Electric Circuits Fundamentals / Edition 7

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Overview

  • Margin icons indicate text circuits that are rendered in Electronics Workbench® and CircuitMaker® on the CD-ROM packaged with each text.
  • New EWB/CircuitMaker Troubleshooting Problems.
  • New Safety Notes indicate key information that students can transfer to their laboratory experience.
  • Online study guide with 50+ questions per chapter is available at ...
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
The first part, covering DC circuits, addresses components, quantities, and units; voltage, current, and resistance in electric circuits; Ohm's Law, energy, and power; series circuits; parallel circuits; series-parallel circuits; and magnetism and electromagnetism. The second part treating AC circuits covers an introduction to alternating current and voltage; capacitators; inductors; transformers; RC circuits; RL circuits; RLC circuits and resonance; and pulse response of reactive circuits. Each chapter includes section reviews, worked examples, an assignment, and a summary. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Booknews
The text provides a comprehensive introduction that can be used for a year-long undergraduate course on basic electrical and electronic concepts and their practical applications. The material is divided into DC circuits<-->this includes components, voltage, current, and resistance; Ohm's law; series, parallel and series-parallel circuits; magnetism and electromagnetismfl>and AC circuitsfl>covering alternating current, voltage, capacitors, RC circuits, inductors, RL circuits, RLC circuits and resonance, transformers, and pulse response to reactive circuits. The fifth edition has expanded coverage of engineering notation, the use of the calculator, electrical safety, and troubleshooting; and a new section of circuit simulation problems has been added to each chapter. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132197106
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/1/2006
  • Series: Floyd Electronics Fundamentals Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 736
  • Product dimensions: 8.44 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.18 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

This fifth edition of Electric Circuits Fundamentals provides a comprehensive coverage of basic electrical and electronic concepts, practical applications, and troubleshooting. The organization has been improved for a smoother and more logical flow of the material in certain areas. In this edition, many topics have been strengthened and improved, and some new topics and features have been added. Also, a completely new text design and layout enhance the text's appearance and useability.

This textbook is divided into two parts: DC Circuits in Chapters 1 through 7 and AC Circuits in Chapters 8 through 15.

NEW FEATURES AND IMPROVEMENTS

Engineering Notation: Chapter 1 includes an expanded coverage of engineering notation and the use of the calculator (TI-86) in scientific and engineering notation.

Electrical Safety: Chapter 2 introduces electrical safety. It is supplemented by a feature called Safety Point found throughout portions of the text. Safety Points are identified by a special logo and design treatment.

Troubleshooting: An expanded coverage of troubleshooting begins in Section 3-8 with an introduction to troubleshooting. A systematic approach called the APM (analysis, planning, and measurement) method is introduced and used in many of the troubleshooting sections and examples. A new logo identifies troubleshooting features.

Circuit Simulation Tutorials: A website tutorial associated with most chapters can be downloaded for student use. These tutorials introduce students to elements of ElectronicsWorkbench, as needed, on a chapter-by-chapter basis. These tutorials may be found at http://www.prenhall.com/floyd.

Circuit Simulation Problems: A new set of problems at the end of most chapters reference circuits simulated with both Electronics Workbench and CircuitMaker® on the CD-ROM that accompanies the text. Many of these circuits have hidden faults that the student must locate using troubleshooting skills. Results are provided in a password-protected file on the CD-ROM. Circuit simulation problems and exercises on the CDROM are indicated by a special logo.

Hands-On Tips: Called HOTips for short, this feature provides useful and practical information interspersed throughout the book. They generally relate to the text coverage but can be skipped over without affecting an understanding of chapter material. HOTips are identified by a special logo and design treatment.

Biographies: Brief biographies of those after whom major electrical and magnetic units have been named are located near the point where the unit is introduced. Each biography is indentified by a special design treatment.

Key Terms: Terms identified as the most important in each chapter are listed as key terms on the chapter opener. Within the chapter, key terms are highlighted in color and with a special icon. Each Key Term is also defined in the Glossary.

Chapter Reorganization: Several chapters in the AC part of the text have been rearranged to provide a smoother and more logical flow of topics. The new chapter sequence is as follows: Chapter 9: Capacitors, Chapter 10: RC Circuits, Chapter 11: Inductors, Chapter 12: RL Circuits, Chapter 13: RLC Circuits and Resonance, and Chapter 14: Transformers.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

  • Full-color format
  • A two-page chapter opener for each chapter with an introduction, chapter outline, chapter objectives, key terms, and application assignment preview
  • An introduction and list of objectives at the beginning of each section within a chapter keyed to the chapter objectives
  • An Application Assignment at the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1)
  • Many high-quality illustrations
  • Numerous worked examples
  • A Related Problem in each worked example with answers at the end of the chapter
  • An Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker simulation on CD-ROM for selected worked examples
  • An Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker exercise in selected Application Assignments
  • Section Reviews with answers at the end of the chapter
  • Troubleshooting section in many of the chapters
  • Self-test in each chapter with answers at the end of the chapter
  • Problem set at the end of each chapter divided by chapter sections and organized into basic and advanced categories. Answers to odd-numbered problems are provided at the end of the book.
  • A comprehensive Glossary at the end of the book. Terms that appear boldface or in color in the text are defined in the glossary.
  • All Standard resistor and capacitor values are used throughout.

ACCOMPANYING STUDENT RESOURCES

New—Student Workbook by James K. Gee. Features step-by-step explanations of textbook material, additional examples with solutions, explanatory tables, reminders, and a Problem Set for every textbook section. Odd-numbered answers to Problem Set questions are included at the end of the Student Workbook. Gee's Student Workbook is tied section by section to the Floyd text, thus enabling students to easily locate specific sections with which they are having difficulty or would like additional practice. (ISBN 013-019392-5)

New—StudyWizard e-tutorial CD-ROM. Students can enhance their understanding of each chapter by answering the review questions and testing their knowledge of the terminology with StudyWizard. This program is available separately from the text. Contact your local bookstore for more information.

New—Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker CD-ROM. Packaged with each text, this software includes simulation circuits for selected examples and end-of-chapter problems and a Student Version of CircuitMaker. Electronics Workbench software can be obtained through your local bookstore, or by contacting Electronics Workbench at 800-263-5552, or through their website at www.electronicsworkbench.com.

Experiments in Electronics Fundamentals and Electric Circuits Fundamentals Fifth Edition, by David Buchla. (ISBN 0-13-017002-X)

Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/floyd). This website offers students a free online study guide that they can check for conceptual understanding of key topics. It includes simulation tutorials in Electronics Workbench.

Electronics Supersite (www.prenhall.com/electronics). Students will find additional troubleshooting exercises, links to industry sites, an interview with an electronics professional, and more.

INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES

New—PowerPoint CD-ROM. Contains slides featuring all figures from the text, of which 150 selected slides contain explanatory text to elaborate on the presented graphic. This CD-ROM also includes innovative PowerPoint slides for the lab manual by Dave Buchla. (ISBN 0-13-019386-0)

Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/floyd). For the professor, this website offers the ability to post your syllabus online with our Syllabus Builder. This is a great solution for classes taught online, self-paced, or in any computer-assisted manner.

Electronics Supersite (www.prenhall.com/electronics). Instructors will find the Prentice Hall Electronics Technology Journal, extra classroom resources, and all of the supplements for this text available online for easy access. Contact your local Prentice Hall sales representative for your "User Name" and "Passcode:"

Online Course Support. If your program is offering your electronics course in a distance learning format, please contact your local Prentice Hall sales representative for a list of product solutions.

Instructor's Resource Manual. Includes solutions to chapter problems, solutions to Application Assignments, a section relating SCANS objectives to textbook coverage, and a CEMA skills list. (ISBN 0-13-019387-9)

Lab Solutions Manual. Includes worked-out lab results for the Lab Manual by Buchla. (ISBN 0-13-019391-7)

Test Item File. This edition of the Test Item File has been checked for accuracy and features 166 new questions. (ISBN 0-13-019388-7)

Prentice Hall Test Manager. This is a CD-ROM version of the Test Item File. (ISBN 0-13-019389-5)

ILLUSTRATION OF CHAPTER FEATURES

Chapter Opener: Each chapter begins with a two-page spread, as shown in Figure P-1. The left page includes the chapter number and title, a chapter introduction, and a list of sections in the chapter. The right page has a list of chapter objectives, a list of key terms, an application assignment preview, and a website reference for circuit simulation tutorials and other helpful material.

Section Opener: Each section in a chapter begins with a brief introduction that includes a general overview and section objectives as related to the chapter objectives. An example is shown in Figure P-2.

Section Review: Each section in a chapter ends with a review consisting of questions or exercises that emphasize the main concepts presented in the section. This is also shown in Figure P-2. The answers to the Section Reviews are at the end of the chapter.

Worked Examples, Related Problems, and EWB/CircuitMaker Exercise: Numerous worked examples help illustrate and clarify basic concepts or specific procedures. Each example ends with a Related Problem that reinforces or expands on the example by requiring the student to work through a problem similar to the example. Selected examples contain an EWB/CircuitMaker exercise keyed to the CD-ROM. A typical worked example with a related problem and an EWB/CircuitMaker exercise is shown in Figure P-3. Answers to Related Problems are at the end of the chapter.

Troubleshooting Sections: Many chapters include a troubleshooting section that relates to the topics covered in the chapter and emphasizes logical thinking as well as a structured approach called APM (analysis, planning, and measurement). Particular troubleshooting methods such as half-splitting are applied.

Application Assignment: Putting Your Knowledge to Work: Application Assignments are located at the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1) and are identified by a special photographic logo and colored background design. A practical application of the material covered in the chapter is presented. In a series of steps, the student is required to compare circuit layouts with a schematic, analyze circuits using concepts and theories learned in the chapter, and evaluate and/or troubleshoot circuits. A typical Application Assignment is shown in Figure P-4. The Application Assignments are optional and skipping over them does not affect any other coverage.

Although they are not intended or designed for use as laboratory projects (except the laboratory of the mind), many of the application assignments use representations based on realistic printed circuit boards and instruments. Results and answers for the steps in the Application Assignments are provided in the Instructor's Resource Manual.

Chapter End Matter: The following pedagogical features are found at the end of each chapter:

  • SummaryEquations
  • Self-Test
  • Basic Problems
  • Advanced Problems
  • Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker Troubleshooting Problems (keyed to CDROM)
  • Answers to Section Reviews
  • Answers to Related Problems for Examples
  • Answers to Self-Test

SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THIS TEXTBOOK

As mentioned before, this book is divided into two parts: DC Circuits and AC Circuits. The text can be used to accommodate a variety of scheduling and program requirements. Some suggestions follow:

Option 1: A two-term dc/ac sequence should allow sufficient time to cover all or most of the topics in the book. Chapters 1 through 7 can be covered in the first term and Chapters 8 through 15 in the second term.

Option 2: A modification of Option 1 is to add the coverage of capacitors through Section 9-5 and inductors through Section 11-5 to the first term do course.

Option 3: Yet another modification to Option 1 for those who prefer to cover reactive components before covering reactive circuits is to cover Chapter 11 on inductors immediately after Chapter 9 on capacitors. Then follow with Chapter 10, Chapter 12, and so on.

Option 4: A one-term do/ac sequence. Obviously, this approach will require selective and faster-paced coverage of much of the material. Since program requirements vary greatly, it is difficult to make specific suggestions for selective coverage.

TO THE STUDENT

Any career training requires hard work, and electronics is no exception. The best way to learn new material is by reading, thinking, and doing. This text is designed to help you along the way by providing an overview and objectives for each section, numerous worked-out examples, practice exercises, and review questions with answers.

Don't expect every concept to be crystal clear after a single reading. Read each section of the text carefully and think about what you have read. Work through the example problems step-by-step before trying the related problem that goes with the example. Sometimes more than one reading of a section will be necessary. After each section, check your understanding by answering the section review questions.

Review the chapter summary and equation list. Take the multiple-choice selftest. Finally, work the problems at the end of the chapter. Check your answers to the self-test at the end of the chapter and the odd-numbered problems against those provided at the end of the book. Working problems is the most important way to check your comprehension and solidify concepts.

CAREERS IN ELECTRONICS

The field of electronics is very diverse, and career opportunities are available in many areas. Because electronics is currently found in so many different applications and new technology is being developed at a fast rate, its future appears limitless. There is hardly an area of our lives that is not enhanced to some degree by electronics technology. Those who acquire a sound, basic knowledge of electrical and electronic principles and are willing to continue learning will always be in demand.

The importance of obtaining a thorough understanding of the basic principles contained in this text cannot be overemphasized. Most employers prefer to hire people who have both a thorough grounding in the basics and the ability and eagerness to grasp new concepts and techniques. If you have a good training in the basics, an employer will train you in the specifics of the job to which you are assigned.

There are many types of job classifications for which a person with training in electronics technology may qualify. A few of the most common job functions are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs.

Service Shop Technician: Technical personnel in this category are involved in the repair or adjustment of both commercial and consumer electronic equipment that is returned to the dealer or manufacturer for service. Specific areas include TVs, VCRs, CD players, stereo equipment, CB radios, and computer hardware. This area also offers opportunities for self-employment.

Industrial Manufacturing Technician: Manufacturing personnel are involved in the testing of electronic products at the assembly-line level or in the maintenance and troubleshooting of electronic and electromechanical systems used in the testing and manufacturing of products. Virtually every type of manufacturing plant, regardless of its product, uses automated equipment that is electronically controlled.

Laboratory Technician: These technicians are involved in breadboarding, prototyping, and testing new or modified electronic systems in research and development laboratories. They generally work closely with engineers during the development phase of a product.

Field Service Technician: Field service personnel service and repair electronic equipment—for example, computer systems, radar installations, automatic banking equipment, and security systems—at the user's location.

Engineering Assistant/Associate Engineer: Personnel in this category work closely with engineers in the implementation of a concept and in the basic design and development of electronic systems. Engineering assistants are frequently involved in a project from its initial design through the early manufacturing stages.

Technical Writer: Technical writers compile technical information and then use the information to write and produce manuals and audiovisual materials. A broad knowledge of a particular system and the ability to clearly explain its principles and operation are essential.

Technical Sales: Technically trained people are in demand as sales representatives for high-technology products. The ability both to understand technical concepts and to communicate the technical aspects of a product to a potential customer is very valuable. In this area, as in technical writing, competency in expressing yourself orally and in writing is essential. Actually, being able to communicate well is very important in any technical job category because you must be able to record data clearly and explain procedures, conclusions, and actions taken so that others can readily understand what you are doing.

MILESTONES IN ELECTRONICS

Before you begin your study of electronics fundamentals, let's briefly look at some of the important developments that led to the electronics technology we have today. The names of many of the early pioneers in electricity and electromagnetics still live on in terms of familiar units and quantities. Names such as Ohm, Ampere, Volta, Farad, Henry, Coulomb, Oersted, and Hertz are some of the better known examples. More widely known names such as Franklin and Edison are also significant in the history of electricity and electronics because of their tremendous contributions. Short biographies of some of these pioneers, like shown here, are located throughout the text.

The Beginning of Electronics: Early experiments with electronics involved electric currents in vacuum tubes. Heinrich Geissler (1814-1879) removed most of the air from a glass tube and found that the tube glowed when there was current through it. Later, Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) found the current in vacuum tubes seemed to consist of particles. Thomas Edison (1847-1931) experimented with carbon filament bulbs with plates and discovered that there was a current from the hot filament to a positively charged plate. He patented the idea but never used it.

Other early experimenters measured the properties of the particles that flowed in vacuum tubes. Sir Joseph Thompson (1856-1940) measured properties of these particles, later called electrons.

Although wireless telegraphic communication dates back to 1844, electronics is basically a 20th century concept that began with the invention of the vacuum tube amplifier. An early vacuum tube that allowed current in only one direction was constructed by John A. Fleming in 1904. Called the Fleming valve, it was the forerunner of vacuum tube diodes. In 1907, Lee deForest added a grid to the vacuum tube. The new device, called the audiotron, could amplify a weak signal. By adding the control element, deForest ushered in the electronics revolution. It was with an improved version of his device that made transcontinental telephone service and radios possible. In 1912, a radio amateur in San Jose, California, was regularly broadcasting music!

In 1921, the secretary of commerce, Herbert Hoover, issued the first license to a broadcast radio station; within two years over 600 licenses were issued. By the end of the 1920s radios were in many homes. A new type of radio, the superheterodyne radio, invented by Edwin Armstrong, solved problems with highfrequency communication. In 1923, Vladimir Zworykin, an American researcher, invented the first television picture tube, and in 1927 Philo T. Farnsworth applied for a patent for a complete television system.

The 1930s saw many developments in radio, including metal tubes, automatic gain control, directional antennas, and more. Also started in this decade was the development of the first electronic computers. Modern computers trace their origins to the work of John Atanasoff at Iowa State University. Beginning in 1937, he envisioned a binary machine that could do complex mathematical work. By 1939, he and graduate student Clifford Berry had constructed a binary machine called ABC, (for Atanasoff-Berry Computer) that used vacuum tubes for logic and condensers (capacitors) for memory. In 1939, the magnetron, a microwave oscillator, was invented in Britain by Henry Boot and John Randall. In the same year, the klystron microwave tube was invented in America by Russell and Sigurd Varian.

During World War II, electronics developed rapidly. Radar and very highfrequency communication were made possible by the magnetron and klystron. Cathode ray tubes were improved for use in radar. Computer work continued during the war. By 1946, John von Neumann had developed the first stored program computer, the Eniac, at the University of Pennsylvania. The decade ended with one of the most important inventions ever, the transistor.

Solid-State Electronics: The crystal detectors used in early radios were the forerunners of modern solid-state devices. However, the era of solid-state electronics began with the invention of the transistor in 1947 at Bell Labs. The inventors were Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley. PC (printed circuit) boards were introduced in 1947, the year the transistor was invented. Commercial manufacturing of transistors began in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in 1951.

The most important invention of the 1950s was the integrated circuit. On September 12, 1958, Jack Kilby, at Texas Instruments, made the first integrated circuit. This invention literally created the modern computer age and brought about sweeping changes in medicine, communication, manufacturing, and the entertainment industry. Many billions of "chips"—as integrated circuits came to be called—have since been manufactured.

The 1960s saw the space race begin and spurred work on miniaturization and computers. The space race was the driving force behind the rapid changes in electronics that followed. The first successful "op-amp" was designed by Bob Widlar at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1965. Called the uA709, it was very successful but suffered from "latch-up" and other problems. Later, the most popular op-amp ever, the 741, was taking shape at Fairchild. This op-amp became the industry standard and influenced design of op-amps for years to come.

By 1971, a new company that had been formed by a group from Fairchild introduced the first microprocessor. The company was Intel and the product was the 4004 chip, which had the same processing power as the Eniac computer. Later in the same year, Intel announced the first 8-bit processor, the 8008. In 1975, the first personal computer was introduced by Altair, and Popular Science magazine featured it on the cover of the January, 1975, issue. The 1970s also saw the introduction of the pocket calculator and new developments in optical integrated circuits.

By the 1980s, half of all U.S. homes were using cable hookups instead of television antennas. The reliability, speed, and miniaturization of electronics continued throughout the 1980s, including "automated testing and calibrating of PC boards. The computer became a part of instrumentation and the virtual instrument was created. Computers became a standard tool on the workbench.

The 1990s saw a widespread application of the Internet. In 1993, there were 130 websites, and now there are millions. Companies scrambled to establish a home page and many of the early developments of radio broadcasting had parallels with the Internet. In 1995, the FCC allocated spectrum space for a new service called Digital Audio Radio Service. Digital television standards were adopted in 1996 by the FCC for the nation's next generation of broadcast television.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many capable people have been part of this revision for the fifth edition of Electric Circuits Fundamentals. It has been thoroughly reviewed and checked for both content and accuracy. Those at Prentice Hall who have contributed greatly to this project throughout the many phases of development and production include Rex Davidson, Katie Bradford, and Scott Sambucci. Lois Porter, whose attention to details is unbelievable, has once again done an outstanding job editing the manuscript. Jane Lopez has again provided the excellent illustrations and beautiful graphics work used in the text. As with the previous edition, Gary Snyder has checked the manuscript for accuracy. Also, Gary created the circuit files for the Electronics Workbench features in this edition and Karen Dickson at Frotel Technology created the CircuitMaker files. A thorough line-by-line review was done by my colleague Dave Buchla and many of the improvements and changes found in this edition were a result of his recommendations.

I wish to express my appreciation to those already mentioned as well as the reviewers who provided many valuable suggestions and constructive criticism that greatly influenced this edition. These reviewers are Jerry L. Wilson, Lamar Institute of Technology; James K. Gee, ITT Technical Institute; William R. Kist, New England Institute of Technology; Peter Westray, Los Angeles Valley College; and Carl Jensen, DeVry Institute of Technology.

Tom Floyd

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Table of Contents

1 Components, Quantities, and Units 2
2 Voltage, Current, and Resistance in Electric Circuits 17
3 Ohm's Law, Energy, and Power 57
4 Series Circuits 88
5 Parallel Circuits 136
6 Series-Parallel Circuits 180
7 Magnetism and Electromagnetism 233
8 Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage 264
9 Capacitors 313
10 Inductors 365
11 Transformers 400
12 RC Circuits 440
13 RL Circuits 492
14 RLC Circuits and Resonance 531
15 Pulse Response of Reactive Circuits 584
App. A Table of Standard Resistor Values 627
App. B Circuit Breadboarding and Measurements 628
App. C Capacitor Color Coding 633
Answers to Self-Tests 634
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 636
Glossary 643
Index 648
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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

This fifth edition of Electric Circuits Fundamentals provides a comprehensive coverage of basic electrical and electronic concepts, practical applications, and troubleshooting. The organization has been improved for a smoother and more logical flow of the material in certain areas. In this edition, many topics have been strengthened and improved, and some new topics and features have been added. Also, a completely new text design and layout enhance the text's appearance and useability.

This textbook is divided into two parts: DC Circuits in Chapters 1 through 7 and AC Circuits in Chapters 8 through 15.

NEW FEATURES AND IMPROVEMENTS

Engineering Notation: Chapter 1 includes an expanded coverage of engineering notation and the use of the calculator (TI-86) in scientific and engineering notation.

Electrical Safety: Chapter 2 introduces electrical safety. It is supplemented by a feature called Safety Point found throughout portions of the text. Safety Points are identified by a special logo and design treatment.

Troubleshooting: An expanded coverage of troubleshooting begins in Section 3-8 with an introduction to troubleshooting. A systematic approach called the APM (analysis, planning, and measurement) method is introduced and used in many of the troubleshooting sections and examples. A new logo identifies troubleshooting features.

Circuit Simulation Tutorials: A website tutorial associated with most chapters can be downloaded for student use. These tutorials introduce students to elements ofElectronicsWorkbench, as needed, on a chapter-by-chapter basis. These tutorials may be found at http://www.prenhall.com/floyd.

Circuit Simulation Problems: A new set of problems at the end of most chapters reference circuits simulated with both Electronics Workbench and CircuitMaker® on the CD-ROM that accompanies the text. Many of these circuits have hidden faults that the student must locate using troubleshooting skills. Results are provided in a password-protected file on the CD-ROM. Circuit simulation problems and exercises on the CDROM are indicated by a special logo.

Hands-On Tips: Called HOTips for short, this feature provides useful and practical information interspersed throughout the book. They generally relate to the text coverage but can be skipped over without affecting an understanding of chapter material. HOTips are identified by a special logo and design treatment.

Biographies: Brief biographies of those after whom major electrical and magnetic units have been named are located near the point where the unit is introduced. Each biography is indentified by a special design treatment.

Key Terms: Terms identified as the most important in each chapter are listed as key terms on the chapter opener. Within the chapter, key terms are highlighted in color and with a special icon. Each Key Term is also defined in the Glossary.

Chapter Reorganization: Several chapters in the AC part of the text have been rearranged to provide a smoother and more logical flow of topics. The new chapter sequence is as follows: Chapter 9: Capacitors, Chapter 10: RC Circuits, Chapter 11: Inductors, Chapter 12: RL Circuits, Chapter 13: RLC Circuits and Resonance, and Chapter 14: Transformers.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

  • Full-color format
  • A two-page chapter opener for each chapter with an introduction, chapter outline, chapter objectives, key terms, and application assignment preview
  • An introduction and list of objectives at the beginning of each section within a chapter keyed to the chapter objectives
  • An Application Assignment at the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1)
  • Many high-quality illustrations
  • Numerous worked examples
  • A Related Problem in each worked example with answers at the end of the chapter
  • An Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker simulation on CD-ROM for selected worked examples
  • An Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker exercise in selected Application Assignments
  • Section Reviews with answers at the end of the chapter
  • Troubleshooting section in many of the chapters
  • Self-test in each chapter with answers at the end of the chapter
  • Problem set at the end of each chapter divided by chapter sections and organized into basic and advanced categories. Answers to odd-numbered problems are provided at the end of the book.
  • A comprehensive Glossary at the end of the book. Terms that appear boldface or in color in the text are defined in the glossary.
  • All Standard resistor and capacitor values are used throughout.

ACCOMPANYING STUDENT RESOURCES

New—Student Workbook by James K. Gee. Features step-by-step explanations of textbook material, additional examples with solutions, explanatory tables, reminders, and a Problem Set for every textbook section. Odd-numbered answers to Problem Set questions are included at the end of the Student Workbook. Gee's Student Workbook is tied section by section to the Floyd text, thus enabling students to easily locate specific sections with which they are having difficulty or would like additional practice. (ISBN 013-019392-5)

New—StudyWizard e-tutorial CD-ROM. Students can enhance their understanding of each chapter by answering the review questions and testing their knowledge of the terminology with StudyWizard. This program is available separately from the text. Contact your local bookstore for more information.

New—Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker CD-ROM. Packaged with each text, this software includes simulation circuits for selected examples and end-of-chapter problems and a Student Version of CircuitMaker. Electronics Workbench software can be obtained through your local bookstore, or by contacting Electronics Workbench at 800-263-5552, or through their website at www.electronicsworkbench.com.

Experiments in Electronics Fundamentals and Electric Circuits Fundamentals Fifth Edition, by David Buchla. (ISBN 0-13-017002-X)

Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/floyd). This website offers students a free online study guide that they can check for conceptual understanding of key topics. It includes simulation tutorials in Electronics Workbench.

Electronics Supersite (www.prenhall.com/electronics). Students will find additional troubleshooting exercises, links to industry sites, an interview with an electronics professional, and more.

INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES

New—PowerPoint CD-ROM. Contains slides featuring all figures from the text, of which 150 selected slides contain explanatory text to elaborate on the presented graphic. This CD-ROM also includes innovative PowerPoint slides for the lab manual by Dave Buchla. (ISBN 0-13-019386-0)

Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/floyd). For the professor, this website offers the ability to post your syllabus online with our Syllabus Builder. This is a great solution for classes taught online, self-paced, or in any computer-assisted manner.

Electronics Supersite (www.prenhall.com/electronics). Instructors will find the Prentice Hall Electronics Technology Journal, extra classroom resources, and all of the supplements for this text available online for easy access. Contact your local Prentice Hall sales representative for your "User Name" and "Passcode:"

Online Course Support. If your program is offering your electronics course in a distance learning format, please contact your local Prentice Hall sales representative for a list of product solutions.

Instructor's Resource Manual. Includes solutions to chapter problems, solutions to Application Assignments, a section relating SCANS objectives to textbook coverage, and a CEMA skills list. (ISBN 0-13-019387-9)

Lab Solutions Manual. Includes worked-out lab results for the Lab Manual by Buchla. (ISBN 0-13-019391-7)

Test Item File. This edition of the Test Item File has been checked for accuracy and features 166 new questions. (ISBN 0-13-019388-7)

Prentice Hall Test Manager. This is a CD-ROM version of the Test Item File. (ISBN 0-13-019389-5)

ILLUSTRATION OF CHAPTER FEATURES

Chapter Opener: Each chapter begins with a two-page spread, as shown in Figure P-1. The left page includes the chapter number and title, a chapter introduction, and a list of sections in the chapter. The right page has a list of chapter objectives, a list of key terms, an application assignment preview, and a website reference for circuit simulation tutorials and other helpful material.

Section Opener: Each section in a chapter begins with a brief introduction that includes a general overview and section objectives as related to the chapter objectives. An example is shown in Figure P-2.

Section Review: Each section in a chapter ends with a review consisting of questions or exercises that emphasize the main concepts presented in the section. This is also shown in Figure P-2. The answers to the Section Reviews are at the end of the chapter.

Worked Examples, Related Problems, and EWB/CircuitMaker Exercise: Numerous worked examples help illustrate and clarify basic concepts or specific procedures. Each example ends with a Related Problem that reinforces or expands on the example by requiring the student to work through a problem similar to the example. Selected examples contain an EWB/CircuitMaker exercise keyed to the CD-ROM. A typical worked example with a related problem and an EWB/CircuitMaker exercise is shown in Figure P-3. Answers to Related Problems are at the end of the chapter.

Troubleshooting Sections: Many chapters include a troubleshooting section that relates to the topics covered in the chapter and emphasizes logical thinking as well as a structured approach called APM (analysis, planning, and measurement). Particular troubleshooting methods such as half-splitting are applied.

Application Assignment: Putting Your Knowledge to Work: Application Assignments are located at the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1) and are identified by a special photographic logo and colored background design. A practical application of the material covered in the chapter is presented. In a series of steps, the student is required to compare circuit layouts with a schematic, analyze circuits using concepts and theories learned in the chapter, and evaluate and/or troubleshoot circuits. A typical Application Assignment is shown in Figure P-4. The Application Assignments are optional and skipping over them does not affect any other coverage.

Although they are not intended or designed for use as laboratory projects (except the laboratory of the mind), many of the application assignments use representations based on realistic printed circuit boards and instruments. Results and answers for the steps in the Application Assignments are provided in the Instructor's Resource Manual.

Chapter End Matter: The following pedagogical features are found at the end of each chapter:

  • SummaryEquations
  • Self-Test
  • Basic Problems
  • Advanced Problems
  • Electronics Workbench/CircuitMaker Troubleshooting Problems (keyed to CDROM)
  • Answers to Section Reviews
  • Answers to Related Problems for Examples
  • Answers to Self-Test

SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THIS TEXTBOOK

As mentioned before, this book is divided into two parts: DC Circuits and AC Circuits. The text can be used to accommodate a variety of scheduling and program requirements. Some suggestions follow:

Option 1: A two-term dc/ac sequence should allow sufficient time to cover all or most of the topics in the book. Chapters 1 through 7 can be covered in the first term and Chapters 8 through 15 in the second term.

Option 2: A modification of Option 1 is to add the coverage of capacitors through Section 9-5 and inductors through Section 11-5 to the first term do course.

Option 3: Yet another modification to Option 1 for those who prefer to cover reactive components before covering reactive circuits is to cover Chapter 11 on inductors immediately after Chapter 9 on capacitors. Then follow with Chapter 10, Chapter 12, and so on.

Option 4: A one-term do/ac sequence. Obviously, this approach will require selective and faster-paced coverage of much of the material. Since program requirements vary greatly, it is difficult to make specific suggestions for selective coverage.

TO THE STUDENT

Any career training requires hard work, and electronics is no exception. The best way to learn new material is by reading, thinking, and doing. This text is designed to help you along the way by providing an overview and objectives for each section, numerous worked-out examples, practice exercises, and review questions with answers.

Don't expect every concept to be crystal clear after a single reading. Read each section of the text carefully and think about what you have read. Work through the example problems step-by-step before trying the related problem that goes with the example. Sometimes more than one reading of a section will be necessary. After each section, check your understanding by answering the section review questions.

Review the chapter summary and equation list. Take the multiple-choice selftest. Finally, work the problems at the end of the chapter. Check your answers to the self-test at the end of the chapter and the odd-numbered problems against those provided at the end of the book. Working problems is the most important way to check your comprehension and solidify concepts.

CAREERS IN ELECTRONICS

The field of electronics is very diverse, and career opportunities are available in many areas. Because electronics is currently found in so many different applications and new technology is being developed at a fast rate, its future appears limitless. There is hardly an area of our lives that is not enhanced to some degree by electronics technology. Those who acquire a sound, basic knowledge of electrical and electronic principles and are willing to continue learning will always be in demand.

The importance of obtaining a thorough understanding of the basic principles contained in this text cannot be overemphasized. Most employers prefer to hire people who have both a thorough grounding in the basics and the ability and eagerness to grasp new concepts and techniques. If you have a good training in the basics, an employer will train you in the specifics of the job to which you are assigned.

There are many types of job classifications for which a person with training in electronics technology may qualify. A few of the most common job functions are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs.

Service Shop Technician: Technical personnel in this category are involved in the repair or adjustment of both commercial and consumer electronic equipment that is returned to the dealer or manufacturer for service. Specific areas include TVs, VCRs, CD players, stereo equipment, CB radios, and computer hardware. This area also offers opportunities for self-employment.

Industrial Manufacturing Technician: Manufacturing personnel are involved in the testing of electronic products at the assembly-line level or in the maintenance and troubleshooting of electronic and electromechanical systems used in the testing and manufacturing of products. Virtually every type of manufacturing plant, regardless of its product, uses automated equipment that is electronically controlled.

Laboratory Technician: These technicians are involved in breadboarding, prototyping, and testing new or modified electronic systems in research and development laboratories. They generally work closely with engineers during the development phase of a product.

Field Service Technician: Field service personnel service and repair electronic equipment—for example, computer systems, radar installations, automatic banking equipment, and security systems—at the user's location.

Engineering Assistant/Associate Engineer: Personnel in this category work closely with engineers in the implementation of a concept and in the basic design and development of electronic systems. Engineering assistants are frequently involved in a project from its initial design through the early manufacturing stages.

Technical Writer: Technical writers compile technical information and then use the information to write and produce manuals and audiovisual materials. A broad knowledge of a particular system and the ability to clearly explain its principles and operation are essential.

Technical Sales: Technically trained people are in demand as sales representatives for high-technology products. The ability both to understand technical concepts and to communicate the technical aspects of a product to a potential customer is very valuable. In this area, as in technical writing, competency in expressing yourself orally and in writing is essential. Actually, being able to communicate well is very important in any technical job category because you must be able to record data clearly and explain procedures, conclusions, and actions taken so that others can readily understand what you are doing.

MILESTONES IN ELECTRONICS

Before you begin your study of electronics fundamentals, let's briefly look at some of the important developments that led to the electronics technology we have today. The names of many of the early pioneers in electricity and electromagnetics still live on in terms of familiar units and quantities. Names such as Ohm, Ampere, Volta, Farad, Henry, Coulomb, Oersted, and Hertz are some of the better known examples. More widely known names such as Franklin and Edison are also significant in the history of electricity and electronics because of their tremendous contributions. Short biographies of some of these pioneers, like shown here, are located throughout the text.

The Beginning of Electronics: Early experiments with electronics involved electric currents in vacuum tubes. Heinrich Geissler (1814-1879) removed most of the air from a glass tube and found that the tube glowed when there was current through it. Later, Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) found the current in vacuum tubes seemed to consist of particles. Thomas Edison (1847-1931) experimented with carbon filament bulbs with plates and discovered that there was a current from the hot filament to a positively charged plate. He patented the idea but never used it.

Other early experimenters measured the properties of the particles that flowed in vacuum tubes. Sir Joseph Thompson (1856-1940) measured properties of these particles, later called electrons.

Although wireless telegraphic communication dates back to 1844, electronics is basically a 20th century concept that began with the invention of the vacuum tube amplifier. An early vacuum tube that allowed current in only one direction was constructed by John A. Fleming in 1904. Called the Fleming valve, it was the forerunner of vacuum tube diodes. In 1907, Lee deForest added a grid to the vacuum tube. The new device, called the audiotron, could amplify a weak signal. By adding the control element, deForest ushered in the electronics revolution. It was with an improved version of his device that made transcontinental telephone service and radios possible. In 1912, a radio amateur in San Jose, California, was regularly broadcasting music!

In 1921, the secretary of commerce, Herbert Hoover, issued the first license to a broadcast radio station; within two years over 600 licenses were issued. By the end of the 1920s radios were in many homes. A new type of radio, the superheterodyne radio, invented by Edwin Armstrong, solved problems with highfrequency communication. In 1923, Vladimir Zworykin, an American researcher, invented the first television picture tube, and in 1927 Philo T. Farnsworth applied for a patent for a complete television system.

The 1930s saw many developments in radio, including metal tubes, automatic gain control, directional antennas, and more. Also started in this decade was the development of the first electronic computers. Modern computers trace their origins to the work of John Atanasoff at Iowa State University. Beginning in 1937, he envisioned a binary machine that could do complex mathematical work. By 1939, he and graduate student Clifford Berry had constructed a binary machine called ABC, (for Atanasoff-Berry Computer) that used vacuum tubes for logic and condensers (capacitors) for memory. In 1939, the magnetron, a microwave oscillator, was invented in Britain by Henry Boot and John Randall. In the same year, the klystron microwave tube was invented in America by Russell and Sigurd Varian.

During World War II, electronics developed rapidly. Radar and very highfrequency communication were made possible by the magnetron and klystron. Cathode ray tubes were improved for use in radar. Computer work continued during the war. By 1946, John von Neumann had developed the first stored program computer, the Eniac, at the University of Pennsylvania. The decade ended with one of the most important inventions ever, the transistor.

Solid-State Electronics: The crystal detectors used in early radios were the forerunners of modern solid-state devices. However, the era of solid-state electronics began with the invention of the transistor in 1947 at Bell Labs. The inventors were Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley. PC (printed circuit) boards were introduced in 1947, the year the transistor was invented. Commercial manufacturing of transistors began in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in 1951.

The most important invention of the 1950s was the integrated circuit. On September 12, 1958, Jack Kilby, at Texas Instruments, made the first integrated circuit. This invention literally created the modern computer age and brought about sweeping changes in medicine, communication, manufacturing, and the entertainment industry. Many billions of "chips"—as integrated circuits came to be called—have since been manufactured.

The 1960s saw the space race begin and spurred work on miniaturization and computers. The space race was the driving force behind the rapid changes in electronics that followed. The first successful "op-amp" was designed by Bob Widlar at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1965. Called the uA709, it was very successful but suffered from "latch-up" and other problems. Later, the most popular op-amp ever, the 741, was taking shape at Fairchild. This op-amp became the industry standard and influenced design of op-amps for years to come.

By 1971, a new company that had been formed by a group from Fairchild introduced the first microprocessor. The company was Intel and the product was the 4004 chip, which had the same processing power as the Eniac computer. Later in the same year, Intel announced the first 8-bit processor, the 8008. In 1975, the first personal computer was introduced by Altair, and Popular Science magazine featured it on the cover of the January, 1975, issue. The 1970s also saw the introduction of the pocket calculator and new developments in optical integrated circuits.

By the 1980s, half of all U.S. homes were using cable hookups instead of television antennas. The reliability, speed, and miniaturization of electronics continued throughout the 1980s, including "automated testing and calibrating of PC boards. The computer became a part of instrumentation and the virtual instrument was created. Computers became a standard tool on the workbench.

The 1990s saw a widespread application of the Internet. In 1993, there were 130 websites, and now there are millions. Companies scrambled to establish a home page and many of the early developments of radio broadcasting had parallels with the Internet. In 1995, the FCC allocated spectrum space for a new service called Digital Audio Radio Service. Digital television standards were adopted in 1996 by the FCC for the nation's next generation of broadcast television.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many capable people have been part of this revision for the fifth edition of Electric Circuits Fundamentals. It has been thoroughly reviewed and checked for both content and accuracy. Those at Prentice Hall who have contributed greatly to this project throughout the many phases of development and production include Rex Davidson, Katie Bradford, and Scott Sambucci. Lois Porter, whose attention to details is unbelievable, has once again done an outstanding job editing the manuscript. Jane Lopez has again provided the excellent illustrations and beautiful graphics work used in the text. As with the previous edition, Gary Snyder has checked the manuscript for accuracy. Also, Gary created the circuit files for the Electronics Workbench features in this edition and Karen Dickson at Frotel Technology created the CircuitMaker files. A thorough line-by-line review was done by my colleague Dave Buchla and many of the improvements and changes found in this edition were a result of his recommendations.

I wish to express my appreciation to those already mentioned as well as the reviewers who provided many valuable suggestions and constructive criticism that greatly influenced this edition. These reviewers are Jerry L. Wilson, Lamar Institute of Technology; James K. Gee, ITT Technical Institute; William R. Kist, New England Institute of Technology; Peter Westray, Los Angeles Valley College; and Carl Jensen, DeVry Institute of Technology.

Tom Floyd

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