Electronics: Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice / Edition 1

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Overview

Electronics: Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice does more than just make unsubstantiated assertions about electronics. Compared to most current textbooks on the subject, it pays significantly more attention to essential basic electronics and the underlying theory of semiconductors.

In discussing electrical conduction in semiconductors, the author addresses the important but often ignored fundamental and unifying concept of electrochemical potential of current carriers, which is also an instructive link between semiconductor and ionic systems at a time when electrical engineering students are increasingly being exposed to biological systems.

The text presents the background and tools necessary for at least a qualitative understanding of new and projected advances in microelectronics. The author provides helpful PSpice simulations and associated procedures (based on schematic capture, and using OrCAD® 16.0 Demo software), which are available for download. These simulations are explained in considerable detail and integrated throughout the book. The book also includes practical, real-world examples, problems, and other supplementary material, which helps to demystify concepts and relations that many books usually state as facts without offering at least some plausible explanation.

With its focus on fundamental physical concepts and thorough exploration of the behavior of semiconductors,
this book enables readers to better understand how electronic devices function and how they are used. The book's foreword briefly reviews the history of electronics and its impact in today's world.

***Classroom Presentations are provided on the CRC Press website. Their inclusion eliminates the need for instructors to prepare lecture notes. The files can be modified as may be desired, projected in the classroom or lecture hall, and used as a basis for discussing the course material.***

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781420087079
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 12/18/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 766
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Nassir H. Sabah is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Foreword: Brief History and Impact of Electronics Convention for Symbols
Basic Diode Circuits
Overview
Learning Objectives
Ideal and Practical Diodes
Ideal Diode
Ideal Si pn Junction Diode
Practical Diodes
Incremental Diode Resistance
Basic Analysis of Diode Circuits
Piecewise Linear Approximation
Bias Point
Small-Signal Model
Rectifier Circuits
Half-Wave Rectifier
Full-Wave Rectifier
Smoothing of Output
Capacitor-Input Filter
Approximate Analysis of Capacitor-Input Filter
Zener Voltage Regulator
Voltage-Current Characteristic
Analysis of Zener Regulator
Load regulation and Line Regulation
Diode Voltage Limiters
Surge Protection
Diode-Capacitor Circuits
dc Restorer
Voltage Multiplication
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Basic Principles of Semiconductors
Excerpts from Wave Mechanics
Some Basic Ideas
Schrödinger’s Equation
Wave Packets
Free Atoms
Energy Band Structure
Electric Conduction in Semiconductors
Electrons in a Periodic Potential
Effective Mass
Hole Conduction
Density of Electron States
Fermi-Dirac Distribution
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors
Crystal Structure
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Extrinsic Semiconductors
Electrochemical Potential
Expression for Chemical Potential
Expression for Electrochemical Potential
Generalized Ohm’s Law
State of Equilibrium
Fermi Level and Electrochemical Potential
Carrier Concentrations in Semiconductors
Carrier Generation and Recombination
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Position of Fermi Level
n-type Semiconductor
p-type semiconductor
Carrier Mobility
Variation with Dopant Concentration
Variation with Temperature
Carrier Recombination
Minority Carrier Lifetime
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
pn Junction and Semiconductor Diodes
The pn Junction at Equilibrium
Junction Potential
Depletion Approximation
The Biased pn Junction
The pn Junction as a Rectifier
Width of Depletion Region
Charge Distributions and Currents under Bias
Current-Voltage relation
Charge-Current Relation
pn Junction Capacitances
Temperature Effects
Junction Breakdown
Semiconductor Photoelectric Devices
Photoconductive Cell
Photodiode
Photocell
Light-Emitting Diodes
Tunnel Diode
Contacts between Dissimilar Materials
Metal-Metal Contacts
Metal-Semiconductor Contacts
Schottky Diode
Heterojunction
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Semiconductor Fabrication
Preparation of Silicon Wafer
High-Purity Silicon
Crystal Growth
Wafer Production
Oxidation
Patterning Processes
Preparation of Masks
Lithography
Etching
Deposition Processes
Ion Implantation
Diffusion
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Metallization
Clean Room Environment
Packaging
Types of Packages
Fabrication of Simple Devices
Resistors
pn Junction Diodes
Capacitors
CMOS Fabrication
Transistor Isolation
Transistor Formation
Silicon-on Insulator Technology
Fabrication of Bipolar Junction Transistors
Basic BJT Structure
Modified BJT Structures
BiCMOS
Miscellaneous Topics
SiGe Technology
Crystal Defects
Si-SiO2 Interface
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Field Effect Transistors
Amplifiers
Hypothetical Amplifying Device
Basic Operation of the MOSFET
Structure
Operation of Enhancement-type MOSFET
Current-Voltage Relations
p-Channel MOS Transistor
Small-Signal Operation
Secondary Effects in MOSFETs
Channel-Length Modulation
Transconductance
Overdrive Voltage
Temperature Effects
Breakdown
Body Effect
Capacitances
Unity-Gain Bandwidth
Short-Channel Effects
Carrier Velocity Saturation and Hot Carriers
Reduced Output Resistance and Threshold
Other Effects
Improved Performance
Depletion-Type MOSFETs
Diode Connection
Complementary MOSFETs
CMOS Amplifier
CMOS Transmission Gate
CMOS Inverter
Junction Field Effect Transistor
Structure
Operation
Current-Voltage Relation
Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
Structure
Operation
High-Mobility Devices
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Bipolar Junction Transistor
Basic Operation of the BJT
Common-Base dc Current Gains
Typical Structure
Common-Emitter Configuration
Small-Signal Current Gains
Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits
Secondary Effects in BJTs
Base-Width Modulation
Hybrid-p Equivalent Circuit
Variation of iC with vbe
h-Parameter Equivalent Circuit
Temperature Effects
Breakdown
Punchthrough
BJT Capacitances
Unity-Gain Bandwidth
BJT Large-Signal Models
Ebers-Moll Model
Saturation Mode
The BJT as a Switch
Diode Connection
Regenerative Pair
Augmented Models
Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
Noise in Semiconductors
Comparison of BJTs and FETs
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Two-Port Circuits, Amplifiers, and Feedback
Two-Port Circuits
Equivalent Circuits
Ideal Amplifiers
Negative Feedback
Feedback Amplifiers
Ideal Operational Amplifier
Noninverting Configuration
Unity-Gain amplifier
Signal-Flow Diagrams
Inverting Configuration
Integrator
Differentiator
Extraneous Signals
Gain-Bandwidth Product
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Single-Stage Transistor Amplifiers
Transistor Biasing
Biasing of Discrete Transistors
Current Mirror
BJT Current Mirror
MOSFET Current Mirror
Basic Amplifier Configurations
General Considerations
Common-Emitter Amplifier
Common-Source Amplifier
Common-Drain Amplifier
Common-Collector Amplifier
Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor
Common-Emitter Amplifier with Emitter Resistor
Common-Gate Amplifier
Common-Base Amplifier
High-Frequency Response
Miller’s Theorem
Poles and Zeros of Transfer Function
Common Emitter/Source Amplifier
Common Collector/Drain Amplifier
Common-Emitter/Source Amplifier with Feedback Resistor
Common-Base/Gate Amplifier
Composite Transistor Connections
Darlington Pair
Common Collector-Common Emitter Cascade
Cascode Amplifier
MOSFET Cascode
BJT Cascode
BiCMOS Cascode
Cascode Current Sources and Mirrors
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Multistage and Feedback Amplifiers
Cascaded Amplifiers
dc Level Shifting
RC-Coupled Amplifiers
Common-Source Amplifier
Common-Emitter Amplifier
Feedback Amplifiers
Series-Shunt Feedback
Series-Series Feedback
Shunt-Series Feedback
Shunt-Shunt Feedback
Closed-Loop Stability
Stability from Bode Magnitude Plots
Frequency Compensation
Feedback Oscillators
Wien-Bridge Oscillator
High-Q Oscillator
Tuned Amplifiers
LC Oscillators
Crystal Oscillators
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Differential and Operational Amplifiers
Differential Pair
Basic Operation
Transfer Characteristic
Small-signal Differential Operation
High-Frequency Response
Small-signal Common-Mode Response
High-Frequency Response
Input Bias Currents
Input Offset Voltage
Current-Mirror Load
MOSFET Differential Pair
Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp
Input Offset Voltage
Voltage Gain and Output Swing
Common Mode Response
Frequency Response
Slew Rate
Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp
Common-Mode Input Range
Output Voltage Swing
Voltage Gain
Frequency Response
Slew Rate
CMOS Current and Voltage Biasing
Self Biasing
BJT Op Amps
Input Resistance and Bias Current
Input Offset Voltage
Some Basic Practical Op Amp Circuits
Inverting and Noninverting Op Amp Circuits
Integrator
Difference amplifier
Instrumentation Amplifier
Switched-Capacitor Circuits
Digital-Analog Conversion
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Power Amplifiers and Switches
General Considerations
Safe Operating Limits
Thermal Resistance
Thermal Stability
Nonlinear Distortion
Power-Conversion Efficiency
Class A Operation
Transformer Coupling
Emitter Follower
Class B Operation
Class AB Operation
Class C Operation
Power Operational Amplifiers
Power Switching
Class D Amplifier
Switched Regulated Supplies
dc-to-ac Converters
Power Diodes
Power Transistors
Bipolar Junction Transistors
MOSFETs
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
Power Latches
Thyristor
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Basic Elements of Digital Circuits
Digital Signals and Processing
Digital Signals
Boolean Algebra
Logic Gates
Gate Types
CMOS Gate Examples
Gate Performance
Flip-Flops
Basic Latch
SR Latch
JK Flip-Flop
D Flip-Flop
Digital System Memories
Classification of Semiconductor Memories
Organization of Random-Access Memory
Read/Write Memory
Static Memory Cell
Dynamic Memory Cell
Sense Amplifier and Precharge Circuit
Row Decoder
Column Decoder
Read Only Memory
Mask ROM
Programmable ROM
Erasable Programmable ROM
Flash ROM
Ferroelectric RAM
Metallic Interconnect
Capacitance
Resistance
Distributed Models
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Digital Logic Circuit Families
CMOS
CMOS Inverter
Static Behavior
Noise Margins
Propagation Delay
Power Dissipation
CMOS Gates
NAND and NOR Gates
CMOS Gate Design
Effects of Sizing and Scaling
Low-Power CMOS
Summary
Pseudo NMOS
Static Operation
Dynamic Operation
Pass-Transistor Logic
Dynamic Logic
Basic Configuration
Limitations of Dynamic Logic
Domino Logic
Pipelined Single-Phase Clock Architecture
BiCMOS Logic
Basic Operation
Propagation Delay
BiCMOS Gates
Transistor-Transistor Logic
Basic TTL Inverter
Advanced Low-Power Schottky TTL
Emitter-Coupled Logic
Basic Circuit
ECL 100K
ECL Gates
Summary of Main Concepts and Results
Learning Outcomes
Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD
Problems and Exercises
Appendix A Reference Material
Physical Constants
Frequently Used Constants
Appendix B Basic PSpice Models
pn Junction Diode
MOSFET
BJT
References and Bibliography

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