The literature on formative assessment shows great potential for significant improvements in student achievement. However, little is known about combining formative-assessment strategies, based in large part on short-cycle and medium-cycle assessments, with continuous quality improvement concepts to improve student achievement in mathematics at the middle school level. This study examined the first-year effect of a continuous quality formative-assessment (CQFA) program on eighth-grade students' high-stakes test scores in one urban New Jersey middle school. Test score data analysis revealed that the CQFA program significantly improved the performance of eighth-grade students, with an effect size of 1.00, and that improvements occurred in all demographic groups studied and in all math content areas. Based on these results, the researcher recommends that schools searching for ways to increase mathematics achievement adopt a CQFA program. It was also recommended that future research be conducted regarding the short-term and long-term impacts of CQFA programs on mathematics achievement at the elementary, middle, and high school levels.