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# Elementary Statistics in Social Research: Essentials / Edition 3

ISBN-10: 0205638007

ISBN-13: 9780205638000

Pub. Date: 03/05/2010

Publisher: Pearson

This text provides a streamlined and accessible introduction to statistics for students in sociology, criminal justice, political science, social work, and other social sciences.

This text offers an essential and accessible overview to the introduction to social statistics. Clearly written with detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures, this

## Overview

This text provides a streamlined and accessible introduction to statistics for students in sociology, criminal justice, political science, social work, and other social sciences.

This text offers an essential and accessible overview to the introduction to social statistics. Clearly written with detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures, this text provides clear and logical explanations for the rationale and use of statistical methods of social research. Numerous end-of-chapter questions in every chapter reinforce key concepts to students.

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205638000
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
03/05/2010
Series:
MySocKit Series
Pages:
400
Sales rank:
540,763
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.90(d)

## Related Subjects

Preface xi

1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics 1

The Nature of Social Research 1

Why Test Hypotheses? 3

The Stages of Social Research 4

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research 5

The Functions of Statistics 12

Summary 18

Questions and Problems 18

Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey 21

Part I Description 23

2 Organizing the Data 25

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data 25

Comparing Distributions 26

Proportions and Percentages 26

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data 28

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data 29

Cumulative Distributions 31

Dealing with Decimal Data 33

Flexible Class Intervals 35

Cross-Tabulations 37

Graphic Presentations 43

Summary 50

Questions and Problems 51

3 Measures of Central Tendency 58

The Mode 58

The Median 59

The Mean 60

Taking One Step at a Time 62

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean 62

Box 3.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean 63

Summary 67

Questions and Problems 68

4 Measures of Variability 72

The Range 73

The Variance and the Standard Deviation 74

Box 4.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation 75

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation 76

Box 4.2 Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores 77

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation 78

Comparing Measures of Variability 81

Summary 82

Questions and Problems 82

Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data 85

Part II From Description to Decision Making 89

5 Probability and the Normal Curve 91

Probability 92

Probability Distributions 93

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution 96

Characteristics of the Normal Curve 97

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve 97

The Area under the Normal Curve 99

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve 105

Finding Probability under the Normal Curve 107

Box 5.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve 108

Box 5.2 Step-by-Step Illustration: Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curve 113

Summary 114

Questions and Problems 114

6 Samples and Populations 118

Random Sampling 119

Sampling Error 120

Sampling Distribution of Means 121

Standard Error of the Mean 128

Confidence Intervals 129

The t Distribution 133

Box 6.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t 138

Estimating Proportions 140

Box 6.2 Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions 141

Summary 142

Questions and Problems 143

Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations 146

Part III Decision Making 149

7 Testing Differences between Means 151

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means 153

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means 154

Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means 154

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means 158

Levels of Significance 162

Standard Error of the Difference between Means 166

Testing the Difference between Means 167

Box 7.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means 169

Comparing Dependent Samples 171

Box 7.2 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice 172

Box 7.3 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Matched Samples 175

Two Sample Test of Proportions 177

Box 7.4 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions 177

Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means 179

Summary 180

Questions and Problems 181

8 Analysis of Variance 191

The Logic of Analysis of Variance 192

The Sum of Squares 194

A Research Illustration 195

Mean Square 200

The F Ratio 201

Box 8.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance 204

Requirements for Using the F Ratio 208

Summary 208

Questions and Problems 209

9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance 215

One-Way Chi-Square Test 216

Box 9.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Square 219

Two-Way Chi-Square Test 220

Box 9.2 Step-by-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significance 226

Box 9.3 Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groups 230

The Median Test 236

Box 9.4 Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test 236

Summary 239

Questions and Problems 239

Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences 248

Part IV From Decision Making to Association 251

10 Correlation 253

Strength of Correlation 253

Direction of Correlation 254

Curvilinear Correlation 255

The Correlation Coefficient 256

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 257

Box 10.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 263

Summary 265

Questions and Problems 266

11 Regression Analysis 272

The Regression Model 273

Interpreting the Regression Line 278

Regression and Pearson's Correlation 280

Box 11.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis 281

Summary 283

Questions and Problems 283

12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation 290

Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient 290

Box 12.1 Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient 295

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 298

Box 12.2 Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 299

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 ? 2 Table 302

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 ? 2 Tables 304

Summary 307

Questions and Problems 307

Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association 315

Part V Applying Statistics 317

13 Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems 319

Research Situations 323

Research Solutions 340

Appendixes 349

Appendix A Instructions for Using ABCalc 351

Appendix B A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics 355

Appendix C Tables 360

Appendix D List of Formulas 372