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Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798

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Overview

Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798 presents a panoramic view of Ottoman Egypt from the overthrow of the Mamluk Sultanate to Bonaparte's invasion and the beginning of Egypt's modern period. Drawing on archive material, chronicles, and travel accounts

from Turkish, Arabic, Hebrew and European sources, and incorporating current research, this comprehensive social history looks at the dynamics of the Egyptian-Ottoman relationship and the ethic and cultural clashes which characterized the period.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415024037
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 10/22/1992
  • Pages: 336
  • Age range: 18 years
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.50 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
List of Abbreviations
Introduction
1 Historical Background 1
The Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) 1
The Ottoman Occupation 7
Mamluk Revolts and the Consolidation of Ottoman Rule in Egypt 14
An Outline of the Political History of Ottoman Egypt 18
2 The Vicissitudes of the Ruling Class 29
Egyptian Attitudes toward the Ottomans - General Observations 29
The Pasha 32
The Egyptian Army in the Sixteenth Century 37
The Seventeenth Century 49
Toward the Ascendancy of the Mamluk Beys in the Eighteenth Century 58
Mamluk Society in the Eighteenth Century 65
3 The Bedouin Arabs and the State 76
Introduction 78
The Arabs' Role in Egyptian Political Events, 1516-24 79
The Official View of the Arab Shaykhs in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century 90
The Seventeenth Century 102
The Eighteenth Century - The Zenith of Arab Power 104
4 The Ulama 109
Between the Rulers and the Ruled 109
Ulama as Judges 111
The Madhhabs 113
Education and Learning of the Ulama 114
The Economic Conditions of the Ulama 115
Ethnic Divisions 117
The Growth of al-Azhar during the Ottoman Period 118
The Structure of al-Azhar 119
The Office of Shaykh al-Azhar 120
Al-Azhar in Public Life 123
5 The Sufis 128
Orthodoxy and Sufism - General Remarks 128
The Impact of the Ottoman Conquest on Egyptian Sufism 129
The Turuq (The Sufi Orders) 131
The Principal Sufi Orders 133
Shaykh-al-Bakri 142
Al-Sadat-al-Wafa'iyya 144
The Sufi Shaykh 146
The Organization of the Tariqa 150
Social Aspects of the Turuq 152
Ethnic Divisions in Sufi Society 156
Variations of Sufi-Ulama Relationships 160
The Sufis and the Rulers 164
6 Popular Religion 167
A Methodological Note 167
Saints (Awliya') and Malamatis 168
The Mawlids (Saints' Days) 175
7 The Ashraf and Naqib al-Ashraf: The Prophet's Descendants and their Chief 185
The Ashraf 185
Naqib al-Ashraf 192
8 The Dhimmis: Jews and Christians 199
The Ottoman Conquest and the Dhimmis 199
The Jews as Sarrafs 203
Customs Officials and Merchants 205
The Policy of the Pashas toward the Jews 208
Jizya or Jawali - The Poll Tax 210
Sartorial Laws and Outward Appearance 212
Bathhouses (Hammams) 213
Slaves in Possession of Dhimmis 214
The Jewish and the Christian Quarters 216
The Jewish Cemetery 217
The Jewish Community of Alexandria 218
Christians and Jews 220
Religious Attitudes toward the Dhimmis 222
9 Life in Ottoman Cairo 225
Demography and Urban Growth 225
Ethnic Communities in Ottoman Cairo 227
Security, Crime and Justice 228
Public Health 234
Transportation 238
Charity 240
Public Celebrations 241
Recreation and Entertainment 243
The Social and Economic Stratification of the Population of Cairo 244
The Guilds 247
The Artisans and the Merchants' Relations with the Army 250
Conclusion 253
Notes 255
Bibliography 297
Index 306
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