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More About This Textbook
Overview
Designed for use in a one or twosemester Introductory Circuit Analysis or Circuit Theory Course taught in Electrical or Computer Engineering Departments.
Electric Circuits 9/e is the most widely used introductory circuits textbook of the past 25 years. As this book has evolved over the years to meet the changing learning styles of students, importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:
 To build an understanding of concepts and ideas explicitly in terms of previous learning
 To emphasize the relationship between conceptual understanding and problem solving approaches
 To provide students with a strong foundation of engineering practices.
Editorial Reviews
Booknews
A textbook for electrical engineering students that assumes a background in electrical physics and elementary differential and integral calculus. Material covered includes operational amplifiers, balanced threephase circuits, sinusoidal steadystate analysis, the Laplace transform, frequency selective circuits, and the Fourier transform. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)Product Details
Related Subjects
Meet the Author
Professor JAMES W NILSSON taught at Iowa State University for 39 years. Since retiring from Iowa State, he has been a visiting professor at Notre Dame, California Polytechnic at San Luis Obispo, and the United States Air Force Academy. In 1962, he coauthored (with R.G. Brown) Introduction to Linear Systems Analysis (John Wiley & Sons). In 1968, he authored Introduction to Circuits, Instruments, and Electronics (Harcourt Brae and World). Professor Nilsson received a Standard Oil Outstanding Teacher Award in 1968, the IEEE Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1992, and the McGrawHill Jacob Millman Award in 1995. In 1990, he was elected to the rank of Fellow in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Professor SUSAN A. RIEDEL has been a member of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Marquette University since 1981. She also holds a clinical research appointment in the Department of Orthopaedics at the Medical College of Wisconsin and was a visiting professor in the Bioengineering Unit at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, as a Fulbright Scholar during the 198990 academic year. She has received two awards for teaching excellence at Marquette, and was recognized for her research contributions with an award from the Chicago Unit of the Shriner's Hospitals.
Table of Contents
List of Examples xiii
Preface xvii
Chapter 1 Circuit Variables 2
Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 3
Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 17
Summary 18
Problems 19
Chapter 2 Circuit Elements 24
Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 25
Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 46
Summary 47
Problems 48
Chapter 3 Simple Resistive Circuits 56
Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 57
Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 73
Summary 76
Problems 77
Chapter 4 Techniques of Circuit Analysis 88
Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 89
Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 125
Summary 129
Problems 130
Chapter 5 The Operational Amplifier 144
Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 145
Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 162
Summary 164
Problems 165
Chapter 6 Inductance, Capacitance, and Mutual Inductance 174
Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 175
Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 200
Summary 203
Problems 204
Chapter 7 Response of FirstOrder RL and RC Circuits 212
Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 213
Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 245
Summary 246
Problems 247
Chapter 8 Natural and Step Responses of RLC Circuits 264
Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 265
Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 294
Summary 297
Problems 298
Chapter 9 Sinusoidal SteadyState Analysis 306
Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 307
Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 346
Summary 347
Problems 348
Chapter 10 Sinusoidal SteadyState Power Calculations 360
Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 361
Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 384
Summary 386
Problems 387
Chapter 11 Balanced ThreePhase Circuits 398
Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 399
Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 418
Summary 419
Problems 420
Chapter 12 Introduction to the Laplace Transform 428
Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 429
Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 458
Summary 459
Problems 460
Chapter 13 The Laplace Transform in Circuit Analysis 466
Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 467
Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 505
Summary 506
Problems 507
Chapter 14 Introduction to Frequency Selective Circuits 522
Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 523
Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 550
Summary 550
Problems 551
Chapter 15 Active Filter Circuits 558
Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 559
Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 591
Summary 594
Problems 595
Chapter 16 Fourier Series 604
Practical Perspective: Active HighQ Filters 605
Practical Perspective: Active HighQ Filters 632
Summary 634
Problems 635
Chapter 17 The Fourier Transform 644
Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 645
Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 671
Summary 672
Problems 672
Chapter 18 TwoPort Circuits 678
Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 679
Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 697
Summary 698
Problems 698
Appendix A The Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations 705
Appendix B Complex Numbers 725
Appendix C More on Magnetically Coupled Coils and Ideal Transformers 731
Appendix D The Decibel 739
Appendix E Bode Diagrams 741
Appendix F An Abbreviated Table of Trigonometric Identities 759
Appendix G An Abbreviated Table of Integrals 761
Appendix H Common Standard Component Values 763
Answers to Selected Problems 765
Index 781
Introduction
Preface
The sixth edition of Electric Circuits is an incremental revision to the most widely used introductory circuits text of the past fifteen years. Importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:
WHAT'S NEW IN THE SIXTH EDITION
We have come to regard each revision of Electric Circuits as an opportunity to make improvements in the book, many of which are based on suggestions from our colleagues and our students. The sixth edition of Electric Circuits continues to support the major learning styles of students in the 1990s as well as to support the major teaching challenges these students present. We increased our focus on motivating the students with examples of practical circuits they have encountered and may have been curious about, and provide more explicit direction in the text for using computer tools such as PSpice and MATLAB to support the study of circuit analysis. The major areas of change are as follows:
Content and Organizational Changes
The most significant change to the sixth edition is the elimination of a separate chapter on mutually coupled coils, with the material being integrated into other chapters. This allows us to present the timedomain equations for mutuallycoupled coils as a simple extension of the time domain equations for single inductors in an attempt to "demystify" mutuallycoupled coils. The applications of mutual coupling, namely linear and ideal transformers, come later, once phasor techniques have been presented. The modifications are summarized as follows:
Practical Perspectives
The fifth edition of Electric Circuits introduced six Practical Perspectives that offered examples of realworld circuits, taken from realworld devices such as telephones, hair dryers, and automobiles. The sixth edition doubles the number of Practical Perspectives, adding them to Chapters 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 15. Now, a total of twelve chapters begin with a brief description of a practical application of the material to follow. Once the chapter material is presented, the chapter concludes with a quantitative analysis of the application. Several problems pertaining to the Practical Perspective are included in the chapter problems and are identified with a diamond icon. The Practical Perspectives are designed to stimulate students' interest in applying circuit analysis to the design of useful circuits and devices, and to consider some of the complexities associated with making a working circuit.
Integration of Computer Tools
Computer tools cannot replace the traditional methods for mastering the study of electric circuits. They can, however, assist students in the learning process by providing a visual representation of a circuit's behavior, validating a calculated solution, reducing the computational burden of more complex circuits, and iterating toward a desired solution using parameter variation. This computational support is often invaluable in the design process.
The sixth edition merges the support for two popular computer tools, PSpice and MATLAB, into the main text with the addition of icons identifying chapter problems suited for exploration with one or both of these tools. The icon (P) identifies those problems to investigate with PSpice, while the icon (M) identifies problems to investigate with MATLAB. Instructors are provided with computer files containing the PSpice or MATLAB simulation of the problems so marked.
DESIGN EMPHASIS
We continue to support the emphasis on design of circuits in several ways. First, several of the new practical perspective discussions focus on the design aspects of the circuits. The accompanying chapter problems continue the discussion of the design issues in these practical examples. Second, design oriented chapter problems have been explicitly labeled with a fourdiamond icon, enabling students and instructors to identify those problems with a design focus. Third, the identification of problems suited to exploration with PSpice or MATLAB suggests design opportunities using one or both of these computer tools.
Text Design and Pedagogical Features
The sixth edition continues the successful design introduced in the fifth edition, including the following features:
EXAMPLES, DRILL EXERCISES, AND HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
Solved Numerical Examples
Solved numerical examples are used extensively throughout the text to help students understand how theory is applied to circuit analysis. Because many students value worked examples more than any other aspect of the text, these examples represent an important opportunity to influence the development of student's problemsolving behavior. The nature and format of the examples in Electric Circuits are a reflection of the overall teaching approach of the text. When presenting a solution, we place great emphasis on the importance of problem solving as a thought process that applies underlying concepts, as we discussed earlier. By emphasizing this idea even in the solution of simple problems we hope to communicate that this approach to problem solving can help students handle the more complex problems they will encounter later on. Some characteristics of the examples include:
Drill Exercises
Drill exercises are included in the text to give students an opportunity to test their understanding of the material they have just read. The drill exercises are presented in a doublecolumn format as a way of signaling to students that they should stop and solve the exercises before proceeding to the next section. Nearly half of the drill exercises are new or revised.
Homework Problems
Users of Electric Circuits have consistently rated the homework problems as one of the book's most attractive features. In the sixth edition, there are nearly 1000 problems. The problems are designed around the following objectives (in parentheses are the corresponding problem categories identified in the Instructor's Manual and an illustrative problem number):
PREREQUISITES
In writing the first twelve chapters of the text, we have assumed that the reader has taken a course in elementary differential and integral calculus. We have also assumed that the reader has had an introductory physics course, at either the high school or university level, that introduces the concepts of energy, power, electric charge, electric current, electric potential, and electromagnetic fields. In writing the final six chapters, we have assumed the student has had, or is enrolled in, an introductory course in differential equations.
COURSE OPTIONS
The text has been designed for use in a onesemester, twosemester or a threequarter sequence.
The introduction to operational amplifier circuits can be omitted without interference by the reader going to the subsequent chapters. For example, if Chapter 5 is omitted, the instructor can simply skip Section 7.7, Section 8.5, Chapter 15, and those problems and drill exercises in the chapters following Chapter 5 that pertain to operational amplifiers.
There are several appendixes at the end of the book to help readers make effective use of their mathematical background. Appendix A reviews Cramer's method of solving simultaneous linear equations and simple matrix algebra; complex numbers are reviewed in Appendix B; Appendix C contains additional material on mutuallycoupled coils and ideal transformers; Appendix D contains a brief discussion of the decibel; Appendix E is devoted to an abbreviated table of trigonometric identities that are useful in circuit analysis; and an abbreviated table of useful integrals is given in Appendix F.
On page xvii there is a comprehensive list of the examples with titles and corresponding page numbers.
SUPPLEMENTS
We have put effort into the development of supplements that capitalize and extend the many strengths of the sixth edition. Students and professors are constantly challenged in terms of time and energy by the confines of the classroom and the importance of integrating new information and technologies into an electric circuits course. Through the following supplements, we believe we have succeeded in making some of these challenges more manageable.
PSpice for Electric Circuits
This supplement is published as a separate booklet, to facilitate its use at a computer. It has been revised extensively from the fifth edition, most importantly to eliminate the "programming language" aspect of the original Spice. Now, circuits are described to PSpice using a circuit schematic, and techniques for developing such schematics are presented in the supplement. This supplement continues to present topics in PSpice in the same order as those topics are presented in the text, so the content has undergone minor revision to reflect the revisions in the text.
Instructor's Manual
The Instructor's Manual enables professors to orient themselves quickly to this text and the supplement package. For easy reference, the following information is organized for each chapter:
Solutions Manual
The solutions manual contains solutions with supporting figures to all of the 900plus endofchapter problems in the sixth edition. Volume I covers Chapters 19, and Volume II covers Chapters 1118. These supplements, available free to all adopting faculty, were checked for accuracy by several instructors. The manuals are not available for sale to students. A disk containing files for PSpice solution and MATLAB solution for all indicated problems is attached to the solutions manual.
Acknowledgments
We continue to express our appreciation for the contributions of Norman Wittels of Worcester Polytechnic Institute. His contributions to the Practical Perspectives greatly enhanced both this edition and the previous one.
There were many hardworking people behind the scenes at both of our publishers who deserve our thanks and gratitude for their efforts on behalf of the sixth edition. At AddisonWesley, we would like to thank Paul Becker, Anna Eberhard Friedlander, and Royden Tonamura, and hope that they are proud of the finished product. At Prentice Hall, we thank Tom Robbins and Scott Disanno, who eased the transition to our new publisher with humor, graciousness, understanding, and a ton of really hard work.
The many revisions of the text were guided by careful and thorough reviews from professors. Our heartfelt thanks to Bill Eccles, RoseHulman Institute; Major Bob Yahn, US Air Force; Thomas Schubert, University of San Diego; Norman Wittles, WPI; Mahmoud A. Abdallah, Central State University; Nadipuram (Ram) Prasad, New Mexico State University; Terry Martin, University of Arkansas; Belle Shenoi, Wright State University; Nurgun Erdol, Florida Atlantic University; Ezz I. ElMasry, DalTech Dalhouise University; John Naber, University of Louisville; Charles P Neuman, Camegie Mellon University; David Grow, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Dan Moore, RoseHulman Institute.
Susan would like to thank Professor James Nilsson for the opportunity to share the work and the rewards of Electric Circuits. She doesn't know a more patient, gracious, and hardworking person, and she continues to learn from him in the process of each revision. Thanks also to her team teachers and colleagues, Susan Schneider and Jeff Hock, who help her to stay focused and sane. Thanks to the sophomore classes of 199798 and 199899 in Electrical Engineering at Marquette University who helped her rewrite many of the Chapter Problems, often unknowingly. Most important, she thanks her sons David and Jason, who continue to tolerate the long hours and the late meals, and give her hugs when she needs to be reenergized.
James would like to thank Susan for accepting the challenge of becoming a coauthor of Electric Circuits. Her willingness to suggest both pedagogical and content changes and at the same time graciously accept constructive criticism when offered has made the transition to the fifth and sixth editions possible. She brings to the text an expertise in computer use and a genuine interest in and enthusiasm for teaching.
James also thanks Robert Yahn (USAF) and Stephen O'Conner (USAF) for their continued interest in the book. He thanks Professor emeriti Thomas Scott and C. J. Triska at Iowa State University who continue to make valuable suggestions concerning the content and pedagogy of the text. Finally, he acknowledges the cooperation of Jacob Chacko, a transmission and distribution engineer at the Ames Municipal Electric System.