Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches / Edition 4

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Overview

A clear and in-depth understanding of the varied research methods that are used in education today…

"This is a superior book with many features that make for an excellent textbook...This text does an excellent job of defining the varying types of research and settles the question of whether qualitative or quantitative is superior for educational research by including mixed research models as a preferred model in some cases...I would recommend [this text] as a "must have" for anyone involved in research and program evaluation and one that an advising office should own."
Anita L. Carter, Wayne State University

Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches, Third Edition introduces readers to the fundamental logic of empirical research and the sources of research ideas. Detailed descriptions guide students through the design and implementation of actual research studies with a balanced examination of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research.

Key Features

  • Provides detailed, step-by-step coverage of the key elements of research, including sampling techniques, ethical considerations, data collection methods, measurement, judging validity, experimental and non-experimental methods, descriptive and inferential statistics, qualitative data analysis, and report preparation.
  • Describes the essential skills of conducting and evaluating research, using strong sampling designs, writing proposals and questionnaires, understanding quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research, and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data.
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Editorial Reviews

NACADA
"This is a superior book with many features that make for an excellent textbook...This text does an excellent job of defining the varying types of research and settles the question of whether qualitative or quantitative is superior for educational research by including mixed research models as a preferred model in some cases...I would recommend [this text] as a "must have" for anyone involved in research and program evaluation and one that an advising office should own." — Anita L. Carter
NACADA - Anita L. Carter
"This is a superior book with many features that make for an excellent textbook...This text does an excellent job of defining the varying types of research and settles the question of whether qualitative or quantitative is superior for educational research by including mixed research models as a preferred model in some cases...I would recommend [this text] as a "must have" for anyone involved in research and program evaluation and one that an advising office should own."
Pam Woolner
"This is an extensive, and generally thorough, treatment of research design and method. It will prove useful to anyone reading research literature relating to education, as well as those intending to conduct research projects of whatever scale. For what is essentially a reference book, it is surprisingly readable, though at over 600 pages it is perhaps on the large side for a reading on the bus."
Chapman Frazier
"Comprehensive overview of Research Methodology."
Tom Dobbins
"This will be a great text and reference for my students."
Gina Coffee
"I require this textbook for an introductory research methods graduate course. It really meets the needs of the students, as they find it comprehensive and easy to read, understand, and navigate."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412978286
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 11/29/2010
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 621
  • Sales rank: 139,635
  • Product dimensions: 8.10 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Burke Johnson (Ph D, College of Education, University of Georgia) is a Professor in the Professional Studies Department at the University of South Alabama. He also has graduate degrees in psychology, sociology, and public administration, which give him a multidisciplinary perspective on research methodology. He has published in the Educational Researcher; Evaluation and Program Planning; Evaluation Review; Journal of Mixed Methods Research; Journal of Educational Psychology; and Quantity and Quality. He was guest editor for a special issue of Research in the Schools (http://www.msera.org/rits_131.htm) and a special issue of American Behavioral Scientist both focusing on mixed methods research. He was on the editorial board of the Educational Researcher and was an Associate Editor of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research. Burke was also coauthor of Research Methods, Design, and Analysis; Dictionary of Statistics and Methodology: A Nontechnical Guide for the Social Sciences; and Oxford Handbook of Multiple and Mixed Methods Research.

Larry Christensen (Ph D University of Southern Mississippi) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of South Alabama. Larry is the author of several successful textbooks and has published more than 60 journal articles.

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Table of Contents

Preface
PART I. INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction to Educational Research
Why Study Educational Research?
Areas of Educational Research
Examples of Educational Research
General Kinds of Research
Sources of Knowledge
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation
Objectives of Educational Research
Overview of Book
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
2. Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms
Quantitative Research Methods. Experimental and Nonexperimental Research
Qualitative Research Methods
Mixed Research Methods
Our Research Typology
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
PART II. PLANNING THE RESEARCH STUDY
3. Reviewing the Literature and Developing Research Questions
Sources of Research Ideas
Ideas That Can't Be Resolved Through Empirical Research
Review of the Literature
Conducting the Literature Search
Feasibility of the Study
Statement of the Research Problem
Statement of the Purpose of the Study
Statement of Research Questions
Formulating Hypotheses
Consumer Use of the Literature
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
4. How to Write a Research Proposal
Framework of the Research Proposal
Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
5. Research Ethics
What Are Research Ethics?
Ethical Concerns
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans
Institutional Review Board
Ethical Issues in Electronic Research
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
PART III. FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH
6. Standardized Measurement and Assessment
Defining Measurement
Scales of Measurement
Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure
Educational and Psychological Tests
Sources of Information about Tests
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
7. How to Construct a Questionnaire
What is a Questionnaire?
Principles of Questionnaire Construction
Putting it All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
8. Methods of Data Collection
Tests
Questionnaires
Interviews
Focus Groups
Observation
Secondary Data (Existing Data)
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
9. Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Terminology Used in Sampling
Random Sampling Techniques
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques
Random Selection and Random Assignment
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used
Sampling in Qualitative Research
Sampling in Mixed Research
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
10. Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Construct Validity
Research Validity (or ”trustworthiness”) in Qualitative Research
Research Validity (or “Legitimation”) in Mixed Research
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
PART IV. SELECTING A RESEARCH METHOD
11. Experimental Research
The Experiment
Experimental Research Settings
Independent Variable Manipulation
Control of Confounding Variables
Experimental Research Designs
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnote
12. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Designs
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
Single-Case Experimental Designs
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
13. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
Steps in Nonexperimental Research
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research
Simple Cases of Causal-Comparative and Correlational Research
Three Necessary Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships
Applying the Three Necessary Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research)
Interlude (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology)
Time Dimension in Research
Classifying Nonexperimental Research Methods by Research Objective
Classifying Nonexperirnental Research by Time and Research Objective
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
14. Qualitative Research
Phenomenology
Ethnography
Case Study Research
Grounded Theory
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
15. Historical Research
What Is Historical Research?
Significance of Historical Research
Historical Research Methodology
Identification of the Research Topic and Formulation of the Research Problem or Question
Data Collection or Literature Review
How to Locate Historical Information
Evaluation of Historical Sources
Data Synthesis and Report Preparation
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
16. Mixed Research
The Research Continuum
Types of Mixed Research Designs
Stages of the Mixed Research Process
Limitations of Mixed Research
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
PART V. ANALYZING THE DATA
17. Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Frequency Distributions
Graphic Representations of Data
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Measures of Relative Standing
Examining Relationships among Variables
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
18. Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions
Estimation
Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis Testing in Practice
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnotes
19. Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
Interim Analysis
Memoing
Analysis of Visual Data
Data Entry and Storage
Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems
Enumeration
Creating Hierarchical Category Systems
Identifying Relationships Among Categories
Corroborating and Validating Results
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis
Data Analysis in Mixed Research
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Endnote
PART V1. WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT
20. Preparation of the Research Report
General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report
Writing Quantitative Research Reports Using the APA Style
Writing Qualitative Research Reports
Writing Mixed Research Reports
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Glossary
References
Index
About the Authors

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