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Each Chapter begins with an "Introduction" and ends with a "Summary," "Study Questions," "Exercise(s)," and "Key Concepts and Terms."
1. Introduction to Educational Research.
Why Study Educational Research?
Areas of Educational Research.
Examples of Educational Research.
Basic and Applied Research.
Sources of Knowledge.
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation.
Quantitative and Qualitative Research.
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research.
Qualitative Research Methods: Ethnography and Historical Research.
II. PLANNING THE RESEARCH STUDY.
2. Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation.
Sources of Research Ideas.
Review of the Literature.
Literature Search and the Internet.
Feasibility of the Study.
Statement of the Research Problem.
The Research Plan.
Consumer Use of the Literature.
3. Research Ethics.
What Are Research Ethics?
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans.
Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants.
Freedom to Withdraw.
Protection from Mental and Physical Harm.
Institutional Review Board.
III. FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH.
4. Standardized Measurement and Assessment.
Scales of Measurement.
AssumptionsUnderlying Testing and Measurement.
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure.
Educational and Psychological Tests.
Sources of Information about Tests.
5. Methods of Data Collection.
Terminology Used in Sampling.
Random Sampling Techniques.
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques.
Random Selection and Random Assignment.
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used.
Sampling in Qualitative Research.
7. Validity of Research.
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research.
Research Validity in Qualitative Research.
IV. SELECTING A RESEARCH METHOD.
8. Experimental Research.
Independent Variable Manipulation.
Control of Confounding Variables.
Experimental Research Designs.
9. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Designs.
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs.
Single-Case Experimental Designs.
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs.
Group Comparison or Single-Case Designs.
10. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research.
Steps in Nonexperimental Research.
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research.
Causal-Comparative and Correlational Research.
Three Necessary Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships.
Applying the Three Necessary Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research.
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research.
Time Dimension in Research.
Classifying Nonexperimental Research Methods by Research Objective.
11. Qualitative Research.
Case Study Research.
12. Historical Research.
What Is Historical Research.
Significance of Historical Research.
Historical Research Methodology.
Identification of the Research Topic and Formulation of the Research Problem or Question.
How to Locate Historical Information.
Evaluation of Historical Sources.
Data Synthesis and Report Preparation.
V. ANALYZING THE DATA.
13. Descriptive Statistics.
Graphic Representations of Data.
Measures of Central Tendency.
Measures of Variability.
Measures of Relative Standing.
Examining Relationships among Variables.
14. Inferential Statistics.
Hypothesis Testing in Practice.
15. Data Analysis in Qualitative Research.
Data Entry and Storage.
Coding and Developing Category Systems.
Creating Hierarchical Category Systems.
Showing Relationships among Categories.
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis.
VI. WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT.
16. Preparation of the Research Report.
General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report.
Writing Quantitative Research Reports Using the APA Style.
Writing Qualitative Research Reports.
Appendix A: Quantitative Research Article.
Appendix B: Qualitative Research Article.
Appendix C: Correlations of Different Strengths and Directions.