EIGRP for IP: Basic Operation and Configuration [NOOK Book]

Overview

The Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) from Cisco Systems is one of the most widely used intra-domain routing protocols in todayis corporate networks. Although EIGRP is easily configured, the inner workings are generally not well understood. The result: nonoptimized networks that lead to chronic and costly problems requiring time and energy to solve.

EIGRP for IP is a concise, complete, and practical guide to understanding and working with EIGRP. It focuses on EIGRP in ...

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EIGRP for IP: Basic Operation and Configuration

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Overview

The Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) from Cisco Systems is one of the most widely used intra-domain routing protocols in todayis corporate networks. Although EIGRP is easily configured, the inner workings are generally not well understood. The result: nonoptimized networks that lead to chronic and costly problems requiring time and energy to solve.

EIGRP for IP is a concise, complete, and practical guide to understanding and working with EIGRP. It focuses on EIGRP in the context of IP, although the principles learned from this guide can be applied to the other major network protocols that EIGRP supports, including IPX and AppleTalk.

The book provides an overview of essential concepts, terminology, and EIGRP mechanisms, in addition to a look at the most important configuration options. It examines network design with regard to EIGRPis capabilities, offering concrete tips for specific design issues that arise in EIGRP networks. Also featured is an experience-based guide to EIGRP troubleshooting, with solutions to many commonly encountered problems.

Specific topics covered include:

  • The foundations of EIGRP, including the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
  • A comparison of EIGRP to other interior gateway routing protocols
  • Configuring summarization
  • Standard and extended access distribution lists
  • Hierarchy and redundancy in network topology
  • Path selection
  • Multiple EIGRP autonomous systems
  • Isolating misbehaving routers
  • Solving problems with neighbor relationships
  • Stuck in Active (SIA) routes

Serving as both a complete reference and a practical handbook, EIGRP for IP is an essential resource for network professionals charged with maintaining an efficient, smoothly functioning network.


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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321618559
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 6/14/2000
  • Series: Addison-Wesley Networking Basics Series
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • File size: 1,023 KB

Meet the Author

Alvaro Retana, a Technical Leader in Cisco Systems' Core IP Engineering Department, has first-hand expertise in the development and testing of routing protocols such as IS-IS, OSPF, RIP, EIGRP, and BGP4. Alvaro is CCIE #1609, and serves as an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Duke University.

Russ White, a Routing Protocols Deployment Engineer at Cisco Systems, is a frequent Networkers speaker on routing protocols and router architecture, and the coauthor of several IETF requests for comments (RFCs). He is well known within and outside Cisco for his routing protocols expertise. Russ is CCIE #2635, and one of the reviewers and question writers for the CCIE written exam.

Don Slice is a Technical Lead on the IOS Network Protocols Deployment and Scalability Team at Cisco Systems, and is an acknowledged expert in EIGRP and other interior routing protocols.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Cisco Systems designed EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) to support the Internet Protocol (IP), Novell's IPX, and Apple's AppleTalk protocols. EIGRP is used in networks of all sizes, including many large corporate networks, across the world. Routers direct traffic—user data in the form of packets—through the network toward its destination. Routing protocols provide the road signs for the routers to use to decide where to forward the traffic to next on the path to the destination.

EIGRP is designed to provide routing knowledge within a single domain—or between routers controlled and maintained by the same group of people. A domain is usually understood as containing all the routers owned and operated by a single administration, such as a company or a department.

Although EIGRP can provide routing information for various protocols, we have limited the scope of this book to just IP. The primary reason for this decision is to maintain focus and clarity. Most of the theory and the design principles you learn here can be applied to networks using EIGRP to route protocols other than IP.

This book has been designed to provide a quick but complete description of EIGRP and its use. Throughout our experience, working firsthand on the design and troubleshooting of EIGRP networks, we have found that the protocol is typically not well understood or documented. Although EIGRP is very easy to configure, the lack of educational resources explaining how EIGRP functions has led to nonoptimized networks and has caused issues to chronically pop up in many of them. Our intent is to partiallyfill the documentation gap with this guide while also providing design and troubleshooting guidelines to the most common scenarios and problems. The intended audience includes people with some networking experience and at least a basic understanding of routing protocols.

Chapter 1 begins with EIGRP theory, explaining the basic concepts, terminology, and mechanisms EIGRP uses to provide routing information. Chapter 2 takes a brief look at the most important configuration options with EIGRP. Chapter 3 considers network design principles within the framework of EIGRP's capabilities and includes tips on basic network architecture and specific studies on situations you may find in an EIGRP network. Finally, Chapter 4 provides information on troubleshooting various conditions you may find within a network running EIGRP. Problems ranging from errors building neighbor relationships to troubleshooting Stuck in Active (SIA) routes are covered in this chapter.

In this book, key terms appear in boldface type the first time they are used. These terms are defined in the glossary at the end of the book, following Chapter 4.



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Table of Contents

Preface.


1. EIGRP Fundamentals.


Distance Vector and Link State Protocols.


Distance Vector Protocols.


Link State Protocols.


EIGRP Compared to Other Protocols.


EIGRP: The Basics.


Neighbor Relationships.


Reliable Multicast.


Limiting Bandwidth Consumption.


EIGRP's Foundation: DUAL.


The Metric.


A More Practical Example.


Split Horizon and Queries.


Queries with No Feasible Successor.


Where Does the Query End?


Deciding Where to Use EIGRP.



2. EIGRP Configuration.


Starting and Running EIGRP.


The network Command.


The Autonomous System (AS) Number.


Redistribution.


Externals and Internals.


Caveats.


Configuring Summarization.


Autosummarization.


Manual Summarization.


Distribution Lists.


Standard Access Lists as Distribution Lists.


Extended Access Lists as Distribution Lists.


Hello and Hold Timers.


Logging Neighbor Status.


Passive Interface.


Stub Neighbors.



3. EIGRP Network Design.


Network Topology.


Hierarchy.


Redundancy.


Minimizing Query Range.


Summarization.


Route Filtering.


Stub Routers.


Multiple Autonomous Systems.


Multiple Routing Protocols.


Path Selection Issues.


Changing the Metric Components on an Interface.


Offset Lists.


Changing K Values.


Variance.


Asymmetric Routing.


Default Routing Strategy.


WAN and Dial Issues.


Frame Relay and Bandwidth Statements.


Point-to-Point Subinterfaces.


Multipoint Interfaces and Subinterfaces.


Dual-Homed Remotes.


Low-Speed NBMA Links and SIAs.


NBMA and Split Horizon.


Frame-Relay Broadcast Queue.


Dial Backup Strategies.


Redistribution Issues.


General Issues.


Forms of Redistribution.


Administrative Distance.


Source of Redistributed Routes.


Other Design Considerations.



4. EIGRP Troubleshooting.


Problems with Neighbor Relationships.


One-Way Communication between Two Routers.


Unicast-Only between Two Routers.


Multicast-Only between Two Routers.


Overburdened or Dirty Link.


Stuck in Active Routes.


Why Did the Route Go Active?


Why Did the Route Stay Active So Long?


Duplicate Router Ids.


Failure to Converge.


Simplifying the Network.


Isolate Misbehaving Routers.


Diagnose the Event.



Glossary.


Recommended Reading.


Index

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Preface

Cisco Systems designed EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) to support the Internet Protocol (IP), Novell's IPX, and Apple's AppleTalk protocols. EIGRP is used in networks of all sizes, including many large corporate networks, across the world. Routers direct traffic--user data in the form of packets--through the network toward its destination. Routing protocols provide the road signs for the routers to use to decide where to forward the traffic to next on the path to the destination.

EIGRP is designed to provide routing knowledge within a single domain--or between routers controlled and maintained by the same group of people. A domain is usually understood as containing all the routers owned and operated by a single administration, such as a company or a department. Although EIGRP can provide routing information for various protocols, we have limited the scope of this book to just IP. The primary reason for this decision is to maintain focus and clarity. Most of the theory and the design principles you learn here can be applied to networks using EIGRP to route protocols other than IP.

This book has been designed to provide a quick but complete description of EIGRP and its use. Throughout our experience, working firsthand on the design and troubleshooting of EIGRP networks, we have found that the protocol is typically not well understood or documented. Although EIGRP is very easy to configure, the lack of educational resources explaining how EIGRP functions has led to nonoptimized networks and has caused issues to chronically pop up in many of them. Our intent is to partially fill the documentation gap with this guide while also providing design andtroubleshooting guidelines to the most common scenarios and problems. The intended audience includes people with some networking experience and at least a basic understanding of routing protocols.

Chapter 1 begins with EIGRP theory, explaining the basic concepts, terminology, and mechanisms EIGRP uses to provide routing information. Chapter 2 takes a brief look at the most important configuration options with EIGRP. Chapter 3 considers network design principles within the framework of EIGRP's capabilities and includes tips on basic network architecture and specific studies on situations you may find in an EIGRP network. Finally, Chapter 4 provides information on troubleshooting various conditions you may find within a network running EIGRP. Problems ranging from errors building neighbor relationships to troubleshooting Stuck in Active (SIA) routes are covered in this chapter.

In this book, key terms appear in boldface type the first time they are used. These terms are defined in the glossary at the end of the book, following Chapter 4.

Read More Show Less

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