Electronics Manufacturing: with Lead-Free, Halogen-Free, and Conductive-Adhesive Materials / Edition 1

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This comprehensive guide provides cutting edge information on lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive technologies and their application to low-cost, high-density, reliable, and green products. Essential for electronics manufacturing and packaging professionals who wish to master lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive problem solving methods, and those demanding cost-effective designs and high-yield environmental benign manufacturing processes, this valuable reference covers all aspects of this fast-growing field.

Written for design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, reliability, component, packaging, and system engineers, and technical and marketing managers in electronics and photonics packaging and interconnection, this book teaches a practical understanding of the cost, design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, and reliability issues of lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive technologies. Among the topics explored:

* Chip (wafer) level interconnects with lead-free solder bumps

* Lead-free solder wafer bumping with micro-ball mounting and paste printing methods

* Lead-free solder joint reliability of WLCSPs on organic and ceramic substrates

* Chip (wafer) level interconnects with solderless bumps such as Ni-Au, Au, and Cu, Cu wires, Au wires, Au studs, and Cu studs

* Design, materials, process, and reliability of WLCSPs with solderless interconnects on PCB/substrate

* Halogen-free molding compounds for PQFP, PBGA, and MAP-PBGA packages

* Environmentally benign die-attach films for PQFP and PBGA packages and lead-free die-attach bonding techniques for IC packaging

* Environmental issues for conventional PCBs and substrates

* Some environmentally conscious flame-retardants for PCBs and organic substrates

* Emerging technologies for fabricating environmental friendly PCBs such as design for environment, green PCB manufacturing, and environmental safety

* Lead-free soldering activities such as legislation, consortia programs, and regional preferences on lead-free solder alternatives

* Criteria, development approaches, and varieties of alloys and properties of lead-free solders

* Physical, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and soldering properties of lead-free solders

* Manufacturing process and performance of lead-free surface finishes for both PCB and component applications

* Implementation and execution challenges of lead-free soldering, especially for the reflow and wave soldering process

* Fundamental understanding of electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) technology

* Effects of lubricant removal and cure shrinkage on ECAs

* Mechanisms underlying the contact resistance shifts of ECAs

* Effects of electrolytes and moisture absorption on contact resistance shifts of ECAs

* Stabilization of contact resistance of ECAs using various additives

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071386241
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
  • Publication date: 8/23/2002
  • Series: Professional Engineering Ser.
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 700
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

John H. Lau received his PhD in theoretical and applied mechanics from the University of Illinois, an MASc in structural engineering from the University of British Columbia, a second MS in engineering physics from the University of Wisconsin, and a third MS in management science from Fairleigh Dickinson University. He also has a BE in civil engineering from National Taiwan University. John is an interconnection technology scientist at Agilent Technologies, Inc. His current interests cover a broad range of optoelectronic packaging and manufacturing technology.

Prior to coming to Agilent, Lau worked for Express Packaging Systems, Hewlett-Packard, Sandia National Laboratory, Bechtel Power


and Exxon Production and Research Company. With more than 30 years of R&D and manufacturing experience in the electronics, photonics, petroleum, nuclear, and defense industries, he has given over 200 workshops and invited presentations, authored and coauthored over 200 peer-reviewed technical publications, authored more than 100 book chapters, and is the author and editor of 14 books on IC packaging.

Lau has served on the editorial boards of IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, and ASME Transactions, Journal of Electronic Packaging. He also has served as general chairman, program chairman, session chairman, and invited speaker at several ASME, IEEE, ASM, MRS, IMAPS, SEMI, and SMI International conferences. He has received many awards from the ASME and IEEE for best proceedings and transactions papers and outstanding technical achievements and is one of the distinguished lecturers of the ASME and IEEE/CPMT. He is an ASME Fellow and IEEE Fellow and is listed in American Men and Women of Science and Who's Who in America.

C.P. Wong is a Regent's Professor at the School of Materials Science and Engineering and a Research Director at the NSF Packaging Research Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his BS in chemistry from Purdue University, and his PhD in chemistry from Pennsylvania State University with Nobel Laureate Professor Henry Taube.

Wong spent 19 years at AT&T Bell Labs and was elected a Bell Labs Fellow in 1992. His research interests lie in the fields of polymeric materials, reaction mechanism, IC encapsulation, hermetic equivalent plastic packaging, electronic packaging processes, interfacial adhesions, PWB, SMT assembly, and component reliability.

He has received many awards, among which are the AT&T Bell Laboratories Distinguished Technical Staff Award (1987), the AT&T Bell Labs Fellow Award (1992), the IEEE Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology (CPMT) Society Outstanding and Best Paper Awards (1990, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2002), the IEEE Technical Activities Board (TAB) Distinguished Award (1994), the IEEE CMPT Society's Outstanding Sustained Technical Contribution Award (1995), the Georgia Tech Outstanding Faculty Research Program Development Award (1999) and many others.

Wong was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2000, and he is a Fellow of the IEEE, AIC, and AT&T Bell Labs. He served as technical vice president (1990 and 1991) and president (1992 and 1993) of the IEEE-CPMT Society, the IEEE TAB Management Committee (1993 to 1994), and chair of IEEE TAB Design and Manufacturing Committee (1994 to 1996), the IEEE Nomination and Appointment Committee (1998 to 1999), and the IEEE Fellow Committee (2001-present).

Ning-Cheng Lee is the vice president of technology of Indium Corporation of America. He has been with Indium since 1986. Prior to joining Indium, he was with Wright Patterson Air Force Base Materials Laboratory (1981 to 1982), Morton Chemical (1982 to 1984), and SCM (1984 to 1986). He has more than 18 years of expe

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Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Introduction to Environmentally Benign Electronics Manufacturing
Ch. 2 Chip (Wafer)-Level Interconnects with Lead-Free Solder Bumps
Ch. 3 WLCSP with Lead-Free Solder Bumps on PCB/Substrate
Ch. 4 Chip (Wafer)-Level Interconnects with Solderless Bumps
Ch. 5 WLCSP with Solderless Bumps on PCB/Substrate
Ch. 6 Environmentally Benign Molding Compounds for IC Packages
Ch. 7 Environmentally Benign Die Attach Films for IC Packaging
Ch. 8 Environmental Issues for Conventional PCBs
Ch. 9 Halogenated and Halogen-Free Materials for Flame Retardation
Ch. 10 Fabrication of Environmentally Friendly PCB
Ch. 11 Global Status of Lead-Free Soldering
Ch. 12 Development of Lead-Free Solder Alloys
Ch. 13 Prevailing Lead-Free Alloys
Ch. 14 Lead-Free Surface Finishes
Ch. 15 Implementation of Lead-Free Soldering
Ch. 16 Challenges for Lead-Free Soldering
Ch. 17 Introduction to Conductive Adhesives
Ch. 18 Conductivity Establishment of Conductive Adhesives
Ch. 19 Mechanisms Underlying the Unstable Contact Resistance of ECAs
Ch. 20 Stabilization of Contact Resistance of Conductive Adhesives
About the Author
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