Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering / Edition 1

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Overview

Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction and their practical applications to the design of analog and digital circuits in computer, home entertainment, medical, telecom, industrial process control, and automotive equipment, as well as military and aerospace systems.

While maintaining and updating the core information-such as cabling, grounding, filtering, shielding, digital circuit grounding and layout, and ESD-that made the previous book such a wide success, this new book includes additional coverage of:

Equipment/systems grounding

Switching power supplies and variable-speed motor drives

Digital circuit Power distribution and decoupling

PCB layout and stack-up

Mixed-signal PCB layout

RF and transient immunity

Power line disturbances

Precompliance EMC measurements

New appendices on dipole antennae, the theory of partial inductance, and the ten most common EMC problems

The concepts presented are applicable to analog and digital circuits operating from below audio frequencies to those in the GHz range. Throughout the book, an emphasis is placed on cost-effective EMC designs, with the amount and complexity of mathematics kept to the strictest minimum.

Complemented with over 250 problems with answers, Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering equips readers with the knowledge needed to design electronic equipment that is compatible with the electromagnetic environment and complaint with national and internationalEMC regulations. It is an essential resource for practicing engineers who face EMC and regulatory compliance issues and an ideal textbook for EE courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"This is an outstanding book. At 872 pages thick, it is a valuable follow-up to Ott's earlier books, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems (first edition, 1975; second edition, 1987) . . . EMC will remain with us in the foreseeable future, and we need books like this one." (The Radio Science Bulletin, 1 June 2011)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470189306
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/24/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 872
  • Sales rank: 770,702
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii

Part 1 EMC Theory 1

1 Electromagnetic Compatibility 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Noise and Interference 3

1.3 Designing for Electromagnetic Compatibility 4

1.4 Engineering Documentation and EMC 6

1.5 United States' EMC Regulations 6

1.5.1 FCC Regulations 6

1.5.2 FCC Part 15, Subpart B 8

1.5.3 Emissions 11

1.5.4 Administrative Procedures 14

1.5.5 Susceptibility 17

1.5.6 Medical Equipment 17

1.5.7 Telecom 18

1.5.8 Automotive 19

1.6 Canadian EMC Requirements 19

1.7 European Union's EMC Requirements 20

1.7.1 Emission Requirements 20

1.7.2 Harmonics and Flicker 22

1.7.3 Immunity Requirements 23

1.7.4 Directives and Standards 23

1.8 International Harmonization 26

1.9 Military Standards 27

1.10 Avionics 28

1.11 The Regulatory Process 30

1.12 Typical Noise Path 30

1.13 Methods of Noise Coupling 31

1.13.1 Conductively Coupled Noise 31

1.13.2 Common Impedance Coupling 32

1.13.3 Electric and Magnetic Field Coupling 33

1.14 Miscellaneous Noise Sources 33

1.14.1 Galvanic Action 33

1.14.2 Electrolytic Action 35

1.14.3 Triboelectric Effect 35

1.14.4 Conductor Motion 36

1.15 Use of Network Theory 36

Summary 38

Problems 39

References 41

Further Reading 42

2 Cabling 44

2.1 Capacitive Coupling 45

2.2 Effect of Shield on Capacitive Coupling 48

2.3 Inductive Coupling 52

2.4 Mutual Inductance Calculations 54

2.5 Effect of Shield on Magnetic Coupling 56

2.5.1 Magnetic Coupling Between Shield and Inner Conductor 58

2.5.2 Magnetic Coupling-Open Wire to Shielded Conductor 61

2.6 Shielding to Prevent Magnetic Radiation 64

2.7 Shielding a Receptor Against Magnetic Fields 67

2.8 Common Impedance ShieldCoupling 69

2.9 Experimental Data 70

2.10 Example of Selective Shielding 74

2.11 Shield Transfer Impedance 75

2.12 Coaxial Cable Versus Twisted Pair 75

2.13 Braided Shields 79

2.14 Spiral Shields 81

2.15 Shield Terminations 84

2.15.1 Pigtails 84

2.15.2 Grounding of Cable Shields 88

2.16 Ribbon Cables 94

2.17 Electrically Long Cables 96

Summary 96

Problems 98

References 103

Further Reading 104

3 Grounding 106

3.1 AC Power Distribution and Safety Grounds 107

3.1.1 Service Entrance 108

3.1.2 Branch Circuits 109

3.1.3 Noise Control 111

3.1.4 Earth Grounds 114

3.1.5 Isolated Grounds 116

3.1.6 Separately Derived Systems 118

3.1.7 Grounding Myths 119

3.2 Signal Grounds 120

3.2.1 Single-Point Ground Systems 124

3.2.2 Multipoint Ground Systems 126

3.2.3 Common Impedance Coupling 128

3.2.4 Hybrid Grounds 130

3.2.5 Chassis Grounds 131

3.3 Equipment/System Grounding 132

3.3.1 Isolated Systems 133

3.3.2 Clustered Systems 133

3.3.3 Distributed Systems 140

3.4 Ground Loops 142

3.5 Low-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke 147

3.6 High-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke 152

3.7 Single Ground Reference for a Circuit 154

Summary 155

Problems 156

References 157

Further Reading 157

4 Balancing and Filtering 158

4.1 Balancing 158

4.1.1 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio 161

4.1.2 Cable Balance 165

4.1.3 System Balance 166

4.1.4 Balanced Loads 166

4.2 Filtering 174

4.2.1 Common-Mode Filters 174

4.2.2 Parasitic Effects in Filters 177

4.3 Power Supply Decoupling 178

4.3.1 Low-Frequency Analog Circuit Decoupling 183

4.3.2 Amplifier Decoupling 185

4.4 Driving Capacitive Loads 186

4.5 System Bandwidth 188

4.6 Modulation and Coding 190

Summary 190

Problems 191

References 192

Further Reading 193

5 Passive Components 194

5.1 Capacitors 194

5.1.1 Electrolytic Capacitors 195

5.1.2 Film Capacitors 197

5.1.3 Mica and Ceramic Capacitors 198

5.1.4 Feed-Through Capacitors 200

5.1.5 Paralleling Capacitors 202

5.2 Inductors 203

5.3 Transformers 204

5.4 Resistors 206

5.4.1 Noise in Resistors 207

5.5 Conductors 208

5.5.1 Inductance of Round Conductors 209

5.5.2 Inductance of Rectangular Conductors 210

5.5.3 Resistance of Round Conductors 211

5.5.4 Resistance of Rectangular Conductors 213

5.6 Transmission Lines 215

5.6.1 Characteristic Impedance 217

5.6.2 Propagation Constant 220

5.6.3 High-Frequency Loss 221

5.6.4 Relationship Among C, L and ╬Ár. 224

5.6.5 Final Thoughts 225

5.7 Ferrites 225

Summary 233

Problems 234

References 237

Further Reading 237

6 Shielding 238

6.1 Near Fields and Far Fields 238

6.2 Characteristic and Wave Impedances 241

6.3 Shielding Effectiveness 243

6.4 Absorption Loss 245

6.5 Reflection Loss 249

6.5.1 Reflection Loss to Plane Waves 252

6.5.2 Reflection Loss in the Near Field 253

6.5.3 Electric Field Reflection Loss 254

6.5.4 Magnetic Field Reflection Loss 255

6.5.5 General Equations for Reflection Loss 256

6.5.6 Multiple Reflections in Thin Shields 256

6.6 Composite Absorption and Reflection Loss 257

6.6.1 Plane Waves 257

6.6.2 Electric Fields 258

6.6.3 Magnetic Fields 259

6.7 Summary of Shielding Equations 260

6.8 Shielding with Magnetic Materials 260

6.9 Experimental Data 265

6.10 Apertures 267

6.10.1 Multiple Apertures 270

6.10.2 Seams 273

6.10.3 Transfer Impedance 277

6.11 Waveguide Below Cutoff 280

6.12 Conductive Gaskets 282

6.12.1 Joints of Dissimilar Metals 283

6.12.2 Mounting of Conductive Gaskets 284

6.13 The "Ideal" Shield 287

6.14 Conductive Windows 288

6.14.1 Transparent Conductive Coatings 288

6.14.2 Wire Mesh Screens 289

6.14.3 Mounting of Windows 289

6.15 Conductive Coatings 289

6.15.1 Conductive Paints 291

6.15.2 Flame/Arc Spray 291

6.15.3 Vacuum Metalizing 291

6.15.4 Electroless Plating 292

6.15.5 Metal Foil Linings 292

6.15.6 Filled Plastic 293

6.16 Internal Shields 293

6.17 Cavity Resonance 295

6.18 Grounding of Shields 296

Summary 296

Problems 297

References 299

Further Reading 300

7 Contact Protection 302

7.1 Glow Discharges 302

7.2 Metal-Vapor or Arc Discharges 303

7.3 AC Versus DC Circuits 305

7.4 Contact Material 306

7.5 Contact Rating 306

7.6 Loads with High Inrush Currents 307

7.7 Inductive Loads 308

7.8 Contact Protection Fundamentals 310

7.9 Transient Suppression for Inductive Loads 314

7.10 Contact Protection Networks for Inductive Loads 318

7.10.1 C Network 318

7.10.2 R-C Network 318

7.10.3 R-C-D Network 321

7.11 Inductive Loads Controlled by a Transistor Switch 322

7.12 Resistive Load Contact Protection 323

7.13 Contact Protection Selection Guide 323

7.14 Examples 324

Summary 325

Problems 326

References 327

Further Reading 327

8 Intrinsic Noise Sources 328

8.1 Thermal Noise 328

8.2 Characteristics of Thermal Noise 332

8.3 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth 334

8.4 Shot Noise 337

8.5 Contact Noise 338

8.6 Popcorn Noise 339

8.7 Addition of Noise Voltages 340

8.8 Measuring Random Noise 341

Summary 342

Problems 343

References 345

Further Reading 345

9 Active Device Noise 346

9.1 Noise Factor 346

9.2 Measurement of Noise Factor 349

9.2.1 Single-Frequency Method 349

9.2.2 Noise Diode Method 350

9.3 Calculating S/N Ratio and Input Noise Voltage from Noise Factor 351

9.4 Noise Voltage and Current Model 353

9.5 Measurment of Vn and In 355

9.6 Calculating Noise Factor and S/N Radio from Vn-In 356

9.7 Optimum Source Resistance 357

9.8 Noise Factor of Cascaded Stages 360

9.9 Noise Temperature 362

9.10 Bipolar Transistor Noise 364

9.10.1 Transistor Noise Factor 365

9.10.2 Vn-In for Transistors 367

9.11 Field-Effect Transistor Noise 368

9.11.1 FET Noise Factor 368

9.11.2 Vn-In Representation of FET Noise 370

9.12 Noise in Operational Amplifiers 370

9.12.1 Methods of Specifying Op-Amp Noise 373

9.12.2 Op-Amp Noise Factor 375

Summary 375

Problems 376

References 377

Further Reading 378

10 Digital Circuit Grounding 379

10.1 Frequency Versus Time Domain 380

10.2 Analog Versus Digital Circuits 380

10.3 Digital Logic Noise 380

10.4 Internal Noise Sources 381

10.5 Digital Circuit Ground Noise 384

10.5.1 Minimizing Inductance 385

10.5.2 Mutual Inductance 386

10.5.3 Practical Digital Circuit Ground Systems 388

10.5.4 Loop Area 390

10.6 Ground Plane Current Distribution and Impedance 391

10.6.1 Reference Plane Current Distribution 392

10.6.2 Ground Plane Impedance 400

10.6.3 Ground Plane Voltage 408

10.6.4 End Effects 409

10.7 Digital Logic Current Flow 412

10.7.1 Microstrip Line 414

10.7.2 Stripline 415

10.7.3 Digital Circuit Current Flow Summary 418

Summary 419

Problems 420

References 421

Further Reading 422

Part 2 EMC Applications 423

11 Digital Circuit Power Distribution 425

11.1 Power Supply Decoupling 425

11.2 Transient Power Supply Currents 426

11.2.1 Transient Load Current 428

11.2.2 Dynamic Internal Current 428

11.2.3 Fourier Spectrum of the Transient Current 429

11.2.4 Total Transient Current 431

11.3 Decoupling Capacitors 431

11.4 Effective Decoupling Strategies 436

11.4.1 Multiple Decoupling Capacitors 437

11.4.2 Multiple Capacitors of the Same Value 437

11.4.3 Multiple Capacitors of Two Different Values 440

11.4.4 Multiple Capacitors of Many Different Values 444

11.4.5 Target Impedance 445

11.4.6 Embedded PCB Capacitance 447

11.4.7 Power Supply Isolation 452

11.5 The Effect of Decoupling on Radiated Emissions 454

11.6 Decoupling Capacitor Type and Value 456

11.7 Decoupling Capacitor Placement and Mounting 457

11.8 Bulk Decoupling Capacitors 459

11.9 Power Entry Filters 460

Summary 461

Problems 461

References 463

Further Reading 463

12 Digital Circuit Radiation 464

12.1 Differential-Mode Radiation 465

12.1.1 Loop Area 468

12.1.2 Loop Current 468

12.1.3 Fourier Series 468

12.1.4 Radiated Emission Envelope 470

12.2 Controlling Differential-Mode Radiation 471

12.2.1 Board Layout 471

12.2.2 Canceling Loops 474

12.2.3 Dithered Clocks 475

12.3 Common-Mode Radiation 477

12.4 Controlling Common-Mode Radiation 480

12.4.1 Common-Mode Voltage 481

12.4.2 Cable Filtering and Shielding 482

12.4.3 Separate I/O Grounds 485

12.4.4 Dealing With Common-Mode Radiation Issues 488

Summary 488

Problems 489

References 490

Further Reading 491

13 Conducted Emissions 492

13.1 Power Line Impedance 492

13.1.1 Line Impedance Stabilization Network 494

13.2 Switched-Mode Power Supplies 495

13.2.1 Common-Mode Emissions 498

13.2.2 Differential-Mode Emissions 501

13.2.3 DC-to-DC Converters 509

13.2.4 Rectifier Diode Noise 509

13.3 Power-Line Filters 511

13.3.1 Common-Mode Filtering 512

13.3.2 Differential-Mode Filtering 512

13.3.3 Leakage Inductance 513

13.3.4 Filter Mounting 516

13.3.5 Power Supplies with Integral Power-Line Filters 519

13.3.6 High-Frequency Noise 520

13.4 Primary-to-Secondary Common-Mode Coupling 523

13.5 Frequency Dithering 524

13.6 Power Supply Instability 524

13.7 Magnetic Field Emissions 525

13.8 Variable Speed Motor Drives 528

13.9 Harmonic Suppression 536

13.9.1 Inductive Input Filters 538

13.9.2 Active Power Factor Correction 538

13.9.3 AC Line Reactors 539

Summary 541

Problems 542

References 544

Further Reading 544

14 RF and Transient Immunity 545

14.1 Performance Criteria 545

14.2 RF Immunity 546

14.2.1 The RF Environment 547

14.2.2 Audio Rectification 548

14.2.3 RFI Mitigation Techniques 549

14.3 Transient Immunity 557

14.3.1 Electrostatic Discharge 558

14.3.2 Electrical Fast Transient 558

14.3.3 Lightning Surge 559

14.3.4 Transient Suppression Networks 560

14.3.5 Signal Line Suppression 561

14.3.6 Protection of High-Speed Signal Lines 564

14.3.7 Power Line Transient Suppression 566

14.3.8 Hybrid Protection Network 570

14.4 Power Line Disturbances 572

14.4.1 Power Line Immunity Curve 573

Summary 575

Problems 576

References 578

Further Reading 579

15 Electrostatic Discharge 580

15.1 Static Generation 580

15.1.1 Inductive Charging 583

15.1.2 Energy Storage 585

15.2 Human Body Model 587

15.3 Static Discharge 589

15.3.1 Decay Time 590

15.4 ESD Protection in Equipment Design 592

15.5 Preventing ESD Entry 594

15.5.1 Metallic Enclosures 595

15.5.2 Input/Output Cable Treatment 599

15.5.3 Insulated Enclosures 604

15.5.4 Keyboards and Control Panels 607

15.6 Hardening Sensitive Circuits 608

15.7 ESD Grounding 608

15.8 Nongrounded Products 609

15.9 Field-Induced Upset 610

15.9.1 Inductive Coupling 611

15.9.2 Capacitive Coupling 611

15.10 Transient Hardened Software Design 612

15.10.1 Detecting Errors in Program Flow 613

15.10.2 Detecting Errors in Input/Output 614

15.10.3 Detecting Errors in Memory 616

15.11 Time Windows 617

Summary 617

Problems 619

References 620

Further Reading 621

16 PCB Layout and Stackup 622

16.1 General PCB Layout Considerations 622

16.1.1 Partitioning 622

16.1.2 Keep Out Zones 622

16.1.3 Critical Signals 623

16.1.4 System Clocks 624

16.2 PCB-to-Chassis Ground Connection 625

16.3 Return Path Discontinuities 626

16.3.1 Slots in Ground/Power Planes 627

16.3.2 Split Ground/Power Planes 628

16.3.3 Changing Reference Planes 630

16.3.4 Referencing the Top and Bottom of the Same Plane 633

16.3.5 Connectors 634

16.3.6 Ground Fill 634

16.4 PCB Layer Stackup 635

16.4.1 One- and Two-Layer Boards 636

16.4.2 Multilayer Boards 637

16.4.3 General PCB Design Procedure 653

Summary 655

Problems 657

References 658

Further Reading 658

17 Mixed-Signal PCB Layout 660

17.1 Split Ground Planes 660

17.2 Microstrip Ground Plane Current Distribution 662

17.3 Analog and Digital Ground Pins 665

17.4 When Should Split Ground Planes Be Used? 668

17.5 Mixed Signal ICs 669

17.5.1 Multi-Board Systems 671

17.6 High-Resolution A/D and D/A Converters 671

17.6.1 Stripline 673

17.6.2 Asymmetric Stripline 674

17.6.3 Isolated Analog and Digital Ground Planes 675

17.7 A/D and D/A Converter Support Circuitry 676

17.7.1 Sampling Clocks 676

17.7.2 Mixed-Signal Support Circuitry 678

17.8 Vertical Isolation 679

17.9 Mixed-Signal Power Distribution 681

17.9.1 Power Distribution 681

17.9.2 Decoupling 682

17.10 The IPC Problem 684

Summary 685

Problems 686

References 687

Further Reading 687

18 Precompliance EMC Measurements 688

18.1 Test Environment 689

18.2 Antennas Versus Probes 689

18.3 Common-Mode Currents on Cables 690

18.3.1 Test Procedure 693

18.3.2 Cautions 693

18.4 Near Field Measurements 694

18.4.1 Test Procedure 695

18.4.2 Cautions 696

18.4.3 Seams and Apertures in Enclosures 697

18.5 Noise Voltage Measurements 697

18.5.1 Balanced Differential Probe 698

18.5.2 DC to 1-GHz Probe 700

18.5.3 Cautions 700

18.6 Conducted Emission Testing 700

18.6.1 Test Procedure 702

18.6.2 Cautions 703

18.6.3 Separating C-M from D-M Noise 704

18.7 Spectrum Analyzers 707

18.7.1 Detector Functions 709

18.7.2 General Test Procedure 710

18.8 EMC Crash Cart 711

18.8.1 Mitigation Parts List 712

18.9 One-Meter Radiated Emission Measurements 713

18.9.1 Test Environment 713

18.9.2 Limits for 1-m Testing 713

18.9.3 Antennas for 1-m Testing 714

18.10 Precompliance Immunity Testing 717

18.10.1 Radiated Immunity 717

18.10.2 Conducted Immunity 720

18.10.3 Transient Immunity 721

18.11 Precompliance Power Quality Tests 723

18.11.1 Harmonics 724

18.11.2 Flicker 725

18.12 Margin 726

18.12.1 Radiated Emission Margin 726

18.12.2 Electrostatic Discharge Margin 727

Summary 728

Problems 729

References 730

Further Reading 731

Appendix 733

A The Decibel 733

A.1 Properties of Logarithms 733

A.2 Using the Decibel for Other than Power Measurements 734

A.3 Power Loss or Negative Power Gain 736

A.4 Absolute Power Level 736

A.5 Summing Powers Expressed in Decibels 738

B The Ten Best Ways to Maximize the Emission from Your Product 740

C Multiple Reflections of Magnetic Fields in Thin Shields 743

D Dipoles for Dummies 746

D.1 Basic Dipoles for Dummies 746

D.2 Intermediate Dipoles for Dummies 751

D.3 Advanced Dipoles for Dummies 756

D.3.1 Impedance of a Dipole 756

D.3.2 Dipole Resonance 756

D.3.3 Receiving Dipole 759

D.3.4 Theory of Images 759

D.3.5 Dipole Arrays 761

D.3.6 Very High-Frequency Dipoles 763

Summary 763

Further Reading 764

E Partial Inductance 765

E.1 Inductance 765

E.2 Loop Inductance 767

E.2.1 Inductance of a Rectangular Loop 768

E.3 Partial Inductance 770

E.3.1 Partial Self-Inductance 771

E.3.2 Partial Mutual Inductance 773

E.3.3 Net Partial-Inductance 776

E.3.4 Partial Inductance Applications 776

E.3.5 Transmission Line Example 778

E.4 Ground Plane Inductance Measurement Test Setup 780

E.5 Inductance Notation 785

Summary 788

References 788

Further Reading 789

F Answers to Problems 790

Index 825

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