Elementary Science Methods: A Constructivist Approach (with CD-ROM and Info) / Edition 4

Elementary Science Methods: A Constructivist Approach (with CD-ROM and Info) / Edition 4

by David Jerner Martin
     
 

ISBN-10: 0495004952

ISBN-13: 9780495004950

Pub. Date: 07/15/2005

Publisher: Cengage Learning

In this pioneering text, Martin uses a constructivist approach to guide students in learning how to teach in a constructivist manner. Grounded in the belief that it is more important for children to learn how to do science than it is for them to learn about science, this text is predicated on the reality that teachers of elementary science do not need to know a great

Overview

In this pioneering text, Martin uses a constructivist approach to guide students in learning how to teach in a constructivist manner. Grounded in the belief that it is more important for children to learn how to do science than it is for them to learn about science, this text is predicated on the reality that teachers of elementary science do not need to know a great deal of science to be good science teachers, but need to be co-inquirers with their students. To facilitate your students' learning, this text features a wealth of exercises: for teacher candidates, the book includes open-ended inquiry activities that help them to construct their own personal conceptualizations about science content and teaching science in the elementary school; and, it contains over 170 process-oriented, open-ended activities that teachers can use to encourage children to develop and perform their own investigations. The Book Companion CD-ROM, included with each new copy, provides tools and resources, such as additional activities and video, which students can use both in their college course and later in elementary science classrooms. All activities are linked to National Science Education Standards for content, professional development, assessment, and teaching, and the activities contain suggestions of appropriate children's literature.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780495004950
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Publication date:
07/15/2005
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
576
Product dimensions:
7.36(w) x 9.08(h) x 0.94(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionxii
Preface to the First Editionxiv
Acknowledgmentsxvi
To the Studentxviii
Part IConstructing the Elementary Science Program1
Chapter 1The Science Education Imperative3
How Much Science Does the Elementary Science Teacher Need to Know?5
Amount of Science Known Today6
Obsolescence of Scientific Knowledge7
Changing Scientific Knowledge7
How Much Science Does the Elementary Science Teacher Need to Know?8
Right and Wrong9
The Gummy Bears Lesson10
Recognizing the Unexpected11
Perception12
Listening15
The Processes of Science15
History of the Process Approach to Science Education16
Hands-On Elementary Science Approaches of the 1960s18
Ownership of Knowledge and Thought20
Mystery Box21
Ownership23
Valuing Children's Thinking23
Attitudes About Science and Attitudes About Science Teaching27
Teacher Beliefs27
Metaphors31
Research in Science Education31
Conclusion32
Additional Questions for Discussion32
Notes32
References32
Chapter 2Science Education Today35
The Nature of Science36
Characteristics of the Scientific Enterprise36
Products of Science38
Things as Products of Science39
Scientific Facts40
Scientific Concepts42
Scientific Generalizations44
Scientific Theories47
Scientific Laws48
Attitudes Toward Science49
Processes of Science49
Interdisciplinary Nature of Science50
Goals of Elementary Science Education51
National Science Teachers Association52
American Association for the Advancement of Science52
National Science Education Standards53
Goals 2000: Educate America Act56
What Do You Think?57
Additional Questions for Discussion58
Notes59
References59
Chapter 3The Processes of Science63
Observing66
Classifying77
Communicating90
Measuring94
Length94
Volume97
Weight or Mass98
Temperature100
Time101
Metric versus Conventional Units102
Predicting108
Inferring114
Interrelationships Among the Basic Processes120
The Integrated Processes121
The Pendulum122
Identifying and Controlling Variables127
Formulating and Testing Hypotheses133
Interpreting Data140
Defining Operationally148
Experimenting150
Constructing Models153
The Process-Oriented Objective160
Conclusion161
Additional Questions for Discussion161
Notes162
References162
Chapter 4Constructivism in Elementary Science Education167
Constructivism169
Prior Beliefs172
Conceptual Change173
Cognitive Disequilibration174
Validity of Self-Constructed Conceptualizations175
Inquiry177
Constructivism and Science Learning178
Piaget, the Constructivist180
Mechanism of Constructing Knowledge180
Stages of Cognitive Development182
Sensorimotor Stage183
Preoperational Stage183
Concrete Operational Stage184
Formal Operational Stage190
Stage Overlapping193
Dinosaurs and the Solar System194
Conclusion200
Additional Questions for Discussion200
Notes201
References201
Chapter 5Inquiry205
The Expository-Discovery Continuum207
Expository Methodology208
Free Discovery Methodology209
Guided Inquiry Methodology212
Ausubel's Instructional Model214
The Expository-Discovery Continuum Revisited217
The Guided Inquiry Lesson Plan217
Microteaching222
Is Learning Taking Place?223
Is Hands-On Minds-On?224
Deductive versus Inductive Teaching Styles225
Who Owns the Knowledge?226
A Different Kind of Bloom229
Conclusion232
Additional Questions for Discussion232
Notes233
References233
Chapter 6Learner Differences235
Positions of National Organizations237
Some Differences in the Ways Children Learn237
Learning Styles238
Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Modalities239
Locus of Control242
Jungian Learning Style Preferences245
Field Dependence/Field Independence250
Teachers' Learning Styles252
Multiple Intelligences253
Science Education for Children with Disabilities257
Gender Bias258
Multicultural Factors261
Attitude in Multicultural Education262
Multicultural Methodology263
Multicultural Curriculum265
Conclusion269
Additional Questions for Discussion269
Notes269
References270
Chapter 7Assessment275
Authentic Assessment278
What Is Assessed in Elementary Science Education?279
Assessment of Process Skills280
Assessment of Inquiry286
Assessment of Attitude288
Assessment of Content290
Authentic Assessment Techniques291
Interviewing291
Journals293
Portfolios294
Assessment Techniques for Children with Special Needs299
Report Cards300
Standardized Achievement Tests303
Assessment of the Elementary Science Teacher and Program304
Conclusion305
Additional Questions for Discussion305
Notes306
References306
Chapter 8The Elementary Science Classroom309
Trust310
Strategies for Successful Science Activities315
Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom316
Equipment and Materials322
Animals and Plants in the Classroom323
Parent Involvement324
Classroom Organization325
Cooperative Teaching and Cooperative Learning327
Time Management328
Classroom Management329
Conclusion332
Additional Questions for Discussion333
Notes333
References333
Part IIBeyond the Science Classroom335
Chapter 9Reading, Writing, and Interdisciplinary Aspects337
Reading, Writing, and Literature339
Integrating Children's Literature and Science341
Introducing Lessons341
Analyzing Conclusions344
Providing Factual Information346
Providing Practical Examples347
Developing Process Skills349
Providing Vicarious Experiences351
Providing Interdisciplinary Bridges351
Selecting Children's Literature352
Science Textbooks353
Constructivist Uses of Elementary Science Textbooks354
Commercially Available Hands-On Materials357
Textbook Review358
The Role of Reading and Writing in Elementary Science361
Interdisciplinary Aspects363
Two Interdisciplinary Models365
Science, Technology, and Society368
Personal Bias in STS Projects371
Science Beyond the Classroom372
Nontraditional Science Settings373
Field Trips374
Conclusion377
Additional Questions for Discussion378
Notes378
References378
Chapter 10Technology in Elementary Science Education381
Why Use Advanced Technology in Elementary Science Education?385
Computers in the Elementary Science Classroom387
A Technology Inquiry Continuum388
Tutoring Uses of Computers389
Interactive Uses of Computers390
Word Processing and Desktop Publishing Applications390
Spreadsheet, Database, and Graphing Applications390
Simulation Applications396
CD-ROM Information Base Applications397
The Internet and the World Wide Web397
E-Mail and Distance Learning401
Hypermedia Systems403
Experimenting Uses of Computers403
Evaluating Computer Software406
Sources of Computer Software406
Video in the Elementary Science Classroom408
Technology for Teachers409
Getting Started410
Conclusion411
Additional Questions for Discussion412
Notes412
References412
Chapter 11Concept Mapping in Elementary Science415
Exploring Concept Mapping417
Concept Mapping Technique424
Uses of Concept Maps in Elementary Science Education425
Using Concept Maps for Lesson Planning426
Using Concept Maps in Instruction428
Using Concept Maps for Assessment430
Uses of Concept Maps by Children431
Conclusion431
Additional Questions for Discussion432
References432
Chapter 12Basic Concepts and Principles for the Elementary Science Program435
Physical Science Principles437
Force and Motion437
Heat Energy and States of Matter444
Sound446
Light449
Electricity and Magnetism451
Nuclear Energy454
Matter and Chemical Energy455
Life Science Principles456
The Nature and Diversity of Life456
The Cellular Theory of Life457
Structure and Function of Plants460
Structure and Function of Animals461
Reproduction, Life Cycles, and Heredity461
Genetics and Evolution463
Ecology463
Earth and Space Science Principles465
Structure of the Earth465
Plate Tectonics465
Constructive and Destructive Forces467
The Rock Cycle469
Weather and the Water Cycle470
Oceanography473
Historical Geology474
The Solar System476
The Universe478
Space Exploration479
Reference479
Chapter 13The Elementary Science Education Professional481
Decisions About Methodology483
Decisions About Curriculum484
The Elementary Science Teacher as Researcher486
Professional Organizations491
Excellence in Science Teaching493
Conclusion494
Additional Questions for Discussion495
Notes495
Website Addresses for Professional Science Education Organizations

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