Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering / Edition 1

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Overview

Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems

"Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others."
EE Times

Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction—and their practical applications to the design of analog and digital circuits in computer, home entertainment, medical, telecom, industrial process control, and automotive equipment, as well as military and aerospace systems.

While maintaining and updating the core information—such as cabling, grounding, filtering, shielding, digital circuit grounding and layout, and ESD—that made the previous book such a wide success, this new book includes additional coverage of:

  • Equipment/systems grounding
  • Switching power supplies and variable-speed motor drives
  • Digital circuit power distribution and decoupling
  • PCB layout and stack-up
  • Mixed-signal PCB layout
  • RF and transient immunity
  • Power line disturbances
  • Precompliance EMC measurements
  • New appendices on dipole antennae, the theory of partial inductance, and the ten most common EMC problems

The concepts presented are applicable to analog and digital circuits operating from below audio frequencies to those in the GHz range. Throughout the book, an emphasis is placed on cost-effective EMC designs, with the amount and complexity of mathematics kept to the strictest minimum.

Complemented with over 250 problems with answers, Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering equips readers with the knowledge needed to design electronic equipment that is compatible with the electromagnetic environment and compliant with national and international EMC regulations. It is an essential resource for practicing engineers who face EMC and regulatory compliance issues and an ideal textbook for EE courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This is an outstanding book. At 872 pages thick, it is a valuable follow-up to Ott's earlier books, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems (first edition, 1975; second edition, 1987) . . . EMC will remain with us in the foreseeable future, and we need books like this one." (The Radio Science Bulletin, 1 June 2011)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470189306
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/24/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 872
  • Sales rank: 436,148
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Henry W. Ott is President and Principal Consultant of Henry Ott Consultants, an EMC/ESD training and consulting organization located in Livingston, New Jersey. Mr. Ott is considered by many to be the nation's leading EMC educator.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

PART 1 EMC THEORY.

1. Electromagnetic Compatibility.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Noise and Interference.

1.3 Designing for Electromagnetic Compatibility.

1.4 Engineering Documentation and EMC.

1.5 United States’ EMC Regulations.

1.6 Canadian EMC Requirements.

1.7 European Union’s EMC Requirements.

1.8 International Harmonization.

1.9 Military Standards.

1.10 Avionics.

1.11 The Regulatory Process.

1.12 Typical Noise Path.

1.13 Methods of Noise Coupling.

1.14 Miscellaneous Noise Sources.

1.15 Use of Network Theory.

2. Cabling.

2.1 Capacitive Coupling.

2.2 Effect of Shield on Capacitive Coupling.

2.3 Inductive Coupling.

2.4 Mutual Inductance Calculations.

2.5 Effect of Shield on Magnetic Coupling.

2.6 Shielding to Prevent Magnetic Radiation.

2.7 Shielding a Receptor Against Magnetic Fields.

2.8 Common Impedance Shield Coupling.

2.9 Experimental Data.

2.10 Example of Selective Shielding.

2.11 Shield Transfer Impedance.

2.12 Coaxial Cable Versus Twisted Pair.

2.13 Braided Shields.

2.14 Spiral Shields.

2.15 Shield Terminations.

2.16 Ribbon Cables.

2.17 Electrically Long Cables.

3. Grounding.

3.1 AC Power Distribution and Safety Grounds.

3.2 Signal Grounds.

3.3 Equipment/System Grounding.

3.4 Ground Loops.

3.5 Low-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke.

3.6 High-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke.

3.7 Single Ground Reference for a Circuit.

4. Balancing and Filtering.

4.1 Balancing.

4.2 Filtering.

4.3 Power Supply Decoupling.

4.4 Driving Capacitive Loads.

4.5 System Bandwidth.

4.6 Modulation and Coding.

5. Passive Components.

5.1 Capacitors.

5.2 Inductors.

5.3 Transformers.

5.4 Resistors.

5.5 Conductors.

5.6 Transmission Lines.

5.7 Ferrites.

6. Shielding.

6.1 Near Fields and Far Fields.

6.2 Characteristic and Wave Impedances.

6.3 Shielding Effectiveness.

6.4 Absorption Loss.

6.5 Reflection Loss.

6.6 Composite Absorption and Reflection Loss.

6.7 Summary of Shielding Equations.

6.8 Shielding with Magnetic Materials.

6.9 Experimental Data.

6.10 Apertures.

6.11 Waveguide Below Cutoff.

6.12 Conductive Gaskets.

6.13 The ‘‘IDEAL’’ Shield.

6.14 Conductive Windows.

6.15 Conductive Coatings.

6.16 Internal Shields.

6.17 Cavity Resonance.

6.18 Grounding of Shields.

7. Contact Protection.

7.1 Glow Discharges.

7.2 Metal-Vapor or Arc Discharges.

7.3 AC Versus DC Circuits.

7.4 Contact Material.

7.5 Contact Rating.

7.6 Loads with High Inrush Currents.

7.7 Inductive Loads.

7.8 Contact Protection Fundamentals.

7.9 Transient Suppression for Inductive Loads.

7.10 Contact Protection Networks for Inductive Loads.

7.11 Inductive Loads Controlled by a Transistor Switch.

7.12 Resistive Load Contact Protection.

7.13 Contact Protection Selection Guide.

7.14 Examples.

8. Intrinsic Noise Sources.

8.1 Thermal Noise.

8.2 Characteristics of Thermal Noise.

8.3 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth.

8.4 Shot Noise.

8.5 Contact Noise.

8.6 Popcorn Noise.

8.7 Addition of Noise Voltages.

8.8 Measuring Random Noise.

9. Active Device Noise.

9.1 Noise Factor.

9.2 Measurement of Noise Factor.

9.3 Calculating S/N Ratio and Input Noise Voltage from Noise Factor.

9.4 Noise Voltage and Current Model.

9.5 Measurment of Vn and In.

9.6 Calculating Noise Factor and S/N Ratio from Vn–In.

9.7 Optimum Source Resistance.

9.8 Noise Factor of Cascaded Stages.

9.9 Noise Temperature.

9.10 Bipolar Transistor Noise.

9.11 Field-Effect Transistor Noise.

9.12 Noise in Operational Amplifiers.

10. Digital Circuit Grounding.

10.1 Frequency Versus Time Domain.

10.2 Analog Versus Digital Circuits.

10.3 Digital Logic Noise.

10.4 Internal Noise Sources.

10.5 Digital Circuit Ground Noise.

10.6 Ground Plane Current Distribution and Impedance.

10.7 Digital Logic Current Flow.

PART 2 EMC APPLICATIONS.

11. Digital Circuit Power Distribution.

11.1 Power Supply Decoupling.

11.2 Transient Power Supply Currents.

11.3 Decoupling Capacitors.

11.4 Effective Decoupling Strategies.

11.5 The Effect of Decoupling on Radiated Emissions.

11.6 Decoupling Capacitor Type and Value.

11.7 Decoupling Capacitor Placement and Mounting.

11.8 Bulk Decoupling Capacitors.

11.9 Power Entry Filters.

12. Digital Circuit Radiation.

12.1 Differential-Mode Radiation.

12.2 Controlling Differential-Mode Radiation.

12.3 Common-Mode Radiation.

12.4 Controlling Common-Mode Radiation.

13. Conducted Emissions.

13.1 Power Line Impedance.

13.2 Switched-Mode Power Supplies.

13.3 Power-Line Filters.

13.4 Primary-to-Secondary Common-Mode Coupling.

13.5 Frequency Dithering.

13.6 Power Supply Instability.

13.7 Magnetic Field Emissions.

13.8 Variable Speed Motor Drives.

13.9 Harmonic Suppression.

14. RF and Transient Immunity.

14.1 Performance Criteria.

14.2 RF Immunity.

14.3 Transient Immunity.

14.4 Power Line Disturbances.

15. Electrostatic Discharge.

15.1 Static Generation.

15.2 Human Body Model.

15.3 Static Discharge.

15.4 ESD Protection in Equipment Design.

15.5 Preventing ESD Entry.

15.6 Hardening Sensitive Circuits.

15.7 ESD Grounding.

15.8 Nongrounded Products.

15.9 Field-Induced Upset.

15.10 Transient Hardened Software Design.

15.11 Time Windows.

16. PCB Layout and Stackup.

16.1 General PCB Layout Considerations.

16.2 PCB-to-Chassis Ground Connection.

16.3 Return Path Discontinuities.

16.4 PCB Layer Stackup.

17. Mixed-Signal PCB Layout.

17.1 Split Ground Planes.

17.2 Microstrip Ground Plane Current Distribution.

17.3 Analog and Digital Ground Pins.

17.4 When Should Split Ground Planes Be Used?

17.5 Mixed Signal ICs.

17.6 High-Resolution A/D and D/A Converters.

17.7 A/D and D/A Converter Support Circuitry.

17.8 Vertical Isolation.

17.9 Mixed-Signal Power Distribution.

17.10 The IPC Problem.

18. Precompliance EMC Measurements.

18.1 Test Environment.

18.2 Antennas Versus Probes.

18.3 Common-Mode Currents on Cables.

18.4 Near Field Measurements.

18.5 Noise Voltage Measurements.

18.6 Conducted Emission Testing.

18.7 Spectrum Analyzers.

18.8 EMC Crash Cart.

18.9 One-Meter Radiated Emission Measurements.

18.10 Precompliance Immunity Testing.

18.11 Precompliance Power Quality Tests.

18.12 Margin.

APPENDIX.

A. The Decibel.

A.1 Properties of Logarithms.

A.2 Using the Decibel for Other than Power Measurements.

A.3 Power Loss or Negative Power Gain.

A.4 Absolute Power Level.

A.5 Summing Powers Expressed in Decibels.

B. The Ten Best Ways to Maximize the Emission from Your Product.

C. Multiple Reflections of Magnetic Fields in Thin Shields.

D. Dipoles for Dummies.

D.1 Basic Dipoles for Dummies.

D.2 Intermediate Dipoles for Dummies.

D.3 Advanced Dipoles for Dummies.

E. Partial Inductance.

E.1 Inductance.

E.2 Loop Inductance.

E.3 Partial Inductance.

E.4 Ground Plane Inductance Measurement Test Setup.

E.5 Inductance Notation.

F. Answers to Problems.

Index.

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