Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles: Reality, Potential, and Challenges, Second Edition / Edition 2

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Overview

In concept and execution, this book covers the filed of EAP with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models, processing techniques, and characterization methods. In this second edition the reader is brought current on promising advances in EAP that have occurred in electric EAP, electroactive polymer gels, ionomeric polymer-metal composites, carbon nanotube actuators, and more.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780819452979
  • Publisher: SPIE Press
  • Publication date: 3/28/2004
  • Series: SPIE Press Monograph Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 816
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Topic 1 Introduction
Chapter 1 EAP History, Current Status, and Infrastructure 3
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Biological Muscles 8
1.3 Historical Review and Currently Available Active Polymers 8
1.4 Polymers with Controllable Properties or Shape 10
1.5 Electroactive Polymers (EAP) 22
1.6 The EAP Roadmap--Need for an Established EAP Technology Infrastructure 39
1.7 Potential 41
1.8 Acknowledgments 42
1.9 References 43
Topic 2 Natural Muscles
Chapter 2 Natural Muscle as a Biological System 53
2.1 Conceptual Background 53
2.2 Structural Considerations 56
2.3 Does Contraction Involve a Phase Transition? 59
2.4 Molecular Basis of the Phase Transition 62
2.5 Lessons from the Natural Muscle System That May Be Useful for the Design of Polymer Actuators 68
2.6 References 70
Chapter 3 Metrics of Natural Muscle Function 73
3.1 Caution about Copying and Comparisons 74
3.2 Common Characterizations--Partial Picture 75
3.3 Work-Loop Method Reveals Diverse Roles of Muscle Function during Rhythmic Activity 79
3.4 Direct Comparisons of Muscle with Human-Made Actuators 85
3.5 Future Reciprocal Interdisciplinary Collaborations 86
3.6 Acknowledgments 87
3.7 References 87
Topic 3 EAP Materials
Topic 3.1 Electric EAP
Chapter 4 Electric EAP 95
4.1 Introduction 96
4.2 General Terminology of Electromechanical Effects in Electric EAP 96
4.3 PVDF-Based Ferroelectric Polymers 103
4.4 Ferroelectric Odd-Numbered Polyamides (Nylons) 114
4.5 Electrostriction 119
4.6 Field-Induced Strain Due to Maxwell Stress Effect 132
4.7 High Dielectric Constant Polymeric Materials as Actuator Materials 133
4.8 Electrets 137
4.9 Liquid-Crystal Polymers 141
4.10 Acknowledgments 142
4.11 References 142
Topic 3.2 Ionic EAP
Chapter 5 Electroactive Polymer Gels 151
5.1 Introduction--the Gel State 151
5.2 Physical Gels 152
5.3 Chemical Gels 152
5.4 Thermodynamic Properties of Gels 154
5.5 Transport Properties of Gels 155
5.6 Polyelectrolyte Gels 156
5.7 Mechanical Properties of Gels 156
5.8 Chemical Actuation of Gels 157
5.9 Electrically Actuated Gels 158
5.10 Recent Progress 162
5.11 Future Directions 164
5.12 References 165
Chapter 6 Ionomeric Polymer-Metal Composites 171
6.1 Introduction 172
6.2 Brief History of IPMC Materials 173
6.3 Materials and Manufacture 175
6.4 Properties and Characterization 178
6.5 Actuation Mechanism 196
6.6 Development of IPMC Applications 219
6.7 Discussion: Advantages/Disadvantages 220
6.8 Acknowledgments 223
6.9 References 223
Chapter 7 Conductive Polymers 231
7.1 Brief History of Conductive Polymers 231
7.2 Applications of Conductive Polymers 233
7.3 Basic Mechanism of CP Actuators 236
7.4 Development of CP Actuators 241
7.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of CP Actuators 249
7.6 Acknowledgments 252
7.7 References 252
Chapter 8 Carbon Nanotube Actuators: Synthesis, Properties, and Performance 261
8.1 Introduction 261
8.2 Nanotube Synthesis 262
8.3 Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes 266
8.4 Macroscopic Nanotube Assemblies: Mats and Fibers 269
8.5 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 270
8.6 Mechanism of Nanotube Actuation 275
8.7 Experimental Studies of Carbon Nanotube Actuators 279
8.8 Conclusions and Future Developments 288
8.9 References 288
Topic 3.3 Molecular EAP
Chapter 9 Molecular Scale Electroactive Polymers 299
9.1 Introduction 299
9.2 Intrinsic Properties and Macroscale Translation 301
9.3 Stimulus-Induced Conformational Changes within the Single Molecule 303
9.4 Final Comments 311
9.5 References 311
Topic 4 Modeling Electroactive Polymers
Chapter 10 Computational Chemistry 317
10.1 Introduction 317
10.2 Overview of Computational Methods 318
10.3 Quantum Mechanical Methods 320
10.4 Classical Force Field Simulations 328
10.5 Mesoscale Simulations 332
10.6 References 333
Chapter 11 Modeling and Analysis of Chemistry and Electromechanics 335
11.1 Introduction 335
11.2 Chemical Stimulation 337
11.3 Electrical Stimulation 342
11.4 Conclusion 360
11.5 References 360
Chapter 12 Electromechanical Models for Optimal Design and Effective Behavior of Electroactive Polymers 363
12.1 Introduction 363
12.2 Introduction to Finite Elasticity 364
12.3 Optimal Design of Electrostatic Actuators 369
12.4 Models of Ionomer Actuators 374
12.5 Reduced Models 379
12.6 Conclusion 382
12.7 Acknowledgment 383
12.8 References 383
Chapter 13 Modeling IPMC for Design of Actuation Mechanisms 385
13.1 Models and CAE Tools for Design of IPMC Mechanisms 386
13.2 A Physicochemical Model Considering Six Phenomena 388
13.3 Gray-Box Macroscopic Model for Mechanical and Control Design 396
13.4 Simulation Demonstration by Models 402
13.5 Applications of the Model 406
13.6 References 425
Topic 5 Processing and Fabrication of EAPs
Chapter 14 Processing and Fabrication Techniques 431
14.1 Introduction 431
14.2 Synthesis and Material Processing 462
14.3 Fabrication and Shaping Techniques 434
14.4 Electroding Techniques 441
14.5 System Integration Methods 449
14.6 EAP Actuators 452
14.7 Concluding Remarks 453
14.8 References 454
Topic 6 Testing and Characterization
Chapter 15 Methods of Testing and Characterization 467
15.1 Introduction 468
15.2 Characterization of EAP with Polarization-Dependent Strains 468
15.3 Characterization of Ionic EAP with Diffusion-Dependent Strain 498
15.4 Summary of Test Methods 516
15.5 Conclusion 516
15.6 Acknowledgments 518
15.7 References 518
Topic 7 EAP Actuators, Devices, and Mechanisms
Chapter 16 Application of Dielectric Elastomer EAP Actuators 529
16.1 Introduction 530
16.2 Dielectric Elastomer EAP--Background and Basics 535
16.3 Actuator Design Issues 539
16.4 Operational Considerations 546
16.5 Examples of Dielectric Elastomer EAP Actuators and Applications 551
16.6 Artificial Muscles and Applications to Biologically Inspired Devices 552
16.7 General Purpose Linear Actuators 566
16.8 Planar and Other Actuator Configurations 567
16.9 Motors 573
16.10 Generators 574
16.11 Sensors 575
16.12 Summary and Future Developments 576
16.13 Acknowledgments 577
16.14 References 577
Chapter 17 Biologically Inspired Robots 581
17.1 Introduction 583
17.2 Biologically Inspired Mechanisms and Robots 584
17.3 Aspects of Robotic Design 584
17.4 Active Polymer Actuators in a Traditional Robotic System 594
17.5 Using Rapid Prototyping Methods for Integrated Design 596
17.6 Evolutionary Design Algorithms (Genetic Algorithm Design) 598
17.7 EAP Actuators in Highly Integrated Microrobot Design 602
17.8 Solving the Power Problem--Toward Energetic Autonomy 614
17.9 The Future of Active Polymer Actuators and Robots 616
17.10 References 617
Chapter 18 Applications of EAP to the Entertainment Industry 621
18.1 Introduction 622
18.2 Entertainment and Its Shifting Significance 626
18.3 Technical Background to Entertainment Application of EAP 627
18.4 The Craft of Aesthetic Biomimesis in Entertainment 637
18.5 A Recipe for Using EAP in Entertainment 647
18.6 Facial Expression Robot-Practical Test Bed for EAP 647
18.7 Conclusion 655
18.8 Acknowledgment 655
18.9 References 655
Chapter 19 Haptic Interfaces Using Electrorheological Fluids 659
19.1 Introduction 659
19.2 Electrorheological Fluids 661
19.3 Haptic Interfaces and Electrorheological Fluids 666
19.4 MEMICA Haptic Glove 668
19.5 ECS Element Model Derivation 673
19.6 Parametric Analysis of the Design of ECS Elements 677
19.7 Experimental ECS System and Results 679
19.8 Conclusions 682
19.9 Acknowledgments 682
19.10 References 683
Chapter 20 Shape Control of Precision Gossamer Apertures 687
20.1 Introduction 687
20.2 Shape Control of PGAs 691
20.3 Shape Control Methodologies Involving Electroactive Polymers 697
20.4 Conclusions 702
20.5 Nomenclature 703
20.6 Acknowledgments 703
20.7 References 704
Topic 8 Lessons Learned, Applications, and Outlook
Chapter 21 EAP Applications, Potential, and Challenges 709
21.1 Introduction 710
21.2 Lesson Learned Using IPMC and Dielectric EAP 711
21.3 Summary of Existing EAP Materials 717
21.4 Scalability Issues and Needs 718
21.5 Expected and Evolving Applications 719
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