Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice [With MylabschoolWith Current and Emerging Trends Booklet] / Edition 8

Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice [With MylabschoolWith Current and Emerging Trends Booklet] / Edition 8

by Robert E. Slavin

ISBN-10: 020556674X

ISBN-13: 9780205566747

Pub. Date: 02/20/2007

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

The Eighth Edition of this popular text from renowned educational psychologist Robert Slavin translates theory into practices that teachers can use in their classrooms with a further inquiry into the concept of intentionality and a thorough integration of standards.

This edition maintains its in


The Eighth Edition of this popular text from renowned educational psychologist Robert Slavin translates theory into practices that teachers can use in their classrooms with a further inquiry into the concept of intentionality and a thorough integration of standards.

This edition maintains its in-depth, practical coverage with a focus on the intentional teacher by presenting up-to-the-minute research that a reflective, intentional teacher can apply. An “intentional teacher,” according to Slavin, is one who constantly reflects on his or her practice and makes instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how these practices affect students. To help readers become “intentional teachers,” the author offers a set of questions to guide them and models best practices through classroom examples.

Firmly rooted in research, up-to-date theory, and classroom-tested applications, Educational Psychology prepares teachers as no other text does. It teaches them to think about how students develop and learn, to make decisions before and during instruction, and to consider what constitutes evidence that their students are learning and succeeding.

This edition includes a new focus on reflection, new cases, sections on brain research, programs for language minority students, technology, No Child Left Behind, and after school and summer school programs.   It contains new critiques of assessment and accountability strategies and a substantially updated treatment of programming for students with special needs.

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
MyLabSchool Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
8.30(w) x 10.80(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with “Chapter Summary,” “Key Terms,” and “Self-Assessment: Preparing for Licensure.”


1. Educational Psychology:  A Foundation for Teaching.


What Makes a Good Teacher?

      Knowing the Subject Matters (but So Does Teaching Skill)

      Mastering the Teaching Skills

      Can Good Teaching Be Taught?

      The Intentional Teacher

      Personal Reflection:  Adapting

What Is the Role of Research in Educational Psychology?

      The Goal of Research in Educational Psychology

      The Value of Research in Educational Psychology to the Teacher

      Teaching as Decision Making

      Theory into Practice:  Teaching as Decision Making

      Research + Common Sense = Effective Teaching

      Research on Effective Programs

      Impact of Research on Educational Practice

      Theory into Practice:  How to Be an Intelligent Consumer of Educational Psychology Research

What Research Methods Are Used in Educational Psychology?


      Correlational Studies

      Descriptive Research

      Personal Reflection:  Using Research to Inform Teaching

      Action Research

How Can I Become an Intentional Teacher?

      Teacher Certification

      Beyond Certification

      The Intentional Teacher:  Choosing a New Curriculum


2. Theories of Development.


What Are Some Views of Human Development?

      Aspects of Development

      Issues of Development

How Did Piaget View Cognitive Development?

      How Development Occurs

      Piaget's Stages of Development

      Personal Reflection:  Egocentrism in Action

How Is Piaget's Work Viewed Today?

      Criticisms and Revisions of Piaget's Theory

      Theory into Practice:  Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory

      Neo-Piagetian and Information-Processing Views of Development

How Did Vygotsky View Cognitive Development?

      How Development Occurs

      Applications of Vygotskian Theory in Teaching

      Theory into Practice:  Classroom Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory

How Did Erikson View Personal and Social Development?

      Stages of Psychosocial Development

      Implications and Criticisms of Erikson's Theory

What Are Some Theories of Moral Development?

      Piaget's Theory of Moral Development

      Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning

       Theory into Practice:  Fostering Moral Development in the Classroom

      Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory

      Personal Reflection: Developing Character
      Teaching Dilemma: Using Moral Reasoning

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Human Development to Improve Teaching and Learning


3. Development during Childhood and Adolescence.


How Do Children Develop During the Preschool Years?

Physical Development in Early Childhood

Language Acquisition

Personal Reflection: Understanding Development

Teaching Dilemma: Adapting Instruction

Theory into Practice:  Promoting Language Development in Young Children

Socioemotional Development

What Kinds of Early Childhood Education Programs Exist?

Day-Care Programs


Compensatory Preschool Programs

Early Intervention

Kindergarten Programs

Developmentally Appropriate Practice

How Do Children Develop During the Elementary Years?

Physical Development during Middle Childhood

Cognitive Abilities

Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood

Theory into Practice:  Promoting the Development of Self-Esteem

Theory into Practice:  Helping Children Develop Social Skills

How Do Children Develop During the Middle School and High School Years?

Physical Development during Adolescence

Cognitive Development

Characteristics of Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Theory Into Practice: Promoting Formal Operational Thought

Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Identity Development

Personal Reflection: Coping with Change

James Marcia's Four Identity Statuses

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem

Social Relationships

Emotional Development

Problems of Adolescence

Theory into Practice:  Providing Developmental Assets for Adolescents

The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, and Adolescent Students to Promote Teaching and Learning


4. Student Diversity.


What Is the Impact of Culture on Teaching and Learning?

How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Student Achievement?

The Role of Child-Rearing Practices

The Link between Income and Summer Learning

The Role of Schools As Middle-Class Institutions

School and Community Factors

School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Theory Into Practice: Parent Involvement

Is the Low Achievement of Children from Low-Income Groups Inevitable?

Implications for Teachers

How Do Ethnicity and Race Affect Students' School Experiences?

Racial and Ethnic Composition of the United States

Academic Achievement of Minority-Group Students

Why Have Minority-Group Students Lagged in Achievement?

Teaching Dilemma:  Meeting Resistance

Effects of School Desegregation

Personal Reflection: Being Sensitive to Race

Theory into Practice:  Teaching in a Culturally Diverse School

How Do Language Differences and Bilingual Programs Affect Student Achievement?

      Bilingual Education

Theory into Practice:  Teaching English Language Learners

What Is Multicultural Education?

      Dimensions of Multicultural Education

How Do Gender and Gender Bias Affect Students' School Experiences?

Do Males and Females Think and Learn Differently?

Sex-Role Stereotyping and Gender Bias

Theory into Practice:  Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching

How Do Students Differ in Intelligence and Learning Styles?

Definitions of Intelligence

Theory into Practice:  Multiple Intelligences

Origins of Intelligence

Theories of Learning Styles

Aptitude-Treatment Interactions

Personal Reflection: Understanding Diverse Thinkers

The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Student Diversity to Improve Teaching and Learning


5. Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning.


What Is Learning?

What Behavioral Learning Theories Have Evolved?

      Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

      Thorndike: The Law of Effect

      Skinner: Operant Conditioning

What Are Some Principles of Behavioral Learning?

      The Role of Consequences


      Theory into Practice:  Classroom Uses of Reinforcement

      Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers

      Theory into Practice:  Practical Reinforcers


      Immediacy of Consequences

      Personal Reflection:  Modifying Behavior



      Schedules of Reinforcement

      Teaching Dilemma:  Dealing with Behavior Problems


      The Role of Antecedents

How Has Social Learning Theory Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Learning?

      Bandura: Modeling and Observational Learning

      Theory into Practice:  Observational Learning

      Meichenbaum's Model of Self-Regulated Learning

      Personal Reflection:  Using Different Styles

      Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theories

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning


6. Cognitive Theories of Learning.


What Is an Information-Processing Model?

      Sensory Register

      Short-Term or Working Memory

      Long-Term Memory

      Factors That Enhance Long-Term Memory

      Other Information-Processing Models

      Research on the Brain

What Causes People to Remember or Forget?

      Forgetting and Remembering

      Theory into Practice:  Reducing Retroactive Inhibition


How Can Memory Strategies Be Taught?

      Verbal Learning

      Paired-Associate Learning

      Theory Into Practice:  Keyword Mnemonics

      Serial and Free-Recall Learning

What Makes Information Meaningful?

      Rote versus Meaningful Learning

      Schema Theory

      Teaching Dilemma:  Differing Approaches

How Do Metacognitive Skills Help Students Learn?

What Study Strategies Help Students Learn?




      Outlining and Mapping

      Outlining and Mapping

      The PQ4R Method

      Personal Reflection:  Defining “Effective”

      Theory into Practice:  Teaching the PQ4R Method

How Do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn?

      Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledge

      Organizing Information

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Cognitive Theories of Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning


7. The Effective Lesson.


      Personal Reflection:  Balancing Instruction

What Is Direct Instruction?

How Is a Direct Instruction Lesson Taught?

      State Learning Objectives

      Theory into Practice:  Planning a Lesson

      Orient Students to the Lesson

      Theory into Practice:  Communicating Objectives to Students

      Review Prerequisites

      Present New Material

      Conduct Learning Probes

      Provide Independent Practice

      Assess Performance and Provide Feedback

      Provide Distributed Practice and Review

      Teaching Dilemma:  Designing Lessons

What Does Research on Direct Instruction Methods Suggest?

      Advantages and Limitations of Direct Instruction

How Do Students Learn and Transfer Concepts?

      Concept Learning and Teaching

      Teaching for Transfer of Learning

How Are Discussions Used in Instruction?

      Subjective and Controversial Topics

      Difficult and Novel Concepts

      Affective Objectives

      Whole-Class Discussions

      Small-Group Discussions

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Direct Instruction to Improve Teaching and Learning 

8. Student-Center and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction.

What Is the Constructivist View of Learning?
       Historical Roots of Constructivism
       Top-Down Processing
       Cooperative Learning
       Discovery Learning
       Self-Regulated Learning
      Teaching Dilemma:  Developing Self-Regulating Techniques
       APA’s Learner-Centered Psychological Principles
       Constructivist Methods in the Content Areas
       Theory into Practice:  Introducing Reciprocal Teaching
Research on Constructivist Methods How Is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction?
       Cooperative Learning Methods
       Theory into Practice:  Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
Research on Cooperative Learning
       Personal Reflection:  Working Together
How Are Problem-Solving and Thinking Skills Taught?
       The Problem-Solving Process
       Obstacles to Problem Solving
       Teaching Creative Problem Solving
       Teaching Thinking Skills
       Critical Thinking
       The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Improve Teaching and Learning

9. Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs.


What Are Elements of Effective Instruction Beyond a Good Lesson?

      Carroll’s Model of School Learning and QAIT

How Are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences?

      Between-Class Ability Grouping


      Regrouping for Reading and Mathematics

      Nongraded (Cross-Age Grouping) Elementary Schools

      Within-Class Ability Grouping

What Is Mastery Learning?

      Forms of Mastery Learning

      Theory into Practice:  Applying the Principles of Mastery Learning

      Research on Mastery Learning

What Are Some Ways of Individualizing Instruction?

      Peer Tutoring

      Adult Tutoring

      Theory into Practice:  Effectively Using Tutoring Methods to Meet Individual Needs

How Is Technology Used in Education?

Technology for Instruction

Technology for Learning

      Personal Reflection:  Computers in Education

Technology for Administration

Research on Computer-Based Instruction

Cutting Edge Educational Technologies

      Teaching Dilemma:  Should Computers Be in Labs or Classrooms?

What Educational Programs Exist for Students Placed at Risk?

      Compensatory Education Programs

      No Child Left Behind

      Early Intervention Programs

      After School and Summer Programs

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs


10. Motivating Students to Learn.


What Is Motivation?

What Are Some Theories of Motivation?

      Motivation and Behavioral Learning Theory

      Motivation and Human Needs

      Motivation and Attribution Theory

      Theory into Practice:  Giving Students Motivating Feedback

      Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

      Motivation and Expectancy Theory

How Can Achievement Motivation Be Enhanced?

      Motivation and Goal Orientations

      Learned Helplessness and Attribution Training

      Theory into Practice:  Helping Students Overcome Learned Helplessness

      Teacher Expectations and Achievement

      Teaching Dilemma:  Expectations

      Anxiety and Achievement

How Can Teachers Increase Students’ Motivation to Learn?

      Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

      How Can Teachers Enhance Intrinsic Motivation?

      Teaching Dilemma:  Adapting Strategies

      Principles for Providing Extrinsic Incentives to Learn

How Can Teachers Reward Performance, Effort, and Improvement?

      Using Praise Effectively

      Teaching Students to Praise Themselves

      Using Grades As Incentives

      Incentive Systems Based on Goal Structure

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Motivation to Improve Teaching and Learning


11. Effective Learning Environments.


What Is an Effective Learning Environment?

What Is the Impact of Time on Learning?

      Using Allocated Time for Instruction

      Using Engaged Time Effectively

       Personal Reflection:  Maintaining Control

      Can Time On-Task Be Too High?

      Classroom Management in the Student-Centered Classroom

What Practices Contribute to Effective Classroom Management?

      Starting Out the Year Right

      Setting Class Rules

      Teaching Dilemma:  Rules of the Room

What Are Some Strategies for Managing Routine Misbehavior?

      The Principle of Least Intervention


      Nonverbal Cues

      Praising Behavior That Is Incompatible with Misbehavior

      Praising Other Students

      Verbal Reminders

      Repeated Reminders

      Applying Consequences

How Is Applied Behavior Analysis Used to Manage More Serious Behavior Problems?

      How Student Misbehavior Is Maintained

      Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

      Applied Behavior Analysis Programs

      Theory into Practice:  Using a Daily Report Card

      Theory into Practice:  Establishing a Group Contingency Program

      Ethics of Behavioral Methods

How Can Serious Behaviors Problems Be Prevented?

      Preventive Programs

      Identifying Causes of Misbehavior

      Enforcing Rules and Practices

      Enforcing School Attendance

      Check and Connect

      Avoiding Tracking

      Practicing Intervention

      Requesting Family Involvement

      Using Peer Mediation

      Judiciously Applying Consequences

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Effective Learning Environments to Improve Teaching and Learning


12. Learners with Exceptionalities.


Who Are Learners with Exceptionalities?

      “People-First” Language

      Types of Exceptionalities and the Numbers of Student Served

      Students with Mental Retardation

      Theory into Practice:  Teaching Adaptive Behavior Skills

      Student with Learning Disabilities

      Theory into Practice:  Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities

      Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

      Theory into Practice:  Students with ADHD:  The Role of the Teacher

      Students with Speech or Language Impairments

      Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

      Students with Sensory, Physical, and Health Impairments

      Students Who Are Gifted and Talented

What Is Special Education?

      Public Law 94-142 and IDEA

      An Array of Special Education Services

      Teaching Dilemma:  Referring a Student

      Theory into Practice:  Preparing IEPs

What Are Mainstreaming and Inclusion?

      Research on Inclusion

      Personal Reflection:  The Struggle Over Inclusion

      Adapting Instruction

      Theory into Practice:  Adapting Instruction for Students with Special Needs

      Teaching Learning Strategies and Metacognitive Awareness

      Prevention and Early Intervention

      Computers and Students with Disabilities

      Buddy Systems and Peer Tutoring

      Special-Education Teams

      Teaching Dilemma:  Finding What Works

      Social Integration of Students with Disabilities

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Learners with Exceptionalities to Improve Teaching and Learning


13. Assessing and Grading Student Learning.


What Are Instructional Objectives and How Are They Used?

      Planning Lesson Objectives

      Theory into Practice:  Planning Courses, Units, and Lessons

      Linking Objectives and Assessment

      Using Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives

      Research on Instructional Objectives

Why Is Evaluation Important?

      Evaluation As Feedback

      Evaluation As Information

      Evaluation As Incentive

How Is Student Learning Evaluated?

      Formative and Summative Evaluations

      Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Evaluations

      Matching Evaluation Strategies with Goals

How Are Tests Constructed?

      Principles of Achievement Testing

      Theory Into Practice:  Making Assessments Fair

      Using a Table of Specifications

      Writing Selected-Response Test Items

      Theory into Practice:  Writing Multiple-Choice Tests

      Writing Constructed-Response Items

      Writing and Evaluating Essay Tests

      Theory Into Practice:  Detecting Bluffing in Students’ Essays

      Writing and Evaluating Problem-Solving Items

      Theory into Practice:  Peer Evaluations

What Are Portfolio and Performance Assessments?

      Portfolio Assessment

      Theory into Practice:  Using Portfolios in the Classroom

      Performance Assessment

      How Well Do Performance Assessments Work?

      Scoring Rubrics for Performance Assessments

How Are Grades Determined?

      Establishing Grading Criteria

      Assigning Letter Grades

      Teaching Dilemma:  Establishing a Grading System

      Performance Grading

      Other Alternative Grading Systems

      Assigning Report Card Grades

      Personal Reflection:  Assigning Grades

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Assessing and Grading Student Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning


14. Standardized Tests.


What Are Standardized Tests and How Are They Used?

      Selection and Placement



      School Improvement


      Theory into Practice:  Teaching Test-Taking Skills

      Personal Reflection:  Mixed Messages

What Types of Standardized Tests Are Given?

      Aptitude Tests

      Norm-Referenced Achievement Tests

      Criterion-Referenced Achievement Tests

      Standard Setting

How Are Standardized Tests Interpreted?

      Percentile Scores

      Grade-Equivalent Scores

      Standard Scores

      Theory into Practice:  Interpreting Standardized Test Scores

What Are Some Issues Concerning Standardized and Classroom Testing?

      Test Validity

      Test Reliability

      Test Bias

      Computer Test Administration

      Teaching Dilemma:  Dealing with High-Stakes Testing

      The Intentional Teacher:  Using What You Know About Standardized Tests to Improve Teaching and Learning


15. current Issues and Emerging Trends



    The Ten “Big Effects”

    After-School and Summer School Programs: Additional Time Can Support Progress


    The “Contamination” of Accountability

    Benchmark Assessments

    Data-Driven Reform


    Effective Instruction for English Language Learners

    Non-School Solutions to Achievement Problems of Disadvantaged Children





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