Electroacoustical Reference Data / Edition 1

Electroacoustical Reference Data / Edition 1

by John Eargle

ISBN-10: 0442013973

ISBN-13: 9780442013974

Pub. Date: 05/01/1995

Publisher: Springer US

Product Details

Springer US
Publication date:
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.24(d)

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Table of Contents

I: General Acoustical Relationships.- 1. Sound Pressure and dB Lp (Sound Pressure Level).- 2. Frequency and Wavelength in Air.- 3. Inverse Square Losses in a Free Field.- 4. Attenuation with Distance from Plane and Line Sources in a Free Field.- 5. Atmospheric Sound Absorption as a Function of Frequency and Relative Humidity, I.- 6. Atmospheric Sound Absorption as a Function of Frequency and Relative Humidity, II.- 7. Atmospheric Absorption Due to Inverse Square Losses and Relative Humidity.- 8. NC and PNC Noise Criteria Curves.- 9. Sound Transmission Class (STC) Curves.- 10. Helmholtz Resonators.- 11. Resonance Frequency for Pipes Open at Both Ends.- 12. End Correction for Pipes.- 13. Resonance Frequency for Pipes Open at One End.- 14. Diffraction of Sound by a Cylinder, a Cube, and a Sphere.- 15. Response Curves Showing Diffraction by 10 Objects of Different Shape.- 16. Fresnel Diffraction over Sound Barriers.- 17. Definition of Critical Distance.- 18. Room Constant as a Function of Surface Area and Absorption.- 19. Relation between $$ \overline \alpha $$ and $$ - \ln \;(1 - \overline \alpha ) $$ in Reverberation Time Calculations.- 20. Reverberant Level as a Function of Room Constant and Acoustical Power.- 21. Mean Free Path (MFP), Room Volume, and Surface Area.- 22. Sound Attenuation over Distance in Semireverberant Spaces.- 23. Critical Distance as a Function of Room Constant and Directivity Factor.- 24. Acoustical Power Required to Produce a Level of 94 dB Lp as a Function of Room Volume and Reverberation Time.- 25. Sound Pressure Level Produced by 1 Acoustic Watt as a Function of Room Constant and Distance from Source.- 26. Estimation of Total Absorption When Room Volume and Reverberation Time Are Known.- 27. Estimation of Room Constant When Room Volume and Reverberation Time Are Known.- 28. Estimation of Room Boundary Area When Volume Is Known.- 29. Reverberation Time Ratios with and without Atmospheric Losses.- 30. Relationship between Directivity Factor and Directivity Index.- 31. Wave number (k) as a Function of Piston Size and Frequency.- 32. Polar Response of a Piston Mounted in a Large Baffle.- 33. Polar Response of a Piston Mounted at the End of a Long Tube.- 34. Polar Response of an Unbaffled Piston.- 35. Off-axis Response of a Piston in a Large Baffle.- 36. Directivity of a Piston in a Large Baffle, at the End of a Long Tube, and in Free Space.- II. Loudspeakers.- 37. Transmission Coefficient versus Frequency for a Piston Mounted in a Large Baffle.- 38. Normalized Mutual Coupling for Multiple Pistons.- 39. Acoustical Power Output Produced on One Side of a Piston in a Large Baffle as a Function of Amplitude, Radius, and Frequency.- 40. Sound Pressure Level Produced by a Piston in a Large Baffle at a Distance of 1 Meter as a Function of Amplitude, Radius, and Frequency.- 41. Sound Pressure Level Produced by a Piston in a Large Baffle as a Function of Radiated Power and Distance.- 42. Peak Amplitude for 1 Acoustical Watt Radiated by a Piston into Half-Space as a Function of Radius and Frequency.- 43. Transducer Cone Deflection as a Function of Resonance Frequency.- 44. Second Harmonic Distortion in Horns.- 45. Frequency Modulation (FM) Distortion in Cone Transducers.- 46. Nominal Loudspeaker Efficiency as a Function of On-axis Sensitivity and Directivity Index.- 47. Sensitivity Ratings for Loudspeaker Systems.- 48. Plane Wave Tube (PWT) Sensitivity Ratings for Compression Drivers.- 49. Radiation Resistance for Various Horn Flare Development Curves.- 50. High-Frequency Driver Electrical Derating for Flat Power Response Equalization.- 51. Duty Cycle-Related Power Ratings.- 52. Resistance Change with Temperature for Copper.- 53. Weighting Curves for Loudspeaker Power Measurements.- 54. House Equalization Standard Curves for Sound Reinforcement and Program Monitoring.- 55. Transducer Sensitivity as a Function of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature.- 56. Relation between 2? and 4? Loading and Baffle Size.- 57. Horn Mouth Size versus—6 dB Beamwidth Control.- 58. Beamwidth Control of Multicellular Horns.- 59. Beamwidth Narrowing with Vertical Stacked Horn Arrays.- 60. Directivity versus Horizontal and Vertical Beamwidth.- 61. Beamwidth and Directivity Characteristics of a Pair of 250-mm (10-in) Low-Frequency Transducers.- 62. Beamwidth and Directivity Characteristics of a Pair of 300-mm (12-in) Low-Frequency Transducers.- 63. Beamwidth and Directivity Characteristics of a Pair of 380-mm (15-in) Low-Frequency Transducers.- 64. Distributed Loudspeaker Layout: Hexagonal Array.- 65. Distributed Loudspeaker Layout: Square Array.- 66. Dividing Networks; 6 dB per Octave Slopes.- 67. Dividing Networks; 12 dB per Octave Slopes.- 68. Porting Data for Vented Loudspeaker Enclosures.- 69. Thiele-Small Parameters for Low-Frequency Horn Applications.- 70. Simple Line Arrays.- III. Microphones.- 71. Nomograph for Microphone Output Power and Voltage versus Microphone Impedance.- 72. Microphone Self-Noise Rating Curves.- 73. EIA GM Microphone Sensitivity Rating.- 74. First-Order Microphone Pattern Data.- 75. Mid-Side/XY Conversion Data.- 76. Random Energy Efficiency, Directivity Factor, and Distance Factor as a Function of Polar Pattern.- 77. Front-to-Total Ratio as a Function of Polar Pattern.- 78. Front-Back Ratio versus Polar Pattern.- 79. Omni- and Bidirectional Components of the First-Order Cardioid Family.- 80. Back-to-Back Cardioid Components of the First-order Cardioid Family.- 81. Splay Angles and Separation for Various Near-Coincident Stereo Microphone Arrays.- 82. Mid-Side (MS) and XY Microphone Pairs.- 83. Multipath and Multimicrophone Interference Effects.- 84. Effect of Dipole Dimension on Directional Microphone Frequency Response.- 85. Basic Proximity Effect in Directional Microphones.- 86. Proximity Effect in a Dipole Microphone at Several Distances.- 87. On-axis Proximity Effect in a Cardioid Microphone at Several Distances.- 88. Proximity Effect in a Cardioid Microphone as a Function of Azimuth Angle.- 89. On-axis and Diffuse Field Incidence Response of Omnidirectional Microphones.- 90. Delay versus Level for Accent Microphones in Recording.- 91. Microphone Boundary Size versus 2? to 4? Transition Frequency.- 92. Higher-Order Microphone Characteristics.- 93. Microphone Line Losses.- IV. Signal Transmission.- 94. Time Constant versus Frequency.- 95. RIAA Disc Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis.- 96. FM Broadcasting Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis.- 97. Early 78 rpm and 331/3 rpm Disc Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis Standards.- 98. Motion Picture Mono Optical Reproduce Standard.- 99. Digital Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis Standard.- 100. Comparison of Meters Used in Broadcasting and Recording.- 101. Power Ratios Expressed in dBm.- 102. Voltage Ratios Expressed in dBu.- 103. Power Ratios Expressed in dBW.- 104. Voltage Ratios Expressed in dBV.- 105. Sine Wave Voltage Output versus DC Voltage Capability.- 106. Resistance Values for Various Lengths and Gauges of Copper Wire.- 107. Metric Wire Gauges.- 108. High-Frequency Transducer Protection Capacitors.- 109. Design of Symmetrical T-pads.- 110. Design of L-pads.- 111. Summing of Levels.- 112. Distortion Percentage and Level.- 113. Load Impedance as a Function of Power Input in 70-volt, 100-volt, and 25-volt Distribution Systems.- 114. Maximum Wire Runs for 0.5-dB Loss in 70-volt Systems.- 115. Peak and rms Values of Waveforms.- 116. Input and Output Impedances of Electronic Devices.- 117. Loudspeaker Damping Factor as a Function of Line Length and Wire Gauge.- 118. Amplifier Requirements: Direct Field Considerations.- 119. Amplifier Requirements: Reverberant Field Considerations.- 120. Panpot Response: One Channel to Two.- 121. Panpot Response: One Channel to Three.- 122. Quadraphonic Panpot Response: One Channel to Four.- 123. Effect of Noise on Speech Communication.- 124. Equivalent Acoustic Distance (EAD) and A-Weighted Noise Level.- 125. Horn Coverage Angle as Seen in Plan View.- 126. Peutz’s Percentage Articulation Loss of Consonants (Alcons).- 127. Augspurger’s Modification of Peutz’s Data.- 128. Calculation of Articulation Index (AI).- 129. Typical Motion Picture Screen Losses.- 130. House Equalization Standard for Motion Picture Systems.- 131. House Equalization for Motion Picture Systems: Adjustments for House Size.- 132. ISO Preferred Numbers.- V. Psychoacoustical Data.- 133. Fletcher-Munson Equal Loudness Contours.- 134. Robinson-Dadson Equal Loudness Contours.- 135. Churcher-King Equal Loudness Contours.- 136. Determination of “Twice Loudness” at Low Frequencies.- 137. Calculation of Loudness in Sones.- 138. Standard Weighting Curves.- 139. Loudness and Signal Duration.- 140. Pitch and Level Relationships, I.- 141. Pitch and Level Relationships, II.- 142. Frequency and Pitch Relationships.- 143. Critical Bandwidth.- 144. Annoyance Due to Echo Effects.- 145. Blauert and Laws Criterion for the Audibility of Signal Group Delay.- 146. Optimum Reverberation Time as a Function of Room Volume and Usage.- 147. Optimum Reverberation Time as a Function of Frequency.- 148. Subjective Effects of First Reflections in a Concert Hall.- 149. Binaural Lateral Masking.- 150. Stereophonic Localization: Franssen’s Data.- 151. The Precedence Effect (Haas Effect).- 152. Bauer’s Stereophonic Law of Sines.- 153. Pressures and Pressure Levels Generated by a Variety of Sound Sources.- 154. Typical Male Speech Spectra.- 155. Hearing Threshold Shift as a Function of Age.- VI. Musical Instruments.- 156. Frequency Ranges of Musical Instruments and the Human Voice.- 157. Dynamic Ranges of Wind and String Instruments.- 158. Directional Properties of Brass Instruments.- 159. Directional Properties of Woodwind Instruments.- 160. Directional Properties of String Instruments.- 161. Octave Band Spectral Amplitude Distribution, Music Sources.- VII. Analog Magnetic Recording.- 162. Track Width Standards for Professional Magnetic Recording.- 163. Track Width Standards for Consumer Tape Formats.- 164. Azimuth Losses in Tape Playback.- 165. Oxide Thickness Losses in Tape Playback.- 166. Spacing Losses in Tape Playback.- 167. Gap Length Losses in Tape Playback.- 168. Reference Surface Fluxivity Standards for Tape Recording.- 169. IEC Equalization Standards for Professional Tape Playback.- 170. NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) Standard for Professional Tape Playback.- 171. AES (Audio Engineering Society) Standard for Professional Tape Playback at 76 cm/sec (30 in/sec).- 172. Standards for Playback of Consumer Tape Formats.- 173. IEC to NAB Conversion at 38 cm/sec.- 174. IEC to NAB Conversion at 19 cm/sec.- 175. Standard Weighting Curve for Tape Flutter Measurements.- Unit Conversion Table.- References.

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