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Since the passage of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA) regulating the maintenance and dissemination of educational records, educators have struggled to meet federal compliance requirements while operating in the daily realities of public schools. Such practices as determining whether a child's cumulative file could be accessed, by whom, and for what purposes suddenly became a matter of federal law. Legal compliance became more elusive in the late 1990s and in the first decade of the twenty-first century with the fracturing of the "family," the passage of other state and federal laws regulating records security, and the unique security challenges that computer technology poses to record integrity and maintenance. Until now, educators lacked a single volume resource for directly and confidently answering their questions.
In Educational Records, Daniel Robert Murphy and Mike L. Dishman provide educators with a readily accessible, jargon-free source for answers to legal questions concerning educational records. The book's question-and-answer format, as well as its analysis of court opinions and opinion letters of the United States Department of Education's Family Policy Compliance Office, provides educators with the resource they need to quickly and authoritatively address records issues.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Educational Records: Identification, Maintenance, and Disclosure 11
Chapter 3 Educational Records: Parent and Student Rights 45
Chapter 4 Internal School Disclosures without Prior Permission 73
Chapter 5 Educational Records: Directory Information 99
Chapter 6 External Disclosure without Permission 125
Chapter 7 Electronic Instruction and Records 161
Chapter 8 Educational Records: Special Education Records 181
Chapter 9 The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment 215
Chapter 10 Self-Audit 239
Index of Questions 245
About the Authors 277