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More About This Textbook
Overview
This book presents the basic ideas of linear algebra in a manner that users will find understandable. It offers a fine balance between abstraction/theory and computational skills, and gives readers an excellent opportunity to learn how to handle abstract concepts. Included in this comprehensive and easytofollow manual are these topics: linear equations and matrices; solving linear systems; real vector spaces; inner product spaces; linear transformations and matrices; determinants; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; differential equations; and MATLAB for linear algebra. Because this book gives real applications for linear algebraic basic ideas and computational techniques, it is useful as a reference work for mathematicians and those in field of computer science.
Editorial Reviews
Booknews
Standard textbook for a onequarter or onesemester course at the sophomore level. This edition fourth, 1986 adds new sections on LU factorization, vectors in the plane and in 3space, cross product in R3, least squares, conic sections, and quadric surfaces. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR booknews.comProduct Details
Related Subjects
Table of Contents
1. Linear Equations and Matrices.
2. Solving Linear Systems.
3. Real Vector Spaces.
4. Inner Product Spaces.
5. Linear Transformations and Matrices.
6. Determinants.
7. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.
8. Differential Equations (Optional).
9. MATLAB for Linear Algebra.
10. MATLAB Exercises.
Appendix A: Preliminaries.
Appendix B: Complex Numbers.
Appendix C: Introduction to Proofs.
Answers to OddNumbered Exercises.
Index.
Preface
Linear algebra continues to be an important course for a diverse number of students for at least two reasons. First, few subjects can claim to have such widespread applications in other areas of mathematicsâ€”multivariable calculus, differential equations, and probability, for exampleâ€”as well as in physics, biology, chemistry, economics, finance, psychology, sociology, and all fields of engineering. Second, the subject presents the student at the sophomore level with an excellent opportunity to learn how to handle abstract concepts.
This book provides an introduction to the basic ideas and computational techniques of linear algebra at the sophomore level. It includes carefully selected applications. The book introduces the student to working with abstract concepts: this includes an introduction to how to read and write proofs. In covering the basic ideas of linear algebra, the abstract ideas are carefully balanced by the considerable emphasis on the geometrical and computational aspects of the subject. This edition continues to provide the optional opportunity to use MATLAB or other software to enhance the practical side of linear algebra.
What's New in the Eighth Edition
We have been very pleased by the wide acceptance of the first seven editions of this book throughout the 34 years of its life. In preparing this edition, we have carefully considered many suggestions from faculty and students for improving the content and presentation of the material. Although a great many changes have been made to develop this major revision, our objective has remained the same as in the first seven editions: to present the basic ideas of linearalgebra an a manner that the student will find understandable. To achieve this objective, the following features have been developed in this edition:
EXERCISES
The exercises form an integral part of the text. Many of them are numerical in nature, whereas others are of a theoretical type. The theoretical exercises (as well as many numerical ones) call for a verbal solution. In this technological age, it is especially important to be able to write with care and precision; exercises of this type should help to sharpen this skill. This edition contains over 200 new exercises. Computer exercises, clearly indicated by a special symbol are of two types: in the first eight chapters there are exercises allowing for discovery and exploration that do not specify any particular software to be used for their solution; in Chapter 10 there are 147 exercises designed to be solved using MATLAB. To extend the instructional capabilities of MATLAB we have developed a set of pedagogical routines, called scripts or Mfiles, to illustrate concepts, streamline stepbystep computational procedures, and demonstrate geometric aspects of topics using graphical displays. We feel that MATLAB and our instructional Mfiles provide an opportunity for a working partnership between the student and the computer that in many ways forecasts situations that will occur once a student joins the technological workforce. The exercises in this chapter are keyed to topics rather than individual sections of the text. Short descriptive headings and references to MATLAB commands in Chapter 9 supply information about the sets of exercises. The answers to all oddnumbered exercises appear in the back of the book. An Instructor's Solutions Manual, containing answers to all evennumbered exercises and solutions to all theoretical exercises, is available (to instructors only) at no cost from the publisher.
PRESENTATION
We have learned from experience that at the sophomore level, abstract ideas must be introduced quite gradually and must be based on firm foundations. Thus we begin the study of linear algebra with the treatment of matrices as mere arrays of numbers that arise naturally in the solution of systems of linear equations, a problem already familiar to the student. Much attention has been devoted from one edition to the next to refining and improving the pedagogical aspects of the exposition. Abstract concepts are presented along with the many computational and geometrical aspects of the subject. New to this edition is Appendix C, Introduction to Proofs, which can be used to give the student a quick introduction to the foundations of proofs in mathematics. An expanded version of this material appears in Chapter 0 of the Student Solutions Manual.
MATERIAL COVERED
In using this book, for a onequarter linear algebra course meeting four times a week, no difficulty has been encountered in getting up to and including eigenvalues and eigenvectors, omitting the optional material. Varying the amount of time spent on the theoretical material can readily change the level and pace of the course. Thus, the book can be used to teach a number of different types of courses.
Chapter 1 deals with matrices and their properties. In this chapter we also provide an early introduction to matrix transformations (setting the stage for linear transformations) and an application of the dot product to statistics. Methods for solving systems of linear equations are discussed in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, we come to a more abstract notion, real vector spaces. Here we tap some of the many geometric ideas that arise naturally. Thus we prove that an ndimensional, real vector space is isomorphic to R^{n}, the vector space of all ordered ntuples of real numbers, or the vector space of all n x 1 matrices with real entries. Since R^{n} is but a slight generalization of R^{2} and R^{3}, two and threedimensional space are discussed at the beginning of the chapter. This shows that the notion of a finitedimensional, real vector space is not as remote as it may have seemed when first introduced. Chapter 4 covers inner product spaces and has a strong geometric orientation. Chapter 5 deals with matrices and linear transformations; here we consider the dimension theorems and also applications to the solution of systems of linear equations. Chapter 6 introduces the basic properties of determinants and some of their applications. Chapter 7 considers eigenvalues and eigenvectors, real quadratic forms, and some applications. In this chapter we completely solve the diagonalization problem for symmetric matrices. Section 7.9, Dominant Eigenvalue and Principal Component Analysis, new to this edition, highlights some very useful results in linear algebra. Chapter 8 provides an introduction to the application of linear algebra to the solution of differential equations. It is possible to go from Section 7.2 directly to Section 8.1, showing an immediate application of the material in Section 7.2. Section 8.2, Dynamical Systems, gives an application of linear algebra to an important area of applied mathematics. Chapter 9, MATLAB for Linear Algebra, provides an introduction to MATLAB. Chapter 10, MATLAB Exercises, consists of 147 exercises that are designed to be solved using MATLAB. Appendix A reviews some very basic material dealing with sets and functions. It can be consulted at any time as needed. Appendix B introduces in a brief but thorough manner complex numbers and their use in linear algebra. Appendix C provides a brief introduction to proofs in mathematics.
MATLAB SOFTWARE
The instructional Mfiles that have been developed to solve the exercises in this book, in particular those in Chapter 9, are available on the following Web site: . TheseMfiles are designed to transform many of MATLAB'S capabilities into courseware. Although the computational exercises can be solved using a number of software packages, in our judgment MATLAB is the most suitable package for this purpose. MATLAB is a versatile and powerful software package whose cornerstone is its linear algebra capabilities. This is done LAB is the most suitable package for this purpose. MATLAB is a versatile and powerful software package whose cornerstone is its linear algebra capabilities This is done by providing pedagogy that allows the student to interact with MATLAB, thereby letting the student think through all the steps in the solution of a problem and relegating MATLAB to act as a powerful calculator to relieve the drudgery of tedious computation. Indeed, this is the ideal role for MATLAB (or any other similar package) in a beginning linear algebra course, for in this course, more than in many others, the tedium of lengthy computations makes it almost impossible to solve a modestsize problem. Thus, by introducing pedagogy and reining in the power of MATLAB, these Mfiles provide a working partnership between the student and the computer. Moreover, the introduction to a powerful tool such as MATLAB early in the student's college career opens the way for other software support in higherlevel courses, especially in science and engineering.
MATLAB incorporates professionally developed quality computer routines for linear algebra computation. The code employed by MATLAB is written in the C language and is upgraded as new versions of MATLAB are released. MATLAB is available from The Math Works Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760, email: info@mathworks.com, 5086477000. The Student version is available from The Math Works at a reasonable cost. This Student Edition of MATLAB also includes a version of Maple, thereby providing a symbolic computational capability.
STUDENT SOLUTIONS MANUAL
The Student Solutions Manual, prepared by Dennis R. Kletzing, Stetson University, contains solutions to all oddnumbered exercises, both numerical and theoretical.
Introduction
Linear algebra continues to be an important course for a diverse number of students for at least two reasons. First, few subjects can claim to have such widespread applications in other areas of mathematicsmultivariable calculus, differential equations, and probability, for exampleas well as in physics, biology, chemistry, economics, finance, psychology, sociology, and all fields of engineering. Second, the subject presents the student at the sophomore level with an excellent opportunity to learn how to handle abstract concepts.
This book provides an introduction to the basic ideas and computational techniques of linear algebra at the sophomore level. It includes carefully selected applications. The book introduces the student to working with abstract concepts: this includes an introduction to how to read and write proofs. In covering the basic ideas of linear algebra, the abstract ideas are carefully balanced by the considerable emphasis on the geometrical and computational aspects of the subject. This edition continues to provide the optional opportunity to use MATLAB or other software to enhance the practical side of linear algebra.
What's New in the Eighth Edition
We have been very pleased by the wide acceptance of the first seven editions of this book throughout the 34 years of its life. In preparing this edition, we have carefully considered many suggestions from faculty and students for improving the content and presentation of the material. Although a great many changes have been made to develop this major revision, our objective has remained the same as in the first seven editions: to present the basic ideas of linear algebra an a mannerthat the student will find understandable. To achieve this objective, the following features have been developed in this edition:
EXERCISES
The exercises form an integral part of the text. Many of them are numerical in nature, whereas others are of a theoretical type. The theoretical exercises (as well as many numerical ones) call for a verbal solution. In this technological age, it is especially important to be able to write with care and precision; exercises of this type should help to sharpen this skill. This edition contains over 200 new exercises. Computer exercises, clearly indicated by a special symbol are of two types: in the first eight chapters there are exercises allowing for discovery and exploration that do not specify any particular software to be used for their solution; in Chapter 10 there are 147 exercises designed to be solved using MATLAB. To extend the instructional capabilities of MATLAB we have developed a set of pedagogical routines, called scripts or Mfiles, to illustrate concepts, streamline stepbystep computational procedures, and demonstrate geometric aspects of topics using graphical displays. We feel that MATLAB and our instructional Mfiles provide an opportunity for a working partnership between the student and the computer that in many ways forecasts situations that will occur once a student joins the technological workforce. The exercises in this chapter are keyed to topics rather than individual sections of the text. Short descriptive headings and references to MATLAB commands in Chapter 9 supply information about the sets of exercises. The answers to all oddnumbered exercises appear in the back of the book. An Instructor's Solutions Manual, containing answers to all evennumbered exercises and solutions to all theoretical exercises, is available (to instructors only) at no cost from the publisher.
PRESENTATION
We have learned from experience that at the sophomore level, abstract ideas must be introduced quite gradually and must be based on firm foundations. Thus we begin the study of linear algebra with the treatment of matrices as mere arrays of numbers that arise naturally in the solution of systems of linear equations, a problem already familiar to the student. Much attention has been devoted from one edition to the next to refining and improving the pedagogical aspects of the exposition. Abstract concepts are presented along with the many computational and geometrical aspects of the subject. New to this edition is Appendix C, Introduction to Proofs, which can be used to give the student a quick introduction to the foundations of proofs in mathematics. An expanded version of this material appears in Chapter 0 of the Student Solutions Manual.
MATERIAL COVERED
In using this book, for a onequarter linear algebra course meeting four times a week, no difficulty has been encountered in getting up to and including eigenvalues and eigenvectors, omitting the optional material. Varying the amount of time spent on the theoretical material can readily change the level and pace of the course. Thus, the book can be used to teach a number of different types of courses.
Chapter 1 deals with matrices and their properties. In this chapter we also provide an early introduction to matrix transformations (setting the stage for linear transformations) and an application of the dot product to statistics. Methods for solving systems of linear equations are discussed in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, we come to a more abstract notion, real vector spaces. Here we tap some of the many geometric ideas that arise naturally. Thus we prove that an ndimensional, real vector space is isomorphic to R^{n}, the vector space of all ordered ntuples of real numbers, or the vector space of all n x 1 matrices with real entries. Since R^{n} is but a slight generalization of R^{2} and R^{3}, two and threedimensional space are discussed at the beginning of the chapter. This shows that the notion of a finitedimensional, real vector space is not as remote as it may have seemed when first introduced. Chapter 4 covers inner product spaces and has a strong geometric orientation. Chapter 5 deals with matrices and linear transformations; here we consider the dimension theorems and also applications to the solution of systems of linear equations. Chapter 6 introduces the basic properties of determinants and some of their applications. Chapter 7 considers eigenvalues and eigenvectors, real quadratic forms, and some applications. In this chapter we completely solve the diagonalization problem for symmetric matrices. Section 7.9, Dominant Eigenvalue and Principal Component Analysis, new to this edition, highlights some very useful results in linear algebra. Chapter 8 provides an introduction to the application of linear algebra to the solution of differential equations. It is possible to go from Section 7.2 directly to Section 8.1, showing an immediate application of the material in Section 7.2. Section 8.2, Dynamical Systems, gives an application of linear algebra to an important area of applied mathematics. Chapter 9, MATLAB for Linear Algebra, provides an introduction to MATLAB. Chapter 10, MATLAB Exercises, consists of 147 exercises that are designed to be solved using MATLAB. Appendix A reviews some very basic material dealing with sets and functions. It can be consulted at any time as needed. Appendix B introduces in a brief but thorough manner complex numbers and their use in linear algebra. Appendix C provides a brief introduction to proofs in mathematics.
MATLAB SOFTWARE
The instructional Mfiles that have been developed to solve the exercises in this book, in particular those in Chapter 9, are available on the following Web site: prenhall.com/kolman. TheseMfiles are designed to transform many of MATLAB'S capabilities into courseware. Although the computational exercises can be solved using a number of software packages, in our judgment MATLAB is the most suitable package for this purpose. MATLAB is a versatile and powerful software package whose cornerstone is its linear algebra capabilities. This is done LAB is the most suitable package for this purpose. MATLAB is a versatile and powerful software package whose cornerstone is its linear algebra capabilities This is done by providing pedagogy that allows the student to interact with MATLAB, thereby letting the student think through all the steps in the solution of a problem and relegating MATLAB to act as a powerful calculator to relieve the drudgery of tedious computation. Indeed, this is the ideal role for MATLAB (or any other similar package) in a beginning linear algebra course, for in this course, more than in many others, the tedium of lengthy computations makes it almost impossible to solve a modestsize problem. Thus, by introducing pedagogy and reining in the power of MATLAB, these Mfiles provide a working partnership between the student and the computer. Moreover, the introduction to a powerful tool such as MATLAB early in the student's college career opens the way for other software support in higherlevel courses, especially in science and engineering.
MATLAB incorporates professionally developed quality computer routines for linear algebra computation. The code employed by MATLAB is written in the C language and is upgraded as new versions of MATLAB are released. MATLAB is available from The Math Works Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760, email: info@mathworks.com, 5086477000. The Student version is available from The Math Works at a reasonable cost. This Student Edition of MATLAB also includes a version of Maple, thereby providing a symbolic computational capability.
STUDENT SOLUTIONS MANUAL
The Student Solutions Manual, prepared by Dennis R. Kletzing, Stetson University, contains solutions to all oddnumbered exercises, both numerical and theoretical.