Einstein and Religion: Physics and Theology

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Overview

"No other work offers as broad an account of Einstein's views on the relationship between science and religion or brings together all of the different facets of the topic in one short, easily accessible account. Einstein and Religion also offers a badly needed critique of some of the many misinterpretations and misuses of Einstein's views. Professor Jammer is a noted scholar, science historian, and philosopher with the credentials to write authoritatively on this subject."—David Cassidy, author of Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg

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Editorial Reviews

San Diego Union-Tribune
Jammer . . . shed[s] light on Einstein's often ambiguous views of religion, beginning with his early religious training and following his evolution to the idea of an impersonal God. [He] takes pains to clarify widespread misinterpretations of Einstein's spiritual views. . . .
— Leigh Fenly
American Scientist - George L. Murphy
A valuable resource.
Christian Century - Greg Peterson
Jammer is an excellent guide to the religious impact of Einstein's life and thought.
The Jerusalem Post - Meir Ronnen
A superb three-part survey that deals with the role of religion in Einstein's personal life; his philosophy of religion; and finally the effect of his physics on theology, the most brilliantly entertaining section of Jammer's book.
The Washington Times - John F. Haught
Max Jammer illuminates Einstein's enigmatic relationship to religion with a clarity and detail that no previous study can equal. . . . Mr. Jammer's readable study should long remain an indispensable reference. . . .
San Diego Union-Tribune - Leigh Fenly
Jammer . . . shed[s] light on Einstein's often ambiguous views of religion, beginning with his early religious training and following his evolution to the idea of an impersonal God. [He] takes pains to clarify widespread misinterpretations of Einstein's spiritual views. . . .
Physics World - Andrew Pinsent
I can strongly recommend this beautifully written and accessible book.
Philosophy of Science - Gerald Holton
One emerges from this scholarly and readable book with a new appreciation of the uniqueness of Einstein's spirit.
Encounter - Rufus Burrow
Max Jammer's is the first systematic historical account of Albert Einstein's religious views. . . . In the writing of this thoroughly researched and instructive book, Max Jammer has done the theological and scientific community a great service. Furthermore, he has made a significant contribution to the ongoing dialogue between science and religion.
From the Publisher
Co-Winner of the 2000 Outstanding Book Prize, Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences

"It is surprising that so little scholarly attention has been paid to [Einstein's] religious views. . . . This is a compelling, long overdue treatment of a neglected topic."—Publishers Weekly

"A valuable resource."—George L. Murphy, American Scientist

"Jammer's fascinating and scholarly account of Einstein's personal attitude toward religion explores the emergence of his 'cosmic religion'. . ."—Choice

"Jammer is an excellent guide to the religious impact of Einstein's life and thought."—Greg Peterson, Christian Century

"A superb three-part survey that deals with the role of religion in Einstein's personal life; his philosophy of religion; and finally the effect of his physics on theology, the most brilliantly entertaining section of Jammer's book."—Meir Ronnen, The Jerusalem Post

"Max Jammer illuminates Einstein's enigmatic relationship to religion with a clarity and detail that no previous study can equal. . . . Mr. Jammer's readable study should long remain an indispensable reference. . . ."—John F. Haught, The Washington Times

"Jammer . . . shed[s] light on Einstein's often ambiguous views of religion, beginning with his early religious training and following his evolution to the idea of an impersonal God. [He] takes pains to clarify widespread misinterpretations of Einstein's spiritual views. . . ."—Leigh Fenly, San Diego Union-Tribune

"I can strongly recommend this beautifully written and accessible book."—Andrew Pinsent, Physics World

"One emerges from this scholarly and readable book with a new appreciation of the uniqueness of Einstein's spirit."—Gerald Holton, Philosophy of Science
"Max Jammer's is the first systematic historical account of Albert Einstein's religious views. . . . In the writing of this thoroughly researched and instructive book, Max Jammer has done the theological and scientific community a great service. Furthermore, he has made a significant contribution to the ongoing dialogue between science and religion."—Rufus Burrow, Jr., Encounter

American Scientist
A valuable resource.
— George L. Murphy
Choice
Jammer's fascinating and scholarly account of Einstein's personal attitude toward religion explores the emergence of his 'cosmic religion'. . .
Christian Century
Jammer is an excellent guide to the religious impact of Einstein's life and thought.
— Greg Peterson
Physics World
I can strongly recommend this beautifully written and accessible book.
— Andrew Pinsent
Philosophy of Science
One emerges from this scholarly and readable book with a new appreciation of the uniqueness of Einstein's spirit.
— Gerald Holton
Encounter
Max Jammer's is the first systematic historical account of Albert Einstein's religious views. . . . In the writing of this thoroughly researched and instructive book, Max Jammer has done the theological and scientific community a great service. Furthermore, he has made a significant contribution to the ongoing dialogue between science and religion.
— Rufus Burrow, Jr.
The Jerusalem Post
A superb three-part survey that deals with the role of religion in Einstein's personal life; his philosophy of religion; and finally the effect of his physics on theology, the most brilliantly entertaining section of Jammer's book.
— Meir Ronnen
The Washington Times
Max Jammer illuminates Einstein's enigmatic relationship to religion with a clarity and detail that no previous study can equal. . . . Mr. Jammer's readable study should long remain an indispensable reference. . . .
— John F. Haught
John F. Haught
Even beyond the world of physics Albert Einstein's ideas and opinions command our attention, simply by virtue of the powerful mind that generated them. And so it is more than idle curiosity to want to know what he thought about issues of great importance to his fellow humans. Not least among these, of course, is the question of God. Was Einstein really an atheist, or did he believe in God? What kind of God? Was he perhaps a mystic? If the world is grounded in a transcending "intelligence," as Einstein thought, how does this make him different from a classical theist? Einstein's theological pronouncements have probably generated as much commentary as his skeptical appraisal of quantum indeterminacy. But Max Jammer, a professor of physics emeritus at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, illuminates Einstein's enigmatic relationship to religion with a clarity and detail that no previous study can equal.
Washington Times
George L. Murphy
Albert Einstein's use of religious language is well known: God "does not play dice," and "The Lord is subtle, but he is not malicious." Such references to the divine by one of the greatest of physicists seem important for today's flourishing dialogue between science and religion. But what did Einstein really mean when he spoke of "God" or "the Lord"? How important was his Jewish heritage for him? Did his religious beliefs influence his science, and how significant has his work been for modem theology? In the present work Max jammer, the author of several major books on the history and philosophy of science, examines those questions with care. Detailed references and quotations from Einstein's publications and material in the Einstein Archive in Jerusalem help to make this a valuable resource.
American Scientist
Astronomy
Nobody disputes that Albert Einstein was a genius, and the public perceives him to be nearly omnipotent in the field of physics. Because he had such impressive intellectual abilities that could reveal secrets of the universe, many people have been interested in learning about Einstein's personal views of religion. Einstein and Religion attempts to shed light on Einstein's beliefs in an unbiased manner. The book is divided into three chapters, one on the role of religion in his private life, one on his philosophy of religion, and one on how his physics combines with theology. Physicist Max Jammer spends a good deal of time analyzing the famous Einsteinian quote, "Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind." For ardent fans of Einstein, this work provides a fascinating look into Einstein's private thoughts.
Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
Given the voluminous literature on Albert Einstein (including more than a dozen biographies in the 1990s alone), it is surprising that so little scholarly attention has been paid to the scientist's religious views. Israeli physics professor Jammer, who knew Einstein personally, shows us an Einstein whose nominal childhood faith turned to atheism while preparing for a bar mitzvah that never took place. From then on, Einstein's religious views were a bundle of apparent contradictions: he corresponded with the world's great spiritual leaders yet disapproved of religious instruction for his sons, arguing that it was "contrary to all scientific thinking." He claimed that "science without religion is lame" but never set foot in a synagogue and requested not to be buried in the Jewish tradition. While eluding definitive conclusions about Einstein's deistic "cosmic religion," Jammer demonstrates that religion fascinated the man throughout his career, prompting him to publish articles in the New York Times and elsewhere. Chapters 1 and 2 profile Einstein's religious development and the controversial reception his ideas found with theologians, rabbis and Christian clergy. The more recondite chapter 3 explores the theological implications of Einstein's theories (Jammer does not exaggerate when he cautions the reader that this section "requires some familiarity with the foundations of modern physics"). Jammer's writing is not always as sophisticated as his ideas; he relies too heavily on long quotations from other sources and abstruse jargon. In all, though, this is a compelling, long overdue treatment of a neglected topic. (Oct.) Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.
Meir Ronnen
In an ingenious presentation, Jammer demonstrates how the theory of special relativity and the Lorentz transformations Einstein used in his 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies are used as space-time coordinates in a concept in which eternity is represented as point, not an endless line, a point without spatial (or temporal) extension. Thanks to the relativity of simultaniety, temporally different events in the system are simultaneous with this eternity point without being simultaneous among themselves.
The Jerusalem Post
Astronomy
Nobody disputes that Albert Einstein was a genius, and the public perceives him to be nearly omnipotent in the field of physics. Because he had such impressive intellectual abilities that could reveal secrets of the universe, many people have been interested in learning about Einstein's personal views of religion. Einstein and Religion attempts to shed light on Einstein's beliefs in an unbiased manner. The book is divided into three chapters, one on the role of religion in his private life, one on his philosophy of religion, and one on how his physics combines with theology. Physicist Max Jammer spends a good deal of time analyzing the famous Einsteinian quote, "Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind." For ardent fans of Einstein, this work provides a fascinating look into Einstein's private thoughts.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780691102979
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 10/7/2002
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 272
  • Sales rank: 794,832
  • Product dimensions: 5.98 (w) x 8.66 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Read an Excerpt




Chapter One


    In his autobiography, Einstein wrote that "the essential in the being of a man of my type lies precisely in what he thinks and how he thinks, not in what he does or suffers." Had we strictly complied with this statement, we would have had to restrict our discussion on Einstein's thought about religion and the arguments on which he based his religious belief. But because a religious credo is usually conditioned, partially at least, by the milieu in which one grows up, by the education one receives, and by the literature one has read, we shall begin with an account of these factors insofar as they are relevant to Einstein's religious outlook.

    Official records and Jewish family registers reveal that, since at least 1750, Einstein's paternal and maternal ancestors had lived in southern Germany, mainly in Buchau, a small town not far from Ulm. Albert's great-grandfather was born there in 1759, his grandfather Abraham in 1808, and his father Hermann in 1847. The fact that Albert, born in Ulm on March 14, 1879, was, contrary to Jewish tradition, not given the name of his grandfather, shows that his parents were not dogmatic in matters of religion. Although they never renounced their Jewish heritage, they did not observe traditional rites or dietary laws and never attended religious service at the synagogue. Hermann Einstein regarded Jewish rituals as relics of an ancient superstition and "was proud that Jewish rites were not practiced in his home," as Albert's son-in-law Rudolf Kayser wrote in his biography of Einstein, which he published under the pseudonym AntonReiser.

    In June 1880, Hermann Einstein with his wife Pauline, née Koch, and the infant Albert moved from Ulm to Munich, the capital of Bavaria. Five months later, Maja, Albert's only sibling, was born. When Albert, at age six, entered the Petersschule, a Catholic public primary school (Volksschule), he received religious instruction, which at that time was compulsory in Bavaria. Although his parents were not observant, they hired a distant relative, whose name is not known, to teach Albert the principles of Judaism, obviously to counterpoise the Catholic instruction at school. According to Maja's recollection, it was this relative who awakened in the young Albert a fervent religious sentiment.


He heard about divine will and works pleasing to God, about a way of life pleasing to God—without these teachings having been integrated into a specific dogma. Nevertheless, he was so fervent in his religious feelings that, on his own, he observed religious prescriptions in every detail. For example, he ate no pork. This he did for reasons of conscience, not because his family has set such an example. He remained true to his self-chosen way of life for years. Later religious feeling gave way to philosophical thought, but absolutely strict loyalty to conscience remained a guiding principle.


    A somewhat different explanation of young Albert's religious enthusiasm has been given by Alexander Moszkowski, who wrote the first biography of Einstein in 1920. Based on personal conversations with Einstein, Moszkowski declared,


His father, who had a sunny, optimistic temperament, and was inclined toward a somewhat aimless existence, at this time moved the seat of the family from Ulm to Munich. They here lived in a modest house in an idyllic situation and surrounded by a garden. The pure joy of Nature entered into the heart of the boy, a feeling that is usually foreign to the youthful inhabitants of cities of dead stone. Nature whispered song to him, and at the coming of the spring-tide infused his being with joy, to which he resigned himself in happy contemplation. A religious undercurrent of feeling made itself manifest in him, and it was strengthened by the elementary stimulus of the scented air, of buds and bushes, to which was added the educational influence of home and school. This was not because ritualistic habits reigned in the family. But it so happened that he learned simultaneously the teachings of the Jewish as well as the Catholic Church; and he had extracted from them that which was common and conducive to a strengthening of faith, and not what conflicted.


    In contrast to Maja's report that the private tutor stimulated in Albert religious feelings, Moszkowski claimed that the beauty and splendor of nature opened the gate of the "religious paradise," as Einstein once called this phase of his youth. Moszkowski pointed out that yet another factor played an important role in Albert's religious feeling, and that was music. Ever since he took violin lessons at age six, Einstein found music intimately related with religious sentiments.


Signs of his love for music showed themselves very early. He thought out little songs in praise of God, and used to sing them to himself in the pious seclusion that he preserved even with respect to his parents. Music, Nature, and God became intermingled in him in a complex of feeling, a moral unity, the trace of which never vanished, although later the religious factor became extended to a general ethical outlook on the world. At first he clung to a faith free from all doubt, as had been infused into him by the private Jewish instruction at home and the Catholic instruction at school. He read the Bible without feeling the need of examining it critically; he accepted it as a simple moral teaching and found himself little inclined to confirm it by rational arguments as his reading extended very little beyond its circle.


    That "Music, Nature, and God became intermingled in him in a complex of feeling" may well serve as a leitmotiv in this study of Einstein's religiosity. His conception of the relation between Nature and God will engage our attention throughout the discussions. The following episode illustrates how music and God were related in Einstein's mind. On April 12, 1930, the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Bruno Walter, gave a concert in Berlin. The program was Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms, and the soloist was Yehudi Menuhin. At the end of the recital, the audience burst into wild applause, and Einstein rushed over to Menuhin, embraced him, and exclaimed, "Now I know there is a God in heaven!"

    Because Moszkowki's book is essentially a report on conversations with Einstein, Einstein's own account of his early religiosity should fully agree with Moszkowski's report. Surprisingly, this is not the case. In his 1949 autobiographical notes, Einstein wrote:


when I was a fairly precocious young man, the nothingness of the hopes and strivings which chases most men restlessly through life came to my consciousness with considerable vitality. Moreover, I soon discovered the cruelty of that chase, which in those years was more carefully covered up by hypocrisy and glittering words than is the case today. By the mere existence of his stomach, everyone was condemned to participate in that chase. Moreover, it was possible to satisfy the stomach by such participation, but not man insofar as he is a thinking and feeling being. As the first way out, there was religion, which is implanted into every child by way of the traditional education machine. Thus I came—despite the fact that I was the son of entirely irreligious (Jewish) parents—to a deep religiosity.


    According to Einstein's recollection, the root of his religiosity, as we see, was neither a love of nature nor music; it was rather his realization of the vanity of human rivalry in the struggle for existence with its concomitant feeling of depression and desperation from which religion seemed to offer a relief. Such an attitude toward life can hardly have been entertained by a young boy, however. It seems, therefore, that Einstein's account is rather a projection of ideas pertaining to his mature age into his youth.

    Historical surveys of Munich's educational system and other sources provide some information about the curriculum of Einstein's religious instruction at the Petersschule as well as at the Luitpold Gymnasium, the secondary school in which he enrolled in the beginning of 1888. At the Catholic primary school, he was taught, at age seven, parts of the Small Catechism (Catechismus Romanus) and biblical tales of the New Testament; at age eight, sections of the Large Catechism and biblical stories of the Old Testament; and at age nine years, other parts of the Old Testament and the sacraments, baptism, and the Lord's Supper. As the only Jew in his class, Albert seemed never to have felt uncomfortable—with the possible exception of one incident. In one of these lessons, the teacher, a Catholic priest, held up a big nail and reportedly said that "these were the nails with which Christ was crucified by the Jews." According to the biographers, Rudolf Kayser and Carl Seelig, whose report is based mainly on correspondence with Einstein, the teacher intended to stir up hatred against the Jews, and all eyes in the class turned to Albert who felt very embarrassed? "For the first time Albert experienced the frightful venom of anti-Semitism," wrote Kayser (Reiser).

    A somewhat different account of this episode can be found in Philipp Frank's biography of Einstein. According to Frank, the teacher said only, "The nails with which Christ was nailed to the cross looked like this," pointing to the nail he had brought. And Frank explicitly continued:


But he did not add, as sometimes happens, that the Crucifixion was the work of the Jews. Nor did the idea enter the minds of the students that because of this they must change their relations with their classmate Albert. Nevertheless Einstein found this kind of teaching rather uncongenial, but only because it recalled the brutal act connected with it and because he sensed correctly that the vivid portrayal of brutality does not usually intensify any sentiments of antagonism to it but rather awakens latent sadistic tendencies.


    Frank's biography is known to be based largely on epistolary correspondence, whereas Kayser's account is based on personal conversations with Einstein. In his brief preface to Kayser's biography, Einstein declared, "I found the facts of the book duly accurate, and its characterization, throughout, as good as might be expected of one who is perforce himself, and who can no more be another than I can." It is, of course, difficult today to find out which of the two versions is true. It is also difficult to assess how such an anti-Semitic incident, had it really happened, would have affected Albert's religious attitude toward Judaism.

    In any case, Albert seemed to have liked these courses and on some occasions even helped his Catholic classmates when they failed to find the correct answer. Nor did he seem to have sensed any difference between what he learned about the Catholic religion at school and about the Jewish religion at home. He learned to respect sincere religious convictions of whatever denomination, an attitude he did not abandon in his later life when he rejected any affiliation with an institutional religious organization.

    This attitude is evidenced in his replies to some questions raised by George Sylvester Viereck during a 1929 interview.


"To what extent are you influenced by Christianity?"

"As a child I received instruction both in the Bible and in the Talmud. I am a Jew, but I am enthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene."

"Have you read Emil Ludwig's book on Jesus?"

"Emil Ludwig's Jesus is shallow. Jesus is too colossal for the pen of phrasemongers, however artful. No man can dispose of Christianity with a bon mot!"

"You accept the historical existence of Jesus?"

"Unquestionably! No one can read the Gospels without feeling the actual presence of Jesus. His personality pulsates in every word. No myth is filled with such life."


    The arrangement of religious instruction at the Luitpold Gymnasium differed from that at the Catholic Volksschule in several respects. As an interdenominational school, the Gymnasium offered special courses of religious instruction to its Jewish pupils. In contrast to the three weekly hours at the Petersschule, only two hours per week were devoted to religious studies, and these were given by external teachers especially ordained for this purpose by the Jewish community of the city. Einstein's first teacher was Herr Heinrich Friedmann. In his classes, which were shared by Einstein's Jewish classmates and the Jewish pupils of his next higher grade, Friedmann taught the Ten Commandments, biblical history, selected chapters of the Old Testament, the rituals of the Jewish holy days, and the rudiments of Hebrew grammar. From 1892 to 1895, the year Albert left Munich to join his parents in Italy without having completed' his schooling, his teachers of religion were Dr. Joseph Perles, Eugene Meyer, and Dr. Cossmann Werner. They introduced him to the literature of the Psalms, and the history of the Talmud and of the Jews in Spain. Unfortunately, because these external teachers did not enjoy the same authority as their full-time colleagues at the Gymnasium, the attitude of their pupils toward their lessons seems to have been less serious that it should have been. Einstein referred to this in 1929 when he received fiftieth-birthday congratulations from his old teacher Heinrich Friedmann. Einstein declared: "I was deeply moved and delighted by your congratulations. How vividly do I remember those days of my youth in Munich and how deeply do I regret not having been more diligent in studying the language and literature of our fathers. I read the Bible quite often, but the original text remains inaccessible for me. It certainly was not your fault; you have fought valiantly and energetically against laziness and all kinds of naughtiness."

    Einstein could have added that neither had it been Friedmann's fault nor the fault of any other of his teachers of religion that, at the age of twelve, just when he should have been preparing for the bar mitzvah, the Jewish confirmation, he suddenly became completely irreligious. Ironically, this conversion was, indirectly at least, the consequence of the only religious custom that his parents observed, namely to host a poor Jewish student for a weekly meal. The beneficiary was Max Talmud, a medical student from Poland, ten years older than Albert. In spite of their age difference, Albert and Talmud became intimate friends, and this friendship changed Albert's attitude toward religion. Because Talmud (or Talmey, as he called himself later when working as a general practitioner in New York) wrote a book on relativity in which he described his visits to the Einsteins in Munich, we have an authentic account of the influence he exerted on Albert. He directed Albert's attention to Aaron Bernstein's popular Naturwissenschaftliche Volksbücher (Popular Books on Physical Science), Ludwig Büchner's materialistic Kraft und Stoff (Force and Matter), Immanuel Kant's Kritik der Reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason) as well as to various books on geometry and other branches of mathematics. Einstein himself summed up the results of Talmey's influence:


Through the reading of popular scientific books I soon reached the conviction that much in the stories of the Bible could not be true. The consequence was a positively fanatic [orgy of] freethinking coupled with the impression that youth is intentionally being deceived by the state through lies; it was a crushing impression. Suspicion against every kind of authority grew out of this experience, a skeptical attitude towards the convictions which were alive in any specific social environment—an attitude which has never again left me, even though later on, because of a better insight into the causal connections, it lost some of its original poignancy.


    An immediate consequence of this change of mind was the fact that Einstein refused to become bar mitzvahed. Although this ceremonious act, introduced in the thirteenth century, is not a "halachist" (necessary) condition for membership in the Jewish community, even liberal Jews regard it as a precept that must be obeyed. By not complying with it, Einstein obviously intended to demonstrate his personal independence from the dictates of traditional authority. The nonperformance of his bar mitzvah would have caused serious political problems, at least on the part of the orthodoxy, had Einstein accepted David Ben-Gurion's offer in November 1952 to become the second president of the State of Israel after the death of Chaim Weizmann.

    Interestingly, when he was living in Berlin, Einstein did own a pair of phylacteries (tephillin). Needless to say, Einstein never performed the ritual of putting them on as religious Jews used to do after becoming bar mitzvah. He kept them obviously only as an heirloom or memento of his ancestors. In May 1933, four months after Einstein had left Germany, his apartment on Haberlandstrasse 5 was raided by the Gestapo under the pretext of searching for anti-German propaganda literature, and these phylacteries and a prayer book, together with valuable pictures and cutlery, were looted.

    Einstein's indifference concerning religious affiliations is also shown by the fact that his first wife Mileva Maric, a fellow student at the Polytechnic in Zurich, belonged to the Greek Orthodox Church. Their marriage took place in Zurich in 1903 and was a civil ceremony without the presence of a rabbi or a priest. Both sets of parents had strongly opposed the marriage, mostly because of the difference in their religious backgrounds. After their two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard, were born, questions arose regarding their religious instruction and therefore their elementary school education. Einstein reportedly said, `Anyway, I dislike very much that my children should be taught something that is contrary to all scientific thinking."

    As far as we know, Einstein never attended religious service and never prayed in a synagogue or at any other place of worship. He visited such places only to participate in social events. The following examples illustrate this fact. On January 29, 1930, he participated at a Welfare Concert for the benefit of the Youth Department of the Jewish Community, which took place in Berlin's "Neue Synagoge" located at 30 Oranienburger Strasse. The program included arias sung by the famous tenor Hermann Jadlowker and the Adagio in B-minor for two violins by Johann Sebastian Bach, played by Einstein and the violist Alfred Lewandowski. Early in March 1933, at the end of his second visit to the United States, Einstein became the godfather of Albert, the eight-day-old son of Jacob Landau, the director of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, at a ceremony in a New York synagogue. During the last two decades of his life, Einstein participated once every two or three years at the discussions that concluded the Friday evening service for Jewish students at Princeton University.

    Einstein's last wish was not to be buried in the Jewish tradition, but to be cremated and his ashes scattered, indicating that he disregarded religious rituals until his death on 18 April 1955.

(Continues...)

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii
Introduction 3
CHAPTER 1 Einstein's Religiosity and the Role of Religion in His Private Life 13
CHAPTER 2 Einstein's Philosophy of Religion 65
CHAPTER 3 Einstein's Physics and Theology 153
Appendix 267
Index 269

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  • Posted June 15, 2009

    more from this reviewer

    I Also Recommend:

    Great Work

    Einstein's Affect on Religion, June 14, 2009
    By Michael Gooch "Author of Wingtips with Spurs:... (Texas, USA) - See all my reviews

    I greatly enjoyed this book.

    Certainly, as most people, I am interested in what Einstein thought about God and the Big Question. Just as curious, I have always been intrigued at how Einstein has influenced the way we think about religion or more specifically, spirituality. Countless times I have read about Einstein's quote regarding "spooky action at a distance" when reading books that attempt to explain spirituality. In addition to this quote, several other Einsteinisms pop up in these tomes.

    The book guides us on a journey of how deeply affected Einstein was about the spiritual realm but also how his theory of relativity has influenced theological thought ever since.

    Written in clear, concise language, Einstein and Religion is not a path of conversion to Einstein's concept of religion. The reader will not find a single sentence or word with a missionary intent. The book presents a philosophical and historical perspective without bias. Exactly what I wanted and exactly what I got.

    I would also recommend Fingerprints of God: The Search for the Science of Spirituality, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, The Mind of God: The Scientific Basis for a Rational World and God and the New Physics.

    I hope you find this review helpful

    Michael L. Gooch

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    Posted November 29, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

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