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Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science / Edition 2
     

Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science / Edition 2

by Adam J. Schwartz, Mukul Kumar, Brent L. Adams, David P. Field
 

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ISBN-10: 0387881352

ISBN-13: 9780387881355

Pub. Date: 08/12/2009

Publisher: Springer US

Crystallographic texture or preferred orientation has long been known to strongly influence material properties. Historically, the means of obtaining such texture data has been though the use of x-ray or neutron diffraction for bulk texture measurements, or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or electron channeling for local crystallographic information. In recent

Overview

Crystallographic texture or preferred orientation has long been known to strongly influence material properties. Historically, the means of obtaining such texture data has been though the use of x-ray or neutron diffraction for bulk texture measurements, or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or electron channeling for local crystallographic information. In recent years, we have seen the emergence of a new characterization technique for probing the microtexture of materials. This advance has come about primarily through the automated indexing of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns. The first commercially available system was introduced in 1994, and since then the growth of sales worldwide has been dramatic.

This has accompanied widening applicability in materials science problems such as microtexture, phase identification, grain boundary character distribution, deformation microstructures, etc. and is evidence that this technique can, in some cases, replace more time-consuming TEM or X-ray diffraction investigations.

The purpose of this book is to provide the fundamental basis for EBSD. The formation and interpretation of EBSD patterns and the gnomonic projection are described as the framework for materials characterization using EBSD. Traditional representation of texture in orientation space is discussed in terms of stereographic projections, pole figures, inverse pole figures, and orientation distribution functions before introducing the Rodrigues-Frank representation of crystallographic texture. The fundamentals of automated EBSD and the accuracy of EBSD measurements are then discussed. Current hardware and software as well as future prospects foranalyzing EBSD data sets are reviewed. A brief mention of the criterion required for the purchase of an EBSD system is included as an aid to this relatively new area of materials characterization. The section concludes with chapters from three manufacturers of EBSD equipment that highlight recent advances in capabilities.

The book concludes with a review of recent applications of the technique to solve difficult problems in materials science as well as demonstrates the usefulness of coupling EBSD with other approaches such as numerical analysis, plasticity modeling, and TEM. Attention is paid to the measurement and mapping of strain using EBSD as well as the characterization of deformed microstructures, continuous recrystallization, analysis of facets, ceramics, and superconducting materials.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780387881355
Publisher:
Springer US
Publication date:
08/12/2009
Edition description:
2nd ed. 2009
Pages:
403
Product dimensions:
7.80(w) x 10.30(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

1The Development of Automated Diffraction in Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy1
1.1Abstract1
1.2Preface1
1.3The earliest work2
1.4The first diffraction experiments in the SEM4
1.5Computer assisted indexing of EBSD5
1.6Fully automated indexing of EBSD patterns7
1.7Orientation imaging microscopy7
1.8EBSD image quality9
1.9EBSD, spatial resolution11
1.10EBSD for phase identification13
1.11The move to the transmission electron microscope14
1.12Conclusions16
2Theoretical Framework for Electron Backscatter Diffraction19
2.1Introduction19
2.2Formation and interpretation of the EBSD Kikuchi patterns20
2.3Crystallographic terms of reference for EBSD25
2.4Descriptors of orientation and misorientation28
2.5Concluding remarks30
3Representations of Texture in Orientation Space31
3.1Introduction31
3.2Stereographic projections31
3.3Pole figures from EBSD32
3.4Inverse pole figures from EBSD33
3.5Orientation distribution functions and Euler space34
3.6Conclusions37
4Rodrigues-Frank Representations of Crystallographic Texture39
4.1Introduction39
4.2Geometrical characteristics of Rodrigues-Frank space40
4.3Fiber textures42
4.4Lattice symmetry-sample symmetry coupling44
4.5Crystallographic statistics and clustering in R-F space46
4.6Grain boundary texture47
4.7Conclusions49
5Fundamentals of Automated EBSD51
5.1Abstract51
5.2Image processing51
5.3Zone axis indexing53
5.4Band detection53
5.5Automatic indexing58
5.6Structure definition60
5.7Calibration61
6Studies on the Accuracy of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Measurements65
6.1Abstract65
6.2Introduction65
6.3Definition of disorientation correlation function (DCF)66
6.4Accuracy of orientation measurements68
6.5Results68
6.6Discussion73
6.7Summary74
7Phase Identification Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction in the Scanning Electron Microscope75
7.1Introduction75
7.2Phase identification procedure76
7.3Examples of phase identification studies78
7.4Structure determination from EBSD patterns80
7.5Summary88
8Three-Dimensional Orientation Imaging91
8.1Introduction91
8.2The 3D x-ray diffraction microscope92
8.3Orientation determination94
8.4Applications96
8.5Summary102
9Automated Electron Backscatter Diffraction: Present State and Prospects105
9.1Introduction105
9.2The interpretation of backscatter Kikuchi patterns106
9.3Experimental setup of a modern EBSD system110
9.4The components of an automated EBSD system111
9.5The evaluation of grain orientation data120
10EBSD: Buying a System123
10.1Should you build your own system?123
10.2What camera should you use?124
10.3Which is the best microscope for EBSD?124
10.4Which software?125
10.5Software criteria125
10.6Conclusion126
11Hardware and Software Optimization for Orientation Mapping and Phase Identification127
11.1Abstract127
11.2Background127
11.3Crystal orientation mapping optimizations128
11.4Phase identification optimization131
11.5EBSD options133
11.6Conclusions133
12An Automated EBSD Acquistion and Processing System135
12.1Introduction135
12.2Electron image and pattern acquisition135
12.3Data processing140
13Advanced Software Capabilities for Automated EBSD141
13.1Introduction141
13.2Data collection141
13.3Data analysis146
13.4Summary152
14Strategies for Analyzing EBSD Datasets153
14.1Introduction153
14.2Data analysis strategies: 2-D153
14.3Data analysis strategies: 3-D165
15Structure-Property Relations: EBSD-Based Material-Sensitive Design171
15.1Introduction171
15.2Structure-properties relationships172
15.3Material sensitive design176
15.4Summary and conclusions179
16Use of EBSD Data in Mesoscale Numerical Analyses181
16.1Introduction181
16.2Crystal plasticity model182
16.3Crystal model validation187
16.4Discussion195
17Characterization of Deformed Microstructures199
17.1Introduction199
17.2Cold-rolled pure aluminum201
17.3Equal-channel extruded and cold-rolled copper205
17.4Friction stir welding in aluminum207
17.5Discussion210
18Anisotropic Plasticity Modeling Incorporating EBSD Characterization of Tantalum and Zirconium213
18.1Introduction213
18.2Tantalum214
18.3Zirconium221
18.4Conclusions227
19Measuring Strains Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction231
19.1Scope of chapter231
19.2Introduction231
19.3Plastic deformation233
19.4Elastic deformation238
19.5Concluding remarks244
20Mapping Residual Plastic Strain in Materials Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction247
20.1Introduction247
20.2Misorientation density distributions248
20.3Quantifying strains by misorientation density250
20.4Mapping the spatial distribution of strain fields256
20.5Applications258
20.6Summary263
21EBSD Contra Tem Characterization of a Deformed Aluminum Single Crystal265
21.1Introduction265
21.2Experimental procedures267
21.3Results267
21.4Discussions274
21.5Summary and general remark275
22Continuous Recrystallization and Grain Boundaries in a Superplastic Aluminum Alloy277
22.1Introduction277
22.2The material and method of EBSD examination279
22.3The grain boundary character of Supral 2004281
22.4Discussion284
22.5Conclusion288
23Analysis of Facets and Other Surfaces Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction291
23.1Introduction291
23.2Investigation methodology291
23.3Data analysis296
23.4Three-dimensional microtexture297
23.5Concluding remarks298
24EBSD of Ceramic Materials299
24.1Introduction299
24.2Challenge of ceramic materials for EBSD300
24.3Examples of applications to ceramics303
24.4Similar problems303
24.5Special problems for ceramics306
24.6Thin-film reactions308
24.7Grain boundary migration312
24.8Grain boundary energies and grooving314
24.9Summary315
24.10Conclusions316
25Grain Boundary Character Based Design of Polycrystalline High Temperature Superconducting Wires319
25.1Introduction319
25.2Background320
25.2First generation HTS wires322
25.2Second generation HTS wires328
25.6Summary333
Index337

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