great deal from what educational psychology has to offer, not only about the students you will be teaching but also about yourself—a human being who continues to learn and develop even now.

Features of the Book

Focusing on Core Principles

Rather than superficially explore every aspect of educational psychology, I have chosen to offer in-depth treatment of the fundamental concepts and principles that have broad applicability to classroom practice. If I myself couldn't imagine how a concept or principle could be of use to a teacher, I left it out. I have highlighted many of the key principles in the Principles/Assumptions tables that appear throughout the book.

Relating Principles to Your Own Learning and Behavior

A central goal of this text is to help you discover more about yourself as a thinker and learner. If you can understand how you yourself learn, you will be in a better position to understand how your students learn and, as a result, to help them learn more effectively. Throughout the book, I've provided many exercises to help you discover important points firsthand and thereby construct a more complete, meaningful understanding of psychological principles of learning, development, motivation, and behavior. Appearing as Experiencing Firsthand features, these exercises are in some ways similar to the "hands-on" activities that can help students learn in elementary and secondary classrooms. But because I ask you to use your mind rather than your hands, you might more accurately think of them as "head-on" experiences.

"Processing" Principles Effectively

Research tells us that many students, including many at the college level, use relatively ineffective strategies for reading, studying, and learning. But research also tells us that students can acquire effective strategies and that when they begin to use such strategies, they find themselves successfully learning and remembering what they read and hear.

One important principle of learning is that people learn and remember new information more effectively when they relate it to what they already know—a process called meaningful learning. I will ask you to reflect on your own knowledge and experiences at the beginning of each chapter and in Thinking About What You Know features at various other spots throughout the book. In addition, some of the margin notes designated with a special (disc) symbol will ask you to consider personal experiences or to recall ideas discussed in previous chapters.

Another effective strategy is organization—making connections among the various pieces of information that you're learning; the Compare/Contrast tables that appear throughout the book will help you organize some of the key ideas in each chapter. Still another learning strategy is elaboration—expanding on information as you study it, drawing inferences, thinking of new examples, making predictions, and so on. Many of the (disc) questions in the margin will encourage you to elaborate on concepts and principles as I describe them. The (triangle) notes in the margin can help you with both organization and elaboration: They may show you how you can connect the material you are reading with ideas presented in later chapters, or they may provide additional, "elaborative" information about those ideas.

Taking Principles Into the Classroom

Throughout the text, I consistently apply psychological concepts and principles to class room practice. Some of these applications are summarized and illustrated in Into the Classroom features and Students in Inclusive Settings tables; many others are highlighted with an (apple) in the margin. Furthermore, the (disc) questions will sometimes ask you to consider possible applications in your own specific circumstances as a teacher.

In addition, every chapter begins and ends with case studies. The case study at the beginning of each chapter presents an example of one or more students dealing with a particular classroom learning task. As we proceed through the chapter, we will continually relate our discussion back to this case, helping you connect chapter content to a classroom context. The case study at the end of each chapter focuses on teachers and teaching; it will help you apply ideas you have encountered in the chapter and make instructional decisions based on what you have learned.

Changes in the Third Edition

Although most of the content in the second edition remains in the third, I have made several changes to reflect current trends in educational psychology and educational practice. Among the most significant changes to this revision are: the addition of three new chapters, including Learning in the Content Areas, Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions, and Students with Special Educational Needs; new and expanded topics; and a reorganization of Part 3.

New Chapter on "Learning in the Content Areas"

Chapter 9 applies principles of cognitive psychology to learning reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies. Four general themes—constructive processes, the influence of prior knowledge, metacognition, and developmental differences—and many content-specific teaching strategies appear throughout the chapter.

New Chapter on "Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions"

Discussion of instructional strategies has been expanded to two chapters, and Chapter 14 is now devoted exclusively to describing interactive approaches to instruction including: communities of learners, class discussions, reciprocal teaching, cooperative learning, and peer tutoring.

New Chapter on "Students with Special Educational Needs"

Chapter 5 describes recent trends in special education and presents numerous strategies for teachers who work in inclusive classrooms. (The "Students in Inclusive Settings" tables that appeared in each chapter of the second edition remain in the third edition as well.)

New and Expanded Topics

The third edition includes new sections on contemporary applications of Vygotsky's ideas; theoretical perspectives on language development; heredity, environment, and group differences in intelligence; how procedural knowledge is learned; critical thinking; setting events; behavioral momentum; positive behavioral support; self-regulated learning; lesson plans; direct instruction; and working effectively with parents. Discussions of other topics have, of course, been updated in keeping with recent developments in theory and research.

Reorganization of Part 3

Topics related to planning for instruction-identifying instructional goals, conducting task analyses, and developing lesson plans-now appear at the beginning of Chapter 13 ("Choosing Instructional Strategies") and pave the way for the discussion of instructional strategies. Chapter 15 is now devoted entirely to the topic of "Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment."

Supplementary Materials

Numerous supplements to the textbook are available to enhance your learning and development as a teacher.

Student Study Guide. The Student Study Guide provides many support mechanisms to help you learn and study more effectively. These include focus questions to consider as you read the text, a chapter glossary, application exercises to give you practice in applying concepts and principles of educational psychology to classroom settings, answers to selected margin notes, sample test questions, and several supplementary readings.

Simulations in Educational Psychology and Research (Compact Disk). A compact disk accompanies the third edition of the textbook. This CD contains four activities that resemble actual research studies in educational psychology: "The Pendulum Experiment" (to be used with either Chapter 2 or Chapter 9); "Assessing Moral Reasoning" (to be used with Chapter 3); "Bartlett's Ghosts" (to be used with Chapter 7); and "Intuitive Physics" (to be used with Chapter 7, 8, or 9). As you use the CD, you will find yourself "participating" in the activities in much the same way that students in the original research studies did; the CD will ask you to respond to various situations and then give you feedback about your responses. The CD will also help you connect the activity with educational practice.

Companion Website. You can find the Website for Educational Psychology: Developing Learners at www.prenhall.com/ormrod. For each chapter of the book, the Website presents Key Questions that identify the chapter's central issues, a chapter glossary, key terms linked to Internet destinations, and a quick self-test (multiple-choice and essay questions that let you self-assess what you've learned). The Website also provides Syllabus Manager™, which your instructor may use to post and occasionally update the course syllabus, as well as an interactive "Message Board" through which you and your classmates can engage in discussions about chapter content.

Videotapes and MultiMedia Guide. Videos are a highly effective means of visually demonstrating concepts and principles in educational psychology. The eight videotapes that accompany this textbook portray a wide variety of teachers, students, and classrooms in action. Six videos present numerous case studies in many content domains and at a variety of grades levels. Two additional videos are: `A Private Universe" (which examines learner misconceptions in science) and Constance Kamii's "Double-Column Addition: A Teacher Uses Piaget's Theory" (which depicts a constructivist approach to teaching mathematics). Opportunities to react to these videos in class discussions will further enhance your ability to think analytically and identify good teaching practices. Your instructor will have a MultiMedia Guide to help guide and enrich your interpretation and understanding of what you see in the videos.

Instructor's Manual. Available to your instructor are suggestions for learning activities, additional "head-on" exercises, supplementary lectures, case study analyses, discussion topics, group activities, and additional media resources. These have been carefully selected to provide opportunities to support, enrich, and expand on what you read in the textbook.

Transparencies. The transparencies that your instructor may use in class will include tables and classroom exercises similar to those found in your textbook. These transparencies are designed to help you understand, organize, and remember the concepts and principles you are studying.

PowerPoint Slides and Supplementary Lectures and Activities. Your instructor may use a CD-ROM that includes PowerPoint versions of the transparencies, supplementary lectures, and activities that appear in the Instructor's Manual.

Test Bank. Many instructors use the test questions that accompany this textbook. Some items (lower-level questions) will simply ask you to identify or explain concepts and principles you have learned. But many others (higher-level questions) will ask you to apply those same concepts and principles to specific classroom situations—that is, to actual student behaviors and teaching strategies. The lower-level questions assess your basic knowledge of educational psychology. But ultimately, it is the higher-level questions that will assess your ability to use principles of educational psychology in your own teaching practice.

Acknowledgments

Although I am listed as the sole author of this textbook, I have been fortunate to have had a great deal of assistance in writing it. First and foremost, I must thank my editor, Kevin Davis, whose ideas, insights, and clear commitment to the field of educational psychology have provided much of the driving force behind my writing and productivity. Kevin is a task master, make no mistake about it, and he always insists that I stretch my talents to the limit. Yet he also provides the guidance (scaffolding) I need to achieve things that initially seem so impossible. After spending countless hours working with Kevin, I can say that he is not only my editor but also my friend.

I am equally indebted to Linda Montgomery, developmental editor for the third edition, whose extensive experience as both an elementary school teacher and an editor have greatly enriched the quality of this edition. Linda's creativity, commitment to excellence, and ongoing support have always been there for me when I've needed them most. I must thank Linda Peterson as well; as developmental editor for both the first and second editions, she helped define much of the pedagogy of the book. Her continuing insistence on application, application, application! kept my focus on the things that future teachers really need to know.

Others at Merrill/Prentice Hall have also contributed in important ways. Copy editor Sue Snyder has gone through my manuscript with a fine-toothed comb and teased out many little places where the text wasn't quite right. Photography editor Nancy Ritz has located many photographs that have given life to the words on the page. And Julie Peters, as production editor for all three editions, has flawlessly coordinated and overseen the entire process of transforming a manuscript into a book—an incredibly complicated task that, in my mind, should far exceed any normal human being's working memory capacity.

In addition, many colleagues across the country have given the book a balance of perspectives that no single author could possibly do on her own. Drs. Margie Garanzini-Daiber and Peggy Cohen provided some of the ideas for the Students in Inclusive Settings tables. Dr. Ann Turnball offered many helpful suggestions for enhancing my discussions of students with special needs. Many other individuals have strengthened the final product considerably by reviewing one or more versions of the book.

Reviewers for the first and second editions were Margaret D. Anderson, SUNY-Cortland; Timothy A. Bender, Southwest Missouri State University; Stephen L. Benton, Kansas State University; Kathryn J. Biacindo, California State University-Fresno; Barbara Bishop, Eastern New Mexico University; Karen L. Block, University of Pittsburgh; Robert Braswell, Winthrop College; Randy L. Brown, University of Central Oklahoma; Kay S. Bull, Oklahoma State University; Margaret W Cohen, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Roberta Corrigan, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Richard D. Craig, Towson State University; Jose Cruz, Jr., The Ohio State University; Peggy Dettmer, Kansas State University; Joan Dixon, Gonzaga University; Leland K. Doebler, University of Montevallo; Joanne B. Engel, Oregon State University; Kathy Farber, Bowling Green State University; William R. Fisk, Clemson University; Roberta J. Garza, Pan American University Brownsville; Cheryl Greenberg, University of North Carolina-Greensboro; Richard Hamilton, University of Houston; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas-San Antonio; Frederick C. Howe, Buffalo State College; Dinah Jackson, University of Northern Colorado; Janina M. Jolley, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Caroline Kaczala, Cleveland State University; CarolAnne M. Kardash, University of Missouri-Columbia; Nancy F. Knapp, University of Georgia; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Randy Lennon, University of Northern Colorado; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Hermine H. Marshall, San Francisco State University; Teresa McDevitt, University of Northern Colorado; Sharon McNeely, Northeastern Illinois University; Michael Meloth, University of Colorado-Boulder; Janet Moursund, University of Oregon; Gary A. Negro, California State University; Judy Pierce, Western Kentucky University; James R. Pullen, Central Missouri State University; Gary F. Render, University of Wyoming; Robert S. Ristow, Western Illinois University; Gregg Schraw, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Mark Seng, University of Texas; Johnna Shapiro, University of California Davis; Harry L. Steger, Boise State University; Julianne C. Turner, University of Notre Dame; Alice A. Walker, SUNY-Cortland; Mary Wellman, Rhode Island College; and Jane A. Wolfle, Bowling Green State University.

Coming on board for the third edition were these reviewers: Joyce Alexander, Indiana University; J. C. Barton, Tennessee Technical University; Phyllis Blumenfeld, University of Michigan; M. Arthur Garmon, Western Michigan University; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas, San Antonio; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Victoria Fleming, Miami University of Ohio; Jennifer Mistretta Hampston, Youngstown State University; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Bruce E Mortenson, Louisiana State University; Joe Olmi, The University of Southern Mississippi; Helen Osana, University of Missouri, Columbia; Gregory Schraw, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Bruce Torg Hofstra University; Ann Turnbull, University of Kansas; Glenn E. Snelbecker, Temple University (ancillary material to text); and Karen Zabrucky, Georgia State University.

Last but certainly not least, I must thank my husband and children, who have been ever so patient as I have spent countless hours either buried in my books and journals or else glued to my computer. Without their continuing support and patience, this book would never have seen the light of day.

J. E. O.

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Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making 1
Pt. I Understanding Student Development and Diversity
Ch. 2 Cognitive and Linguistic Development 18
Ch. 3 Personal, Social, and Moral Development 60
Ch. 4 Individual and Group Differences 102
Ch. 5 Students with Special Educational Needs 142
Pt. 2 Understanding How Students Learn
Ch. 6 Learning and Cognitive Processes 186
Ch. 7 Knowledge Construction 226
Ch. 8 Higher-Level Thinking Skills 258
Ch. 9 Behaviorist Views of Learning 298
Ch. 10 Social Cognitive Views of Learning 332
Ch. 11 Motivation and Affect 366
Ch. 12 Cognitive Factors in Motivation 388
Pt. 3 Understanding Instructional Processes
Ch. 13 Instructional Strategies 426
Ch. 14 Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment 478
Ch. 15 Basic Concepts and Issues in Assessment 510
Ch. 16 Classroom Assessment Strategies 552
App. A Describing Relationships with Correlation Coefficients
App. B Analyses of the Ending Case Studies
App. C Matching Book and Ancillary Content to the PRAXIS Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index
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Preface

Preface

Soon after I wrote the first edition of Educational Psychology, I had the good fortune to return to a middle school classroom teaching geography to two sections of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. On my first day back in a K-12 setting, I was quickly reminded of how exciting and energizing the process of teaching growing children can be. This experience confirmed once again what I have always known—that the principles of educational psychology have clear relevance to the decisions a classroom teacher must make on an ongoing basis. How children and adolescents learn and think, how they change as they grow and develop, why they do the things they do, how they are often very different from one another—our understanding of all these things has innumerable implications for classroom practice and, ultimately, for the lives of the next generation.

I have been teaching educational psychology since 1974, and I have loved every minute of it. Because I want the field of educational psychology to captivate you the way it has captivated me, I have tried to make the book interesting, meaningful, and thought-provoking as well as informative. I have a definite philosophy about how future teachers can best learn and apply educational psychology-a philosophy that has guided me as I have written all three editions of this book. More specifically, I believe that you can construct a more accurate and useful understanding of the principles of educational psychology when you:

  • Focus on core principles of the discipline
  • Relate the principles to your own learning and behavior
  • Mentally "process" the principles in aneffective manner
  • Consider numerous classroom applications of the principles

As I will show you in a moment, I have incorporated numerous features into the book that will encourage you to do all of these things. I hope that you will learn a great deal from what educational psychology has to offer, not only about the students you will be teaching but also about yourself—a human being who continues to learn and develop even now.

Features of the Book

Focusing on Core Principles

Rather than superficially explore every aspect of educational psychology, I have chosen to offer in-depth treatment of the fundamental concepts and principles that have broad applicability to classroom practice. If I myself couldn't imagine how a concept or principle could be of use to a teacher, I left it out. I have highlighted many of the key principles in the Principles/Assumptions tables that appear throughout the book.

Relating Principles to Your Own Learning and Behavior

A central goal of this text is to help you discover more about yourself as a thinker and learner. If you can understand how you yourself learn, you will be in a better position to understand how your students learn and, as a result, to help them learn more effectively. Throughout the book, I've provided many exercises to help you discover important points firsthand and thereby construct a more complete, meaningful understanding of psychological principles of learning, development, motivation, and behavior. Appearing as Experiencing Firsthand features, these exercises are in some ways similar to the "hands-on" activities that can help students learn in elementary and secondary classrooms. But because I ask you to use your mind rather than your hands, you might more accurately think of them as "head-on" experiences.

"Processing" Principles Effectively

Research tells us that many students, including many at the college level, use relatively ineffective strategies for reading, studying, and learning. But research also tells us that students can acquire effective strategies and that when they begin to use such strategies, they find themselves successfully learning and remembering what they read and hear.

One important principle of learning is that people learn and remember new information more effectively when they relate it to what they already know—a process called meaningful learning. I will ask you to reflect on your own knowledge and experiences at the beginning of each chapter and in Thinking About What You Know features at various other spots throughout the book. In addition, some of the margin notes designated with a special (disc) symbol will ask you to consider personal experiences or to recall ideas discussed in previous chapters.

Another effective strategy is organization—making connections among the various pieces of information that you're learning; the Compare/Contrast tables that appear throughout the book will help you organize some of the key ideas in each chapter. Still another learning strategy is elaboration—expanding on information as you study it, drawing inferences, thinking of new examples, making predictions, and so on. Many of the (disc) questions in the margin will encourage you to elaborate on concepts and principles as I describe them. The (triangle) notes in the margin can help you with both organization and elaboration: They may show you how you can connect the material you are reading with ideas presented in later chapters, or they may provide additional, "elaborative" information about those ideas.

Taking Principles Into the Classroom

Throughout the text, I consistently apply psychological concepts and principles to class room practice. Some of these applications are summarized and illustrated in Into the Classroom features and Students in Inclusive Settings tables; many others are highlighted with an (apple) in the margin. Furthermore, the (disc) questions will sometimes ask you to consider possible applications in your own specific circumstances as a teacher.

In addition, every chapter begins and ends with case studies. The case study at the beginning of each chapter presents an example of one or more students dealing with a particular classroom learning task. As we proceed through the chapter, we will continually relate our discussion back to this case, helping you connect chapter content to a classroom context. The case study at the end of each chapter focuses on teachers and teaching; it will help you apply ideas you have encountered in the chapter and make instructional decisions based on what you have learned.

Changes in the Third Edition

Although most of the content in the second edition remains in the third, I have made several changes to reflect current trends in educational psychology and educational practice. Among the most significant changes to this revision are: the addition of three new chapters, including Learning in the Content Areas, Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions, and Students with Special Educational Needs; new and expanded topics; and a reorganization of Part 3.

New Chapter on "Learning in the Content Areas"

Chapter 9 applies principles of cognitive psychology to learning reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies. Four general themes—constructive processes, the influence of prior knowledge, metacognition, and developmental differences—and many content-specific teaching strategies appear throughout the chapter.

New Chapter on "Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions"

Discussion of instructional strategies has been expanded to two chapters, and Chapter 14 is now devoted exclusively to describing interactive approaches to instruction including: communities of learners, class discussions, reciprocal teaching, cooperative learning, and peer tutoring.

New Chapter on "Students with Special Educational Needs"

Chapter 5 describes recent trends in special education and presents numerous strategies for teachers who work in inclusive classrooms. (The "Students in Inclusive Settings" tables that appeared in each chapter of the second edition remain in the third edition as well.)

New and Expanded Topics

The third edition includes new sections on contemporary applications of Vygotsky's ideas; theoretical perspectives on language development; heredity, environment, and group differences in intelligence; how procedural knowledge is learned; critical thinking; setting events; behavioral momentum; positive behavioral support; self-regulated learning; lesson plans; direct instruction; and working effectively with parents. Discussions of other topics have, of course, been updated in keeping with recent developments in theory and research.

Reorganization of Part 3

Topics related to planning for instruction-identifying instructional goals, conducting task analyses, and developing lesson plans-now appear at the beginning of Chapter 13 ("Choosing Instructional Strategies") and pave the way for the discussion of instructional strategies. Chapter 15 is now devoted entirely to the topic of "Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment."

Supplementary Materials

Numerous supplements to the textbook are available to enhance your learning and development as a teacher.

Student Study Guide. The Student Study Guide provides many support mechanisms to help you learn and study more effectively. These include focus questions to consider as you read the text, a chapter glossary, application exercises to give you practice in applying concepts and principles of educational psychology to classroom settings, answers to selected margin notes, sample test questions, and several supplementary readings.

Simulations in Educational Psychology and Research (Compact Disk). A compact disk accompanies the third edition of the textbook. This CD contains four activities that resemble actual research studies in educational psychology: "The Pendulum Experiment" (to be used with either Chapter 2 or Chapter 9); "Assessing Moral Reasoning" (to be used with Chapter 3); "Bartlett's Ghosts" (to be used with Chapter 7); and "Intuitive Physics" (to be used with Chapter 7, 8, or 9). As you use the CD, you will find yourself "participating" in the activities in much the same way that students in the original research studies did; the CD will ask you to respond to various situations and then give you feedback about your responses. The CD will also help you connect the activity with educational practice.

Companion Website. You can find the Website for Educational Psychology: Developing Learners at www.prenhall.com/ormrod. For each chapter of the book, the Website presents Key Questions that identify the chapter's central issues, a chapter glossary, key terms linked to Internet destinations, and a quick self-test (multiple-choice and essay questions that let you self-assess what you've learned). The Website also provides Syllabus Manager™, which your instructor may use to post and occasionally update the course syllabus, as well as an interactive "Message Board" through which you and your classmates can engage in discussions about chapter content.

Videotapes and MultiMedia Guide. Videos are a highly effective means of visually demonstrating concepts and principles in educational psychology. The eight videotapes that accompany this textbook portray a wide variety of teachers, students, and classrooms in action. Six videos present numerous case studies in many content domains and at a variety of grades levels. Two additional videos are: `A Private Universe" (which examines learner misconceptions in science) and Constance Kamii's "Double-Column Addition: A Teacher Uses Piaget's Theory" (which depicts a constructivist approach to teaching mathematics). Opportunities to react to these videos in class discussions will further enhance your ability to think analytically and identify good teaching practices. Your instructor will have a MultiMedia Guide to help guide and enrich your interpretation and understanding of what you see in the videos.

Instructor's Manual. Available to your instructor are suggestions for learning activities, additional "head-on" exercises, supplementary lectures, case study analyses, discussion topics, group activities, and additional media resources. These have been carefully selected to provide opportunities to support, enrich, and expand on what you read in the textbook.

Transparencies. The transparencies that your instructor may use in class will include tables and classroom exercises similar to those found in your textbook. These transparencies are designed to help you understand, organize, and remember the concepts and principles you are studying.

PowerPoint Slides and Supplementary Lectures and Activities. Your instructor may use a CD-ROM that includes PowerPoint versions of the transparencies, supplementary lectures, and activities that appear in the Instructor's Manual.

Test Bank. Many instructors use the test questions that accompany this textbook. Some items (lower-level questions) will simply ask you to identify or explain concepts and principles you have learned. But many others (higher-level questions) will ask you to apply those same concepts and principles to specific classroom situations—that is, to actual student behaviors and teaching strategies. The lower-level questions assess your basic knowledge of educational psychology. But ultimately, it is the higher-level questions that will assess your ability to use principles of educational psychology in your own teaching practice.

Acknowledgments

Although I am listed as the sole author of this textbook, I have been fortunate to have had a great deal of assistance in writing it. First and foremost, I must thank my editor, Kevin Davis, whose ideas, insights, and clear commitment to the field of educational psychology have provided much of the driving force behind my writing and productivity. Kevin is a task master, make no mistake about it, and he always insists that I stretch my talents to the limit. Yet he also provides the guidance (scaffolding) I need to achieve things that initially seem so impossible. After spending countless hours working with Kevin, I can say that he is not only my editor but also my friend.

I am equally indebted to Linda Montgomery, developmental editor for the third edition, whose extensive experience as both an elementary school teacher and an editor have greatly enriched the quality of this edition. Linda's creativity, commitment to excellence, and ongoing support have always been there for me when I've needed them most. I must thank Linda Peterson as well; as developmental editor for both the first and second editions, she helped define much of the pedagogy of the book. Her continuing insistence on application, application, application! kept my focus on the things that future teachers really need to know.

Others at Merrill/Prentice Hall have also contributed in important ways. Copy editor Sue Snyder has gone through my manuscript with a fine-toothed comb and teased out many little places where the text wasn't quite right. Photography editor Nancy Ritz has located many photographs that have given life to the words on the page. And Julie Peters, as production editor for all three editions, has flawlessly coordinated and overseen the entire process of transforming a manuscript into a book—an incredibly complicated task that, in my mind, should far exceed any normal human being's working memory capacity.

In addition, many colleagues across the country have given the book a balance of perspectives that no single author could possibly do on her own. Drs. Margie Garanzini-Daiber and Peggy Cohen provided some of the ideas for the Students in Inclusive Settings tables. Dr. Ann Turnball offered many helpful suggestions for enhancing my discussions of students with special needs. Many other individuals have strengthened the final product considerably by reviewing one or more versions of the book.

Reviewers for the first and second editions were Margaret D. Anderson, SUNY-Cortland; Timothy A. Bender, Southwest Missouri State University; Stephen L. Benton, Kansas State University; Kathryn J. Biacindo, California State University-Fresno; Barbara Bishop, Eastern New Mexico University; Karen L. Block, University of Pittsburgh; Robert Braswell, Winthrop College; Randy L. Brown, University of Central Oklahoma; Kay S. Bull, Oklahoma State University; Margaret W Cohen, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Roberta Corrigan, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Richard D. Craig, Towson State University; Jose Cruz, Jr., The Ohio State University; Peggy Dettmer, Kansas State University; Joan Dixon, Gonzaga University; Leland K. Doebler, University of Montevallo; Joanne B. Engel, Oregon State University; Kathy Farber, Bowling Green State University; William R. Fisk, Clemson University; Roberta J. Garza, Pan American University Brownsville; Cheryl Greenberg, University of North Carolina-Greensboro; Richard Hamilton, University of Houston; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas-San Antonio; Frederick C. Howe, Buffalo State College; Dinah Jackson, University of Northern Colorado; Janina M. Jolley, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Caroline Kaczala, Cleveland State University; CarolAnne M. Kardash, University of Missouri-Columbia; Nancy F. Knapp, University of Georgia; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Randy Lennon, University of Northern Colorado; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Hermine H. Marshall, San Francisco State University; Teresa McDevitt, University of Northern Colorado; Sharon McNeely, Northeastern Illinois University; Michael Meloth, University of Colorado-Boulder; Janet Moursund, University of Oregon; Gary A. Negro, California State University; Judy Pierce, Western Kentucky University; James R. Pullen, Central Missouri State University; Gary F. Render, University of Wyoming; Robert S. Ristow, Western Illinois University; Gregg Schraw, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Mark Seng, University of Texas; Johnna Shapiro, University of California Davis; Harry L. Steger, Boise State University; Julianne C. Turner, University of Notre Dame; Alice A. Walker, SUNY-Cortland; Mary Wellman, Rhode Island College; and Jane A. Wolfle, Bowling Green State University.

Coming on board for the third edition were these reviewers: Joyce Alexander, Indiana University; J. C. Barton, Tennessee Technical University; Phyllis Blumenfeld, University of Michigan; M. Arthur Garmon, Western Michigan University; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas, San Antonio; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Victoria Fleming, Miami University of Ohio; Jennifer Mistretta Hampston, Youngstown State University; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Bruce E Mortenson, Louisiana State University; Joe Olmi, The University of Southern Mississippi; Helen Osana, University of Missouri, Columbia; Gregory Schraw, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Bruce Torg Hofstra University; Ann Turnbull, University of Kansas; Glenn E. Snelbecker, Temple University (ancillary material to text); and Karen Zabrucky, Georgia State University.

Last but certainly not least, I must thank my husband and children, who have been ever so patient as I have spent countless hours either buried in my books and journals or else glued to my computer. Without their continuing support and patience, this book would never have seen the light of day.

J. E. O.

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Introduction

Each time I walk through the front door of a school building, I am reminded of how exciting and energizing it can be to interact and work daily with children and adolescents. Soon after I wrote the first edition of Educational Psychology I had the good fortune to return to a middle school classroom teaching geography to two sections of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. After writing the third edition of the book, I spent a year in middle schools in another capacity: as supervisor of teacher interns getting their feet wet in fifth- through eighth-grade classrooms. Both experiences confirmed what I have always known—that the principles of educational psychology have clear relevance to the decisions a classroom teacher must make on an ongoing basis. How children and adolescents learn and think, how they change as they grow and develop, why they do the things they do, how they are often very different from one another—our understanding of all these things has innumerable implications for classroom practice and, ultimately, for the lives of the next generation.

I have been teaching educational psychology since 1974, and I've loved every minute of it. I have written this textbook in much the same way that I teach my college classes. Because I want the field of educational psychology to captivate you the way it has captivated me, I have tried to make the book interesting, meaningful, and thought-provoking as well as informative. I have a definite philosophy about how future teachers can best learn and apply educational psychology—a philosophy that has guided me as I have written all four editions of the book. More specifically, I believe that youcan construct a more accurate and useful understanding of the principles of educational psychology when you:

  • Truly understand the nature of learning
  • Focus on core principles of the discipline
  • Relate the principles to your own learning and behavior
  • Use the principles to understand the learning and behavior of children and adolescents
  • Consistently apply the principles to classroom practice

I have incorporated numerous features into the book that will encourage you to do all of these things. I hope that you will learn a great deal from what educational psychology has to offer, not only about the students you will be teaching but also about yourself—a human being who continues to learn and develop even as an adult. The following pages describe the features of the book.

A DEEPER, MORE APPLIED APPROACH TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

Understanding the Nature of Learning

One of the fundamental differences between this book and other introductory educational psychology texts is its greater coverage of learning. Other books have three or four chapters; this one has six—five in the book itself plus a sixth chapter on content-area learning in the Study Guide and Reader and on the accompanying Companion Website.

As I've written the book, I haven't just talked about the nature of learning; I've also applied what I know about learning to make your job as a learner much easier as you read the book. For instance, I've continually applied two principles that, in my mind, are central to effective learning. First is the principle of meaningful learning: Students learn and remember information more effectively when they relate it to what they already know. Second is the principle of elaboration: Students learn and remember information more effectively, and are also more likely to use it in new situations, when they spontaneously go beyond what they read, perhaps by drawing inferences, thinking of new examples, or speculating about possible applications. So as you read the book, you will find that I often ask you to relate new concepts to your own knowledge and experiences. In addition, many of the comments and questions in the margins will encourage you to recall ideas we've discussed in previous chapters, think of new examples, or speculate about applications.

Focusing on Core Principles

Rather than superficially explore every aspect of educational psychology, I have chosen to offer in-depth treatment of fundamental concepts and principles that have broad applicability to classroom practice. If I myself couldn't imagine how a concept or principle could possibly be of use to a teacher, I left it out. I have often highlighted key principles in the Principles/Assumptions tables that appear throughout the book. I also pull together concepts in Compare/Contrast tables and in "The Big Picture" section at the end of each chapter. Each table includes educational implications and concrete examples.

Relating Principles to Your Own Learning and Behavior

A central goal of this text is to help you discover more about yourself as a thinker and learner. If you can understand how you yourself learn, you will be in a better position to understand how your students learn and, as a result, to help them learn more effectively. Throughout the book, I've provided many exercises to help you discover important points firsthand and thereby construct a more complete, meaningful understanding of psychological principles of learning, development, motivation, and behavior. Appearing as Experiencing Firsthand features (see, for example, pages 127, 209, and 240), these exercises are in some ways similar to the "hands-on" activities that I often recommend for helping students learn in elementary and secondary classrooms. But because I often ask you to use your mind rather than your hands, you might more accurately think of them as "head-on" experiences. In addition, you will discover other features, including reflective margin notes and embedded scenarios, that will help you understand your own learning.

REAL EDUCATIONAL APPLICATIONS AMONG REAL STUDENTS

Using Principles to Understand Children and Adolescents

Just as we apply principles to an understanding of how you learn, so, too, will we use them to better understand how elementary and secondary school students learn and make sense of what they do and say in classrooms. Many of the Case Studies you will see in the book show how principles of learning, development, and motivation may be reflected in children's behaviors. Furthermore, you will continually encounter Interpreting Artifacts and Interactions features in which you will use concepts and principles you have been studying to analyze actual student artifacts (e.g., short stories, essays, problem solutions) and interviews. Additional artifacts that illustrate key ideas appear as figures throughout the book. Such illustrations provide you with the opportunity to apply your new understanding in an authentic context. Interpreting real children's work is a core assessment task of those who work with and educate children, and so you will have ongoing practice assessing students' behaviors and products.

Applying Principles to Classroom Practice

Throughout the text, I consistently apply psychological concepts and principles to classroom practice. Many of these applications appear as bulleted italicized statements within the text; others are summarized and illustrated in Into the Classroom features and Students in Inclusive Settings tables. Furthermore, you will find that the Case Studies at the end of each chapter focus on teachers and teaching; they will help you apply ideas you have encountered in the chapter and make instructional decisions based on what you have learned.

NEW AND EXPANDED CONTENT

Content Changes in the Fourth Edition

Much of the content from the third edition remains in the fourth edition. Two apparent "deletions" are not deletions at all. The content of the third edition's Chapter 9, "Learning in the Content Areas," has been updated and moved to the Study Guide and Reader. Some of the content of the third edition's Chapter 14, "Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions," has been moved to Chapter 7, where it appears in sections on "Knowledge Construction as a Social Process" and "Creating a Community of Learners"; the sections on class discussions, reciprocal teaching, cooperative learning, and peer tutoring now appear in Chapter 13. Such changes provided room to expand my coverage of two subjects—motivation and assessment—to two chapters each, as well as to increase coverage of the social aspects of learning and address additional topics of growing concern to educators.

Motivation. Research in motivation has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years, and a single chapter is no longer sufficient to address it. Chapter 11, "Motivation and Affect," includes sections on the nature of motivation, social needs, and the role of affect from the third edition, but adds two new sections: an exploration of various theoretical perspectives of motivation and a consideration of basic human needs (especially self-worth and relatedness). Chapter 12, "Cognitive Factors in Motivation," includes my previous discussions of self-efficacy self-determination, attributions, and group differences but also includes expanded discussions of goals and teacher expectations (the latter topic formerly appeared in Chapter 4) and new sections on expectancy/value theory and interest.

Assessment. The single chapter on assessment in the third edition was bursting at the seams, and it was clear that dividing the topic into two chapters was a necessary step for the fourth edition. Chapter 15 includes my earlier sections on forms of assessment and RSVP characteristics, expands the sections on diversity and the various purposes of assessment, and has new sections on standardized tests, types of test scores, high-stakes testing and accountability, and confidentiality and communication. Chapter 16 focuses on classroom assessment strategies; while it includes the third edition's sections on informal assessment, paper-pencil assessment, performance assessment, and summarizing achievement, it now includes more guidelines for constructing, administering, and scoring formal assessments (writing good paper-pencil items, developing rubrics, scoring performances analytically or holistically etc.) and has new sections on self-assessment, risk taking, and item analysis.

Social Aspects of Learning. The fourth edition puts greater emphasis on the role that social interaction plays in development, learning, and motivation. Examples of this emphasis appear in the discussions of peer relationships and social cognition in Chapter 3, group meaning making in Chapter 7, collective self-efficacy in Chapter 10, the need for relatedness in Chapter 11, social goals in Chapter 12, and technology-based discussions in Chapter 13.

Other New and Expanded Topics. In addition to the increased coverage of motivation, assessment, and social aspects of learning, the book includes many other changes to reflect new perspectives in the field; as examples, see the sections "Importance of Ongoing Assessment in Classroom Decision Making" (Chapter 1), "Determinants of Moral Behaviors" (Chapter 3), "Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School" and "World Views" (Chapter 4), "The Role of Dispositions in Higher-Level Thinking" (Chapter 8), "Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support" (Chapter 9), and "Online Research" (Chapter 13).

Supplementary Materials

Numerous supplements to the textbook are available to enhance your learning and development as a teacher. In the continuing tradition of this text's innovation in teaching educational psychology using technology and media, four new ancillaries will be available to those using this text: a new simulation on assessment, an observation video, a Student Artifact Library containing examples of student work, and a collaborative Web site between Merrill and ASCD containing a wealth of resources for learning about teaching.

Study Guide and Reader. This resource provides many support mechanisms to help you learn and study more effectively, including focus questions to consider as you read the text, a chapter glossary, application exercises to give you practice in applying concepts and principles of educational psychology to classroom settings, answers to selected margin notes, sample test questions, and several supplementary readings.

Simulations in Educational Psychology and Research (Compact Disk). A compact disk accompanies the fourth edition of the textbook. This CD contains five activities that resemble actual research studies in educational psychology: "The Pendulum Experiment" (to be used with Chapter 2), "Assessing Moral Reasoning" (to be used with Chapter 3), "Bartlett's Ghosts" (to be used with Chapter 7), "Intuitive Physics" (to be used with Chapter 7 or 8), and "Assessment in the Balance" (to be used with Chapter 8 or 16). As you use the CD, you will find yourself "participating" in activities as either learners or teachers; the CD will ask you to respond to various situations and then give you feedback about your responses. The CD will also help you connect each activity with educational practice.

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