Electrostatics; Exploring, Controlling and Using Static Electricity, Including the Dirod Manual

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781885540041
  • Publisher: Laplacian Press
  • Publication date: 11/24/1997
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 243
  • Sales rank: 824,031
  • Product dimensions: 5.56 (w) x 8.52 (h) x 0.61 (d)

Table of Contents

About the Author 9
Publisher's Foreword 11
Electrostatics Society of America 12
Author's Preface 13
Part 1 Electrostatics
1. High Voltage 19
Electrical Hazards 19
Discharges from Small Electrostatic Generators 20
2. Frictional Electricity 22
The World's First Generator 22
Friction-type Generators 23
The Van de Graaff Generator 24
Frictional Electricity: Troubles and Hazards 25
What Goes On Here? 26
3. Let's Talk About Charges 28
What This Chapter Will Do for You 28
Atoms, Protons, Electrons, and Ions 29
Some Practice with Big Numbers 30
A Little Aluminum Cube 31
An Enormous Force 31
What Is Charge? 32
4. The Dirods: Induction-type Generators 34
Induced Charges 34
Collecting the Charges 37
Generator Buildup, and Compound Interest 37
Where Does a Dirod Get Its Initial Charge? 38
How Do the Charges Move Around? The Electron Cloud 39
Conduction and Conductors 40
The Dirod Family 40
5. Improving the Generator--Learning More about Electrostatics 45
More Rods and Faster Build-up 45
Generator Spark-over: the Spark Shield 48
The Brush Problem 49
What Comes Next? 50
6. Electric Fields 51
The Field of Two Parallel Rods 51
The Nonuniform Field 52
Potential Difference and Field Intensity 54
Electric Flux 55
More about Forces: the Coulomb Force 55
Alignment with the Field: Field Shape Indicator 57
A Nonuniform Field and the Uniform Field 58
The Sphere Gap and the Rod Gap 59
Induction of Charge, and Field Shape 60
Conductors and Insulators in a Field 61
Faraday's Famous Ice Pail Experiment 62
The Faraday Cage 63
7. Corona 65
Visible Corona 65
Active and Passive Electrodes: The Breakdown of Air 66
More about Corona in a Dirod 68
Balanced Corona, and an Analogy 70
Generator Voltage Not Fixed by Speed 71
Suppressing Corona 71
8. The Electric Wind; Other Corona Effects; Precipitation 73
The Electric Fly, or Pinwheel 73
The Electric Blower 74
Demonstration of Smoke Precipitation 77
The Uncertain Soap Bubble 78
The Electric Wind and the Candle Flame 80
Electrostatic Precipitation Put to Use 80
How These Precipitators Work 82
9. More Demonstrations; Separation of Mixtures 85
The Little Island That Runs Away 85
The Electrified Water Spray 86
The Clapper 87
Franklin's Electrostatic Motor 88
The Dirod as a Motor 91
The Interdigital Motor 91
The Plateful of Balls 92
The Ball Box 93
The Electrostatic Separation Industry 95
Demonstrations with Liquids 96
One Type of Electrostatic Separator 96
Separation without Corona 97
10. More Service from Corona: Electrocoating 98
Electrostatic Sandpaper 98
Carpets, Upholstery, and Velvet Walls 100
Insecticides 100
Xerox 101
Electrostatic Printing 102
Electrostatic Spray Painting 102
11. Fun with Capacitors 105
What Is a Capacitor? 105
Amount of Capacitance: the Farad 106
Dielectrics 106
A Kitchen-made Capacitor 108
The Horizontal Capacitor 109
Sphere Gap Discharge of Capacitor 110
Separately Excited Dirod 110
Dirods in Parallel 111
The Roller 111
The Rockers 111
Capacitor Relationships 113
More about Certain Capacitors 115
Unexpected Shocks from Capacitors 116
12. Connectors; The Vertical Capacitor; Figuring Capacitance 117
Connectors 117
The Vertical Capacitor 118
Other Experiments 119
Figuring Capacitance 120
Capacitors with Dielectrics 120
Combinations of Capacitors 121
More Remarks about Capacitors 122
13. Atmospheric Electrostatics 123
Charged Clouds, and the Electric Field We Live In 123
Lightning 124
Lightning Rods 125
Ball Lightning 126
Ions Charging Cloud Droplets 127
Charges Induced on Raindrops in Clouds 128
Charged Droplets from Bubbles Breaking 128
Are Tornadoes Powered by Charges? 129
14. Some More Electrostatic Generators 130
The Kelvin Generator 130
The Flapper 132
The Neon Lamp Bank 133
Shake-sphere Generators 133
The Swing Generator 135
More about the Radial Dirods 136
Dream Up Your Own! 136
15. On This and That 138
Why Dust Sticks 138
Are Negative Ions Good for Us? 139
Ions in Liquids and Solids 139
The Electret 140
The Electrostatic Speaker 141
The Most Remarkable Capacitors Are Inside of You 141
Some New Electrostatic Developments 143
The Future of Electrostatics 145
16. Some Final Hints 147
Corona Phenomena in More Detail 147
Sphere Gap Data 148
Field Shape Indicator Details 148
Plans for the Kelvin Generator 149
Materials and Methods 150
More about the Dirod Family 153
Building Dirod Junior 154
Building Radial Dirod Junior 163
Part 2 The Dirod Manual
17. Introduction 173
History 173
The Teaching of Electrostatics 174
Feedback 174
Science Fairs 175
Safety 175
18. How a Dirod Works 177
How a Dirod Charges Up 177
Buildup is Geometric 178
Electrical Discharges: Sparks and Corona 178
Ions 179
Watching Corona 180
Designing for High Voltage 180
Dirod Polarity Reversal 181
19. Materials, Sources, Methods 182
Brass and Aluminum 182
Brush Material 183
Plexiglas 183
Corona Shields 185
Epoxy Adhesive 185
Corona Dope and TV Tubekoat 186
Nonmetallic Inductors and Collectors 187
20. Building Your Dirod 188
The Drawings 188
Two Ways to Make a Dirod 188
The Base 188
Bearing Posts 190
Shaft, Bearings, and End Stops 191
The Panel 192
The Rotor 193
Making the Disks 193
Mounting Discs on Shaft 194
Rodding the Rotor 195
The Pulley and Belt 195
The Motor and Speed Control 195
The Brushes 196
The Neutral Connector 196
The Dirod Terminals 196
Lengthening the Machine 197
The Self-excited Dirod 197
Separate Excitation 198
The Capacitor 198
21. Making the Accessories 200
The Bobber 200
Plugs and Receptacles 200
Connectors: Capacitor Plates to Inductors 200
Operational Flexibility 202
More about Capacitance 202
Two Kinds of Connectors 203
The Rod Gap: Measuring High Voltage 203
22. The Demonstrations 206
Preliminary Demonstrations Notes 206
Materials 206
Dirod Behavior when Loaded 207
Polarity Indicator 208
Cups that Repel 208
The Ping Pong Pair 209
Water Spray 210
Clatterbox 211
Two-ball Clatterbox 212
Lid Motor 213
Tri-Motor 213
Marble Motor 214
Cup Motor 214
Electric Pinwheel 214
Electric Blower 216
Precipitation 216
The Hailstorm 217
Separating a Mixture 217
Popcorn 218
Franklin Motor 218
Field Indicator 219
Leyden Jars 220
Levitation 221
The Jumper 221
The Rockers 222
The Ball Race 222
"Perpetual Motion" 222
Tassels Terrific 224
Spray Painting 226
23. A Final Word 228
Electrostatic Hazards 228
Materials List 229
Afterword: A. D. Moore Remembered by his Children 231
Bibliography 235
Index 237
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