Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles: Reality, Potential, and Challenges, Second Edition / Edition 2

Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles: Reality, Potential, and Challenges, Second Edition / Edition 2

by Yoseph Bar-Cohen
     
 

In concept and execution, this book covers the filed of EAP with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models, processing techniques, and characterization methods. In this second edition the reader is brought current on promising advances in EAP that have occurred in electric EAP, electroactive… See more details below

Overview

In concept and execution, this book covers the filed of EAP with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models, processing techniques, and characterization methods. In this second edition the reader is brought current on promising advances in EAP that have occurred in electric EAP, electroactive polymer gels, ionomeric polymer-metal composites, carbon nanotube actuators, and more.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780819452979
Publisher:
SPIE Press
Publication date:
03/28/2004
Series:
SPIE Press Monograph Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
816
Sales rank:
1,252,505
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.90(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
Topic 1Introduction
Chapter 1EAP History, Current Status, and Infrastructure3
1.1Introduction4
1.2Biological Muscles8
1.3Historical Review and Currently Available Active Polymers8
1.4Polymers with Controllable Properties or Shape10
1.5Electroactive Polymers (EAP)22
1.6The EAP Roadmap--Need for an Established EAP Technology Infrastructure39
1.7Potential41
1.8Acknowledgments42
1.9References43
Topic 2Natural Muscles
Chapter 2Natural Muscle as a Biological System53
2.1Conceptual Background53
2.2Structural Considerations56
2.3Does Contraction Involve a Phase Transition?59
2.4Molecular Basis of the Phase Transition62
2.5Lessons from the Natural Muscle System That May Be Useful for the Design of Polymer Actuators68
2.6References70
Chapter 3Metrics of Natural Muscle Function73
3.1Caution about Copying and Comparisons74
3.2Common Characterizations--Partial Picture75
3.3Work-Loop Method Reveals Diverse Roles of Muscle Function during Rhythmic Activity79
3.4Direct Comparisons of Muscle with Human-Made Actuators85
3.5Future Reciprocal Interdisciplinary Collaborations86
3.6Acknowledgments87
3.7References87
Topic 3EAP Materials
Topic 3.1Electric EAP
Chapter 4Electric EAP95
4.1Introduction96
4.2General Terminology of Electromechanical Effects in Electric EAP96
4.3PVDF-Based Ferroelectric Polymers103
4.4Ferroelectric Odd-Numbered Polyamides (Nylons)114
4.5Electrostriction119
4.6Field-Induced Strain Due to Maxwell Stress Effect132
4.7High Dielectric Constant Polymeric Materials as Actuator Materials133
4.8Electrets137
4.9Liquid-Crystal Polymers141
4.10Acknowledgments142
4.11References142
Topic 3.2Ionic EAP
Chapter 5Electroactive Polymer Gels151
5.1Introduction--the Gel State151
5.2Physical Gels152
5.3Chemical Gels152
5.4Thermodynamic Properties of Gels154
5.5Transport Properties of Gels155
5.6Polyelectrolyte Gels156
5.7Mechanical Properties of Gels156
5.8Chemical Actuation of Gels157
5.9Electrically Actuated Gels158
5.10Recent Progress162
5.11Future Directions164
5.12References165
Chapter 6Ionomeric Polymer-Metal Composites171
6.1Introduction172
6.2Brief History of IPMC Materials173
6.3Materials and Manufacture175
6.4Properties and Characterization178
6.5Actuation Mechanism196
6.6Development of IPMC Applications219
6.7Discussion: Advantages/Disadvantages220
6.8Acknowledgments223
6.9References223
Chapter 7Conductive Polymers231
7.1Brief History of Conductive Polymers231
7.2Applications of Conductive Polymers233
7.3Basic Mechanism of CP Actuators236
7.4Development of CP Actuators241
7.5Advantages and Disadvantages of CP Actuators249
7.6Acknowledgments252
7.7References252
Chapter 8Carbon Nanotube Actuators: Synthesis, Properties, and Performance261
8.1Introduction261
8.2Nanotube Synthesis262
8.3Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes266
8.4Macroscopic Nanotube Assemblies: Mats and Fibers269
8.5Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes270
8.6Mechanism of Nanotube Actuation275
8.7Experimental Studies of Carbon Nanotube Actuators279
8.8Conclusions and Future Developments288
8.9References288
Topic 3.3Molecular EAP
Chapter 9Molecular Scale Electroactive Polymers299
9.1Introduction299
9.2Intrinsic Properties and Macroscale Translation301
9.3Stimulus-Induced Conformational Changes within the Single Molecule303
9.4Final Comments311
9.5References311
Topic 4Modeling Electroactive Polymers
Chapter 10Computational Chemistry317
10.1Introduction317
10.2Overview of Computational Methods318
10.3Quantum Mechanical Methods320
10.4Classical Force Field Simulations328
10.5Mesoscale Simulations332
10.6References333
Chapter 11Modeling and Analysis of Chemistry and Electromechanics335
11.1Introduction335
11.2Chemical Stimulation337
11.3Electrical Stimulation342
11.4Conclusion360
11.5References360
Chapter 12Electromechanical Models for Optimal Design and Effective Behavior of Electroactive Polymers363
12.1Introduction363
12.2Introduction to Finite Elasticity364
12.3Optimal Design of Electrostatic Actuators369
12.4Models of Ionomer Actuators374
12.5Reduced Models379
12.6Conclusion382
12.7Acknowledgment383
12.8References383
Chapter 13Modeling IPMC for Design of Actuation Mechanisms385
13.1Models and CAE Tools for Design of IPMC Mechanisms386
13.2A Physicochemical Model Considering Six Phenomena388
13.3Gray-Box Macroscopic Model for Mechanical and Control Design396
13.4Simulation Demonstration by Models402
13.5Applications of the Model406
13.6References425
Topic 5Processing and Fabrication of EAPs
Chapter 14Processing and Fabrication Techniques431
14.1Introduction431
14.2Synthesis and Material Processing462
14.3Fabrication and Shaping Techniques434
14.4Electroding Techniques441
14.5System Integration Methods449
14.6EAP Actuators452
14.7Concluding Remarks453
14.8References454
Topic 6Testing and Characterization
Chapter 15Methods of Testing and Characterization467
15.1Introduction468
15.2Characterization of EAP with Polarization-Dependent Strains468
15.3Characterization of Ionic EAP with Diffusion-Dependent Strain498
15.4Summary of Test Methods516
15.5Conclusion516
15.6Acknowledgments518
15.7References518
Topic 7EAP Actuators, Devices, and Mechanisms
Chapter 16Application of Dielectric Elastomer EAP Actuators529
16.1Introduction530
16.2Dielectric Elastomer EAP--Background and Basics535
16.3Actuator Design Issues539
16.4Operational Considerations546
16.5Examples of Dielectric Elastomer EAP Actuators and Applications551
16.6Artificial Muscles and Applications to Biologically Inspired Devices552
16.7General Purpose Linear Actuators566
16.8Planar and Other Actuator Configurations567
16.9Motors573
16.10Generators574
16.11Sensors575
16.12Summary and Future Developments576
16.13Acknowledgments577
16.14References577
Chapter 17Biologically Inspired Robots581
17.1Introduction583
17.2Biologically Inspired Mechanisms and Robots584
17.3Aspects of Robotic Design584
17.4Active Polymer Actuators in a Traditional Robotic System594
17.5Using Rapid Prototyping Methods for Integrated Design596
17.6Evolutionary Design Algorithms (Genetic Algorithm Design)598
17.7EAP Actuators in Highly Integrated Microrobot Design602
17.8Solving the Power Problem--Toward Energetic Autonomy614
17.9The Future of Active Polymer Actuators and Robots616
17.10References617
Chapter 18Applications of EAP to the Entertainment Industry621
18.1Introduction622
18.2Entertainment and Its Shifting Significance626
18.3Technical Background to Entertainment Application of EAP627
18.4The Craft of Aesthetic Biomimesis in Entertainment637
18.5A Recipe for Using EAP in Entertainment647
18.6Facial Expression Robot-Practical Test Bed for EAP647
18.7Conclusion655
18.8Acknowledgment655
18.9References655
Chapter 19Haptic Interfaces Using Electrorheological Fluids659
19.1Introduction659
19.2Electrorheological Fluids661
19.3Haptic Interfaces and Electrorheological Fluids666
19.4MEMICA Haptic Glove668
19.5ECS Element Model Derivation673
19.6Parametric Analysis of the Design of ECS Elements677
19.7Experimental ECS System and Results679
19.8Conclusions682
19.9Acknowledgments682
19.10References683
Chapter 20Shape Control of Precision Gossamer Apertures687
20.1Introduction687
20.2Shape Control of PGAs691
20.3Shape Control Methodologies Involving Electroactive Polymers697
20.4Conclusions702
20.5Nomenclature703
20.6Acknowledgments703
20.7References704
Topic 8Lessons Learned, Applications, and Outlook
Chapter 21EAP Applications, Potential, and Challenges709
21.1Introduction710
21.2Lesson Learned Using IPMC and Dielectric EAP711
21.3Summary of Existing EAP Materials717
21.4Scalability Issues and Needs718
21.5Expected and Evolving Applications719

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