Educational Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches / Edition 1

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This book helps readers acquire the knowledge they need to conduct educational research and evaluate published research. Educational Research introduces readers to the fundamental logic of empirical research and explores the sources of research ideas. Detailed descriptions guide students through the design and implementation of actual research studies. One of the strongest features of this book is its focus on both quantitative and qualitative research. While quantitative research strategies are covered extensively, various qualitative approaches such as ethnography, historical methods, phenomenology, grounded theory, and case studies are also discussed. The authors show how to prepare a proposal for submission to an Institutional Review Board and present detailed coverage of the key elements of research, including sampling techniques, ethical considerations, data collection methods, measurement, judging validity, experimental and nonexperimental methods, descriptive and inferential statistics, qualitative data analysis, and report preparation. For anyone interested in research methods used in educational psychology, education, and counseling practices.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205266593
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 10/21/1999
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 517
  • Product dimensions: 7.84 (w) x 9.58 (h) x 0.99 (d)

Table of Contents

Each Chapter begins with an "Introduction" and ends with a "Summary," "Study Questions," "Exercise(s)," and "Key Concepts and Terms."


1. Introduction to Educational Research.
Why Study Educational Research?
Areas of Educational Research.
Examples of Educational Research.
Basic and Applied Research.
Action Research.
Evaluation Research.
Sources of Knowledge.
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation.
Quantitative and Qualitative Research.
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research.
Qualitative Research Methods: Ethnography and Historical Research.
Multimethod Research.


2. Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation.
Sources of Research Ideas.
Review of the Literature.
Literature Search and the Internet.
Feasibility of the Study.
Statement of the Research Problem.
Formulating Hypotheses.
The Research Plan.
Consumer Use of the Literature.

3. Research Ethics.
What Are Research Ethics?
Ethical Concerns.
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans.
Informed Consent.
Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants.
Additional Consent.
Freedom to Withdraw.
Protection from Mental and Physical Harm.
Institutional Review Board.


4. Standardized Measurement and Assessment.
Scales of Measurement.
AssumptionsUnderlying Testing and Measurement.
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure.
Educational and Psychological Tests.
Sources of Information about Tests.

5. Methods of Data Collection.
Focus Groups.
Secondary Data.

6. Sampling.
Terminology Used in Sampling.
Random Sampling Techniques.
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques.
Random Selection and Random Assignment.
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used.
Sampling in Qualitative Research.

7. Validity of Research.
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research.
Internal Validity.
External Validity.
Construct Representation.
Research Validity in Qualitative Research.


8. Experimental Research.
The Experiment.
Independent Variable Manipulation.
Control of Confounding Variables.
Experimental Research Designs.

9. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Designs.
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs.
Single-Case Experimental Designs.
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs.
Group Comparison or Single-Case Designs.

10. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research.
Steps in Nonexperimental Research.
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research.
Causal-Comparative and Correlational Research.
Three Necessary Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships.
Applying the Three Necessary Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research.
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research.
Time Dimension in Research.
Classifying Nonexperimental Research Methods by Research Objective.

11. Qualitative Research.
Case Study Research.
Grounded Theory.

12. Historical Research.
What Is Historical Research.
Significance of Historical Research.
Historical Research Methodology.
Identification of the Research Topic and Formulation of the Research Problem or Question.
How to Locate Historical Information.
Evaluation of Historical Sources.
Data Synthesis and Report Preparation.


13. Descriptive Statistics.
Descriptive Statistics.
Frequency Distributions.
Graphic Representations of Data.
Measures of Central Tendency.
Measures of Variability.
Measures of Relative Standing.
Examining Relationships among Variables.

14. Inferential Statistics.
Sampling Distributions.
Hypothesis Testing.
Hypothesis Testing in Practice.

15. Data Analysis in Qualitative Research.
Interim Analysis.
Data Entry and Storage.
Coding and Developing Category Systems.
Creating Hierarchical Category Systems.
Showing Relationships among Categories.
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis.


16. Preparation of the Research Report.
General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report.
Writing Quantitative Research Reports Using the APA Style.
Writing Qualitative Research Reports.

Appendix A: Quantitative Research Article.

Appendix B: Qualitative Research Article.

Appendix C: Correlations of Different Strengths and Directions.



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