Electrical Power Systems Quality

Electrical Power Systems Quality

by Roger C. Dugan
     
 

ISBN-10: 0070180318

ISBN-13: 9780070180314

Pub. Date: 10/01/1995

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

With the proliferation of high-efficiency electrical power loads, and their concomitant sensitivity to disturbances, understanding the causes of power quality problems -- and learning how to prevent them -- is today taking on paramount importance.

The timing couldn't be better for this much-needed reference. Ranging across the entire spectrum of power quality

Overview

With the proliferation of high-efficiency electrical power loads, and their concomitant sensitivity to disturbances, understanding the causes of power quality problems -- and learning how to prevent them -- is today taking on paramount importance.

The timing couldn't be better for this much-needed reference. Ranging across the entire spectrum of power quality issues, the book contains a wealth of reliable information for everyone working in the field, from utility engineers to industrial plant technicians to power quality consultants. Written in an accessible style supported by abundant illustrations, this hands-on resource discusses all the key facets.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780070180314
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date:
10/01/1995
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
265
Product dimensions:
6.22(w) x 9.31(h) x 0.93(d)

Table of Contents

Forewordxi
Acknowledgmentsxiii
Chapter 1.Introduction1
1.1What Is Power Quality?2
1.2Power Quality = Voltage Quality5
1.3Why Are We Concerned about Power Quality?6
1.4Who Should Use This Book7
1.5Overview of the Contents8
Chapter 2.Terms and Definitions9
2.1Need for a Consistent Vocabulary9
2.2General Classes of Power Quality Problems9
2.3Translents13
2.3.1Impulsive Transient13
2.3.2Osciliatory Transient14
2.4Long-Duration Voltage Variations17
2.4.1Overvoltage17
2.4.2Undervoltage17
2.4.3Sustained Interruptions18
2.5Short-Duration Voltage Variations18
2.5.1Interruption19
2.5.2Sags (Dips)19
2.5.3Swells22
2.6Voltage Imbalance23
2.7Waveform Distortion23
2.7.1dc offset24
2.7.2Harmonics24
2.7.3Interharmonics26
2.7.4Notching26
2.7.5Noise27
2.8Voltage Fluctuation27
2.9Power Frequency Variations28
2.10Power Quality Terms29
2.11Ambiguous Terms36
2.12CBEMA Curve37
2.13References38
Chapter 3.Voltage Sags and Interruptions39
3.1Sources of Sags and Interruptions39
3.2Area of Vulnerability43
3.3Fundamental Principles of Protection44
3.4End-User Issues45
3.4.1Ferroresonant Transformers46
3.4.2Magnetic Synthesizers48
3.4.3On-Line UPS48
3.4.4Standby UPS49
3.4.5Hybrid UPS50
3.4.6Motor-Generator Sets50
3.4.7Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Device (SMES)51
3.4.8End-User Equipment Specifications51
3.5Motor-Starting Sags52
3.5.1Motor-Starting Methods52
3.5.2Estimating the Sag Severity during Full-Voltage Starting54
3.6Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues55
3.6.1Overcurrent Coordination Principles55
3.6.2Relaying Practices56
3.6.3Fuses56
3.6.4Reclosing57
3.6.5Fuse Saving59
3.6.6Reliability61
3.6.7Impact of Eliminating Fuse Saving63
3.6.8Increased Sectionalizing65
3.6.9Midline or Tap Reclosers71
3.6.10Instantaneous Reclosing72
3.6.11Single-Phase Tripping73
3.6.12Current-Limiting Fuses73
3.6.13Adaptive Relaying75
3.6.14Ignoring Third-Harmonic Currents75
3.6.15Utility Fault Prevention77
3.6.16Fault Locating78
3.7References80
Chapter 4.Transient Overvoltages83
4.1Sources of Transient Overvoltages83
4.1.1Capacitor Switching83
4.1.2Magnification of Capacitor-Switching Transients85
4.1.3Lightning88
4.2Principles of Overvoltage Protection92
4.3Devices for Overvoltage Protection96
4.4Utility Capacitor-Switching Transients100
4.4.1Switching Times100
4.4.2Preinsertion Resistors101
4.4.3Synchronous Closing101
4.4.4Capacitor Location103
4.5Utility Lightning Protection104
4.5.1Shielding105
4.5.2Line Arresters106
4.5.3Low-Side Surges108
4.5.4Cable Protection113
4.5.5Scout Arrester Scheme116
4.6Load-Switching Transient Problems118
4.6.1Nulsance Tripping of ASDs118
4.6.2Transients from Load Switching118
4.6.3Transformer Energizing120
4.7Computer Tools for Transients Analysis120
4.8References122
Chapter 5.Harmonics123
5.1Harmonic Distortion124
5.2Voltage vs. Current Distortion127
5.3Harmonics vs. Transients128
5.4Total Harmonic Distortion and rms Value129
5.5Power and Power Factor130
5.6Tripien Harmonics133
5.7Single-Phase Power Supplies136
5.8Three-Phase Power Converters138
5.8.1dc drives140
5.8.2ac drives141
5.8.3Impact of Operating Condition142
5.8.4Effects of ac Line Chokes on Harmonics143
5.9Arcing Devices144
5.10Saturable Devices145
5.11Effects of Harmonic Distortion148
5.11.1Impact on Capacitors148
5.11.2Impact on Transformers150
5.11.3Impact on Motors154
5.12System Response Characteristics155
5.12.1System Impedance155
5.12.2Capicitor Impedance158
5.12.3Parallel Resonance159
5.12.4Effects of Resistance and Resistive Load161
5.13Principles for Controlling Harmonics162
5.13.1Reducing Harmonic Currents in Loads163
5.13.2Filtering163
5.13.3Modifying the System Frequency Response164
5.13.4On Utility Distribution Feeders164
5.13.5In End-User Facilities165
5.14Locating Sources of Harmonics166
5.15Devices for Filtering Harmonic Distortion168
5.15.1Passive Filters168
5.15.2Active Filters170
5.16Harmonic Study Procedure171
5.17Symmetrical Components172
5.18Modeling Harmonic Sources174
5.19Harmonic Filter Design176
5.20Telecommunications Interference180
5.21Computer Tools for Harmonics Analysis182
5.21.1Capabilities for Harmonics Analysis Programs183
5.21.2Harmonic Analysis by Computer--Historical Perspective184
5.22References187
5.23Bibliography187
Chapter 6.Long-Duration Voltage Variations189
6.1Principles of Regulating the Voltage189
6.2Devices for Voltage Regulation190
6.2.1Utility Step-Voltage Regulators191
6.2.2Ferroresonant Transformers192
6.2.3Electronic Tap-Switching Regulator193
6.2.4Magnetic Synthesizers194
6.2.5On-Line UPS Systems194
6.2.6Motor-Generator Sets194
6.2.7Static Var Compensators195
6.3Utility Voltage Regulator Application196
6.3.1Line Drop Compensator196
6.3.2Regulators in Series199
6.4Capacitors for Voltage Regulation200
6.4.1Shunt Capacitors200
6.4.2Series Capacitors201
6.5End-User Capacitor Application202
6.5.1Location for Power Factor Correction Capacitors202
6.5.2Voltage Rise203
6.5.3Reduction in Power System Losses204
6.5.4Reduction in Line Current205
6.5.5Displacement Power Factor vs. True Power Factor205
6.5.6Selecting the Amount of Capacitance206
6.6Regulating Utility Voltage with Dispersed Sources207
6.7Reference210
Chapter 7.Wiring and Grounding211
7.1Definitions211
7.2Reasons for Grounding216
7.3Typical Wiring and Grounding Problems218
7.3.1Problems with Conductors and Connectors218
7.3.2Missing Safety Ground218
7.3.3Multiple Neutral-to-Ground Connections219
7.3.4Ungrounded Equipment219
7.3.5Additional Ground Rods219
7.3.6Ground Loops220
7.3.7Insufficient Neutral Conductor220
7.4Solutions to Wiring and Grounding Problems221
7.4.1Proper Grounding Practices221
7.4.2Ground Electrode (Rod)221
7.4.3Service Entrance Connections223
7.4.4Panel Board224
7.4.5Isolated Ground225
7.4.6Separately Derived Systems227
7.4.7Grounding Techniques for Signal Reference227
7.4.8More on Grounding for Sensitive Equipment230
7.4.9Summary of Wiring and Grounding Solutions231
Chapter 8.Monitoring Power Quality233
8.1Site Survey233
8.2Detailed Power Quality Monitoring234
8.2.1Choosing a Monitoring Location234
8.2.2Disturbance Recording Form235
8.2.3Disturbance Monitor Connections236
8.2.4Setting Monitor Thresholds238
8.2.5Quantities to Measure239
8.2.6Interpreting the Measurement Results239
8.2.7Finding the Source of a Disturbance240
8.3Power Quality Measurement Equipment240
8.3.1Types of Instruments241
8.3.2Wiring and Grounding Testers242
8.3.3Multimeters243
8.3.4Oscilloscopes244
8.3.5Disturbance Analyzers245
8.3.6Spectrum Analyzers and Harmonic Analyzers247
8.3.7Combination Disturbance and Harmonic Analyzers248
8.3.8Flicker Meters251
8.3.9Tranducer Requirements253
8.3.10Signal Levels253
8.3.11Frequency Response255
8.3.12Installation Considerations257
8.3.13Summary of Transducer Recommendations259
8.4Summary of Equipment Capabilities260
8.5References260
8.6Bibliography260
Index261

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