Electronic Moviemaking / Edition 3

Electronic Moviemaking / Edition 3

by Lynne S. Gross, Larry Wayne Ward
     
 

ISBN-10: 0534507476

ISBN-13: 9780534507473

Pub. Date: 10/01/1996

Publisher: Wadsworth

The text emphasizes the combination of film and video, allowing producers to use electronic equipment with traditional film techniques. The book covers lighting, cameras, editing, crew organization, and the production process. This new Fourth Edition offers extensively updated coverage of Digital Technologies.

Overview

The text emphasizes the combination of film and video, allowing producers to use electronic equipment with traditional film techniques. The book covers lighting, cameras, editing, crew organization, and the production process. This new Fourth Edition offers extensively updated coverage of Digital Technologies.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780534507473
Publisher:
Wadsworth
Publication date:
10/01/1996
Series:
Radio/TV/Film Ser.
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
292
Product dimensions:
8.55(w) x 10.96(h) x 0.52(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1Preproduction1
Chapter 1Developing the Script2
The Writer's Role2
Script Terminology2
Scripting Stages3
Other Script Forms11
Computer Programs for Scriptwriting15
Copyright and Clearances16
Notes17
Chapter 2The Process of Preproduction20
Preproduction Planning20
Script Breakdown20
Shooting Schedule26
Stripboards27
Production Schedule27
The Budget28
Daily Call Sheets33
Preproduction Responsibilities35
Hiring Behind-the-Scenes Personnel35
Casting37
Finding Locations38
Designing and Building Sets38
Planning Costumes, Wardrobe, Makeup, and Hairstyling43
Preparing Props, Effects, and Supplies44
Acquiring and Checking Equipment44
Obtaining Rights45
Arranging Transportation, Lodging, and Meals45
Obtaining Insurance47
Notes47
Part 2Production49
Chapter 3The Process of Production50
Production Responsibilities50
Directing50
Acting52
Organizing and Record Keeping53
Lighting and Camera Operation57
Recording the Picture and Sound60
Supporting the Production60
The Stages of Production60
Setting Up61
Rehearsing62
Shooting63
Striking65
Notes65
Chapter 4Cameras and Lenses68
Formats68
Film Formats68
Video Formats68
Aspect Ratio71
Choosing a Film or Tape Stock73
The Camera74
Imaging Devices74
Color Video75
Evaluating Camera Performance76
Basic Camera Features77
Video Recording78
Video Connectors80
Monitoring the Recording80
Supporting the Camera81
Hand-Held Cameras82
Tripods82
Dollies82
Cranes83
Moving the Camera83
Lenses84
Focal Length84
Focus86
Aperture86
Depth of Field87
Care of Equipment88
Notes89
Chapter 5Approaches to Image Making92
Shot Determination92
The Basic Shots92
Subjective Shots93
Lens Selection95
Focal Length Characteristics95
Depth of Field95
Camera Angle96
Composing Within the Static Frame97
Manipulating the Mise-en-Scene97
Balance99
Rule of Thirds99
Creating Depth100
On-Screen/Off-Screen Space100
The Edge of the Frame100
The Moving Frame101
Camera Movements101
Zooming103
Reframing103
Time103
Color and Tonality104
Film Color104
Video Color104
Black-and-White or Color104
Color Considerations105
Shooting to Edit105
Shot Selection106
Shot Duration107
The Long Shot, Medium Shot, Close-Up Pattern107
Shooting for Continuity107
Notes109
Chapter 6Lights and Filters110
Measuring the Light110
Incident Meters110
Reflected Light Meters110
Automatic Metering Systems111
Getting Correct Exposure111
Problems with Automatic Metering Systems112
Footcandles, F-Stops, and EI112
Contrast Range113
Using a Monitor to Evaluate Exposure113
Using a Waveform Monitor to Evaluate Exposure114
The Color of Light115
The Electromagnetic Spectrum115
The Kelvin Scale116
Tungsten and Daylight-Balanced Light116
Small-Scale Color Corrections117
The Vectorscope117
Filters for Film and Video118
Using Filters119
Mounting Filters119
Compensating for Filters119
Care of Filters120
Artificial Lighting120
Types of Lamps120
Basic Lighting Instruments122
Mounting Equipment124
Controlling the Light125
Electric Power Requirements129
Lighting Safety131
Notes132
Chapter 7Lighting Approaches134
Lighting Styles134
Basic Three-Point Lighting134
Film Versus Video Lighting136
Preparing to Light137
Outdoor Lighting138
Contrast Reduction139
Maintaining Continuity in Changing Light140
Shooting at Night140
Adapting to Weather Conditions141
Indoor Lighting142
Shooting in Available Light and Low Light142
Bounce Lighting142
Mixed Lighting143
Fluorescent Lighting144
Lighting for Movement145
Variations in Lighting147
Notes150
Chapter 8Microphones and Recorders152
The Nature of Sound152
Pitch and Frequency152
Loudness and Amplitude153
Timbre154
Duration154
Velocity154
Microphones154
Directionality155
Construction157
Impedance158
Positioning158
Cables and Connectors159
Balanced and Unbalanced Cables160
Connector Types160
Recorders161
Double System and Single System Sound Recording162
Types of Recorders163
Recording Methods165
Features of Sound Recorders166
Care of Audio Equipment167
Notes168
Chapter 9Approaches to Sound Recording170
Elements of Microphone Pickup170
Presence170
Perspective171
Balance171
Continuity172
Eliminating Unwanted Noises172
Miking Dialogue173
Selecting the Mic173
Setting Up the Mics173
Special Dialogue Situations174
Miking Voice-Overs175
Miking Sound Effects175
Miking Ambient Sounds176
Miking Music177
Recording Techniques178
Notes179
Part 3Postproduction181
Chapter 10The Process of Postproduction182
Film Editing183
Workprints183
Film Editing Equipment183
Film Editing Stages185
The Role of the Laboratory in Film Postproduction187
Video Editing188
Linear and Nonlinear Editing189
Off-Line and On-Line Editing190
Postproduction Responsibilities191
General Overseeing192
Transferring Film to Video192
Organizing Footage193
Picture and Dialogue Editing197
Sound Building197
Incorporating Graphics198
Incorporating Elaborate Special Effects198
Preparing the Movie for Distribution199
Notes200
Chapter 11Picture and Dialogue Editing202
Nonlinear Editing202
Hardware203
Software204
Digitizing and Importing205
Editing207
Adding Graphics and Effects208
Outputting210
A Nonlinear Example212
Transferring Picture and Sound212
Off-Line Editing212
Lock Down and Final Cut Assembly212
Sound Building213
Layback214
Cuts-Only Linear Editing214
Control Track Editing214
Time Code Editing215
Equipment215
Insert and Assemble Modes217
More Advanced Linear Editing219
Equipment for Effects219
Equipment for Control and Measurement220
Equipment for Graphics221
Notes221
Chapter 12Editing Approaches224
Conventional Hollywood Patterns224
Editing in the Service of the Story224
The Continuity System226
The Master Shot Method226
Ensuring a Consistent Screen Direction232
Finding the Cutting Point233
Other Editing Concerns233
Other Transitions236
Alternatives in Time and Space237
Montage Editing237
Notes238
Chapter 13Structuring Sound240
Variations in Structuring Sound240
Magnetic Film Stock Systems240
Magnetic Tape Systems241
Computer Systems242
Dialogue244
Automatic Dialogue Replacement245
Voice-Over246
Sound Effects247
Foley249
Ambient Sounds252
Music252
Original Music252
Previously Composed Music255
Mixing256
Limited Mixing256
Professional-Level Multitrack Mixing256
Computer-Based Mixing259
Laybacks and Dubs261
Notes262
Chapter 14Approaches to Structuring264
The Evolution of Sound264
The Relationship of Sound to Image264
The Functions of Sound265
Supplying Information266
Enhancing Reality and Fantasy269
Establishing Time, Place, and Character270
Creating Mood and Emotion271
Giving a Sense of Rhythm272
Directing Attention273
Layering Sound274
Notes275
Glossary276
Suggested Readings and Web Sites288
Index289

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